# EXPRESSIONS AND ASSIGNMENT CITS1001

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1 EXPRESSIONS AND ASSIGNMENT CITS1001

2 Scope of this lecture Assignment statements Expressions

3 ASSIGNMENT STATEMENT

4 Assignment Statements!!!mark = 50;!! Read as the value in variable on the LHS becomes equal to the value of expression on the RHS Remember: a running program follows the RULES of the language. It does not interpret what you meant to do.

5 Assignment Values are stored into fields (and other variables) via assignment statements: variable = expression; price = cost; A variable stores a single value, so any previous value is lost A sequence of statements are performed one after the other. Each statement uses the context provided by the previous statements.

6 Sequence and Assignment computer memory int x, y, z;! x = 10;! y = 4;! x = y;! z = y + 2;! x y z time (execution order) x y z final state

7 EXPRESSIONS

8 Expressions An expression is a portion of Java code that is evaluated to yield a value any expression has a type and a value!! total = price + 10;! Whenever a statement is executed, each expression will be evaluated and replaced with its value The process of evaluating expressions and doing something with the resulting value is the fundamental process of computing

9 Evaluation of Expressions A simple example int x;! x = ;! The first line creates a variable called x of type int, while the second line will evaluate the expression 10+15, replace it with its value (which is 25) and then assign the resulting value to x! Evaluation of an expression may take several steps and require the cooperation of several objects double y;! y = (b1.getbalance()*0.01) + (b2.getbalance()*0.05);

10 Types of Expression There are several types of expression literals and names method invocations object creations compound expressions built up with operators arithmetic operators relational operators logical operators

11 Literals Literals are values that are hard wired into the code 23, 10009, a, , 10e-5, 100e2 In Java, the types int and double are dominant, in that any literal that does not use a decimal point is assumed to be of type int, and any literal uses a decimal point (or scientific notation) is assumed to be a double! The Java compiler will complain if you try to assign a value to a smaller type float f;! f = 23.5;!

12 Casting (an aside) If the programmer really wants to assign a double value to a float variable, then the compiler can be prevented from complaining by using a cast The number is simply truncated to fit the new type float f;! f = (float) 23.5;! This says to the compiler I know this looks dumb, but I do know what I m doing so please just treat this number as a float rather than a double

13 Names Names are the declared variables that are in scope; the expression has the value and the type currently associated with that variable the value in the shoebox if it is a primitive type the reference in the shoebox if it is a reference type For example, circle, price, total, mark, studentname, i

14 Method invocations Another form of expression is the calling of a non-void method of some object The value of the expression is the returned value The type of the expression is the return type of the method The method call (here b1 is a BankAccount) b1.getbalance() is an expression Its type is int, because the return type of the method is int Its value is the current value of b1 s balance! You can use such an expression anywhere that an int is allowed the compiler will complain if you violate this type checking is a valuable aid to debugging!

15 Object Creations The construction of an object with new returns a reference to the newly created object, so this is also an expression The expression!!!new SimpleCanvas()! returns a reference to a SimpleCanvas object and so can be used anywhere that such a reference is valid

16 Compound Expressions A compound expression is obtained by combining one or more simple expressions with an operator 5 + 3! is a compound expression, obtained by combining the literals 5 and 3 with the operator + The value of this expression is 8 The type of this expression is int We have already used one compound expression! balance is a simple expression amount is a simple expression balance + amount is a compound expression

17 Classes of Operators Java has a large number of operators Arithmetic Operators take numeric expressions and perform arithmetic on them, producing numeric answers Relational Operators take numeric, or other, expressions and make logical tests of equality, inequality etc, producing boolean answers Logical Operators take boolean expressions and combine them using the rules of logic, producing boolean answers Miscellaneous Operators other operators, acting on Strings, bit patterns etc.

18 Arithmetic Operators We will concentrate on the arithmetic operators first They are as follows: Precedence Operator Operation Association Unary plus Unary minus Right-to-left * Multiplication 2 / % Division Remainder Left-to-right Addition Subtraction Left-to-right

19 Association The association rules explain how to combine a sequence of operators of the same precedence Consider evaluating the expression 100 / 10 / 5 The / operator associates left-to-right so the value is (100 / 10) / 5! If it associated right-to-left, it would be 100 / (10 / 5)! The association rules just follow normal mathematical usage, so there are no surprises

20 Arithmetic Operators These behave (almost) as you would expect Expression Value 23+53! 76! 13*5! 65! 30/5! 6! 2.37 * 2! 4.74! 12-15! -3! But what is 5 * * * 11?

21 Precedence The compiler uses the precedence and association rules to determine the order of evaluation! 5 * * * 11! becomes! (5 * 6) + (3 * 2) (6 * 11)! because * has a higher precedence than + or - The resulting expression is calculated left to right (((30 + 6) - 4) + 66)! The programmer can explicitly use parentheses if a particular order is required

22 Watch your types! Every expression has a type, which depends on the operators involved and the types of the operands In particular, the division operator / returns an int if its operands are ints So, 7/5 yields 1 12/4 yields 3, but so does 13/4 and 14/4 7.0/5 yields 1.4, as does 7/5.0 or 7.0/5.0 because the expression is a floating point number The integer is obtained by truncating the expression 100/51 yields 1

23 Integer Division Java s integer division is always a fertile source of difficult-totrace bugs double d = 8 / 5;! After this statement the value of d is 1.0 and not 1.6! Why? first the expression 8 / 5 is evaluated, and as both the arguments are of type int, the answer is truncated to an int! then the value 1 is assigned to the double variable, and hence d has the value 1.0 This leads to some potentially confusing situations 2.0/3 * 6 is not equal to 2/3 * 6.0!!

24 The remainder operator The operator % returns the remainder in a division with two integer arguments Expression An important Java idiom or cliché is the use of / and % together If someone is 7000 days old, then how old are they? 7000/365 years, plus 7000%365 days Value 10 % 3! 1! 12 % 4! 0! 13 % 7 % 4! 2! 13 % (7 % 4)! 1!

25 The CodePad Turn on the CodePad by using the View menu and selecting Show Code Pad! This is the CodePad which allows you to enter either expressions or statements and have them performed immediately CSSE, Gordon Royle 2008

26 Evaluate an expression Enter any expression in order to have it immediately evaluated Here we discover that 15 % 11! has the value 4 and the type int! Notice that the CodePad knows you want to evaluate an expression because it has no semicolon

27 Relational operators Relational operators are crucial in allowing a programs to choose among different courses of action depending on the results of calculations They are often used to determine a program s flow of control, using if statements (and others) if the balance is less than zero, then print out an overdraft statement if (balance < 0) {! // print out the overdraft statement! }

28 Logical Operators Boolean expressions can be combined into compound expressions using operators for NOT, AND and OR Operator Operation a && b! a AND b! a b! a OR b!!a! NOT a!

29 Use of the logical operators The logical operators combine boolean expressions in the obvious way Suppose that <bool1> and <bool2> represent arbitrary boolean expressions <bool1> && <bool2> is true if both <bool1> and <bool2> are true <bool1> <bool2> is true if either <bool1> or <bool2> are true! <bool1>! is true if <bool1> is false, and false if <bool1> is true!

30 Relational Operators The six relational operators compare numeric values and return a boolean Operator a == b! a!= b! a > b! a < b! a >= b! a <= b! Operation Is a equal to b Is a not equal to b Is a greater than b Is a less than b Is a greater than or equal to b Is a less than or equal to b

31 Shortcut Evaluation Java uses shortcut evaluation of the logical operators as soon as it knows the final answer it stops calculating! if (balance > accountname.equals( Kerry Packer )) {! // send grovelling letter! }! There are two relational tests, one on balance and the other on accountname, combined with an OR if the first test is true, then the entire boolean expression will be true regardless of the second test thus, Java saves time by not even bothering to do the second test

32 32 Summary: Expression and Assignment Rules Assignment statement means the value in variable on the LHS becomes equal to the value of expression on the RHS An expression is a portion of Java code that is evaluated to yield a value However complicated the expression, it is evaluated from a tree of operations and values to give a final value interest = Math.pow(bal,monthlyRate); bal = bal + interest - monthlypayment;!

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