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3 Step 1:The node will calculate the average queue occupancy ( avg _ qoc ) based on the current queue occupancy of all nodes in the local area. Therefore, the node s avg _ qoc can be calculated according to the following formula: n qoc + nb _ qoci i= 1 avg _ qoc = (1) n + 1 Here qoc represents the queue occupancy of the node itself, nb _ qoc i is the queue occupancy of the neighbor nodes, and n is the number of neighbors of the node. As shown in Figure 1, the node A's average queue occupancy can be determined using its own queue occupancy, and its neighbor nodes C, S, E and J queue occupancy, nb _ qoc 1, nb _ qoc 2, nb _ qoc 3 and nb _ qoc 4. Here n is equal to 4. The source node will calculate the average queue occupancy by avg _ qoc. Step 2: the threshold value of the node ( thr ) will be calculated based on the average queue occupancy of all nodes on the path. By the node's own avg _ qoc and the RREQ s sum _ qoc it received along the nodes on the reverse path, the node G will be able to compute the threshold value according to its avg _ qoc and the received RREQ packets sum _ qoc, which is the sum of avg _ qoc of node S, A, E. d = n qoc avg _ qoc + nb _ qoc avg _ qoc n= 1 n + 1 i thr = d + avg _ qoc (3) Step 3: the node compares its current queue occupancy ( qoc ) and the threshold value (thr ). When the node gets its own thr, it will compare the value with the current qoc, if the threshold value is greater than qoc, the node will respond to the RREQ packet. Otherwise, it will discard it. (2) 0 Max length thr0 thr1 qoc thr2 Fig.2. Comparing the qoc with thr As shown in Figure 2, if thr = thr1, then qoc > thr, the received RREQ packets will be discarded; if thr = thr2, then qoc < thr, the received RREQ packets will be continued to broadcast; if thr = 0, then thr = thr0. Solution: the following presentation of the program is the changes to the existing AOMDV protocol. 1.Paths are selected according to the hop count and queue length. 2.If the queue length is within a certain threshold value, the load balance will be achieved by making the choice of the paths. 3.Whether the RREQ packets are forwarded or dropped is according to the queue length of the node. 39

4 Simulation and results In this part, we use our load balancing method in AOMDV, which called AOMDV-LB, then we evaluate the performance analysis of the two algorithms in the simulation environment. AOMDV is an on-demand multi-path distance vector routing protocol that select a path with the minimum hop count, while discarding the paths with higher hop count. Simulation environment: This paper uses the NS-2 simulation environment, the simulation parameters we set are: node evenly distributed in the 800 m*800m rectangular area, a total of 25 mobile nodes within the transmission distance of 250m. The bandwidth of the network is 2Mbps/s, and the Mac layer protocol uses The number of destination nodes is 1. Simulation uses a fixed bit rate for the traffic, it transmits 5 packets per second and the size of each packet is 512 bytes. Simulation result analysis: In the above simulation environment, the follow three performance will be evaluated and analyzed: network loss ratio, end to end delay, load distribution. 1.Network loss ratio: The ratio of the number of lost packets and the total number of packets transmitted during the data transmission, is used to measure the congestion of the network. 2.Average end-to-end delay: it refers to the time taken for a packet to be transmitted across the network from source to destination, which is used to measure the routing efficiency. 3.load distribution: it aims to optimize resource use, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload of any single resource. In this paper, we set the initial threshold value equal to 5 packets. In this case, the majority of the node's queue occupancy will not be more than 5 packets. Figure 3 shows the network loss ratio. When the network is in a low load environment, the network loss ratio of AOMDV-LB has little difference between with the AOMDV. With the increasing of the load in the network, the network loss ratio of AOMDV-LB and AOMDV has been increased, but the loss rate of the former is little than the latter. Therefore, the network loss ratio in the AOMDV-LB is significantly reduced, and the performance is improved. Fig.3. Network Loss Ratio Figure 4 shows the average end to end delay of the transmission data. When the traffic load in the network increases, the end-to-end delay will increase, which is mainly caused by the congestion. AOMDV-LB can find the path with low traffic load, but the AOMDV shows a poor performance 40

5 when the network load is serious. Therefore, in the AOMDV-LB the average end to end delay are significantly reduce. Fig.4. Average End-to-end Delay Figure 5 shows the node's load distribution graph. The forwarded packets size in the AOMDV nodes have much more difference between each other and the network load is not balanced. However, the data packet size forwarded in the AOMDV-LB is relatively stable, it is due to the reasonable allocation of the flow in the network and can achieve the load balance. Therefore, the load distribution is more balanced in the AOMDV-LB. Fig.5. Load Distribution 41

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