1 MAC PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS COGNITIVE NETWORK FARAH NAJWA BINTI MOKHTAR This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Computer Engineering) With Honours Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka April 2011
3 iii I hereby declare that this report is the result of my own work except for quotes as cited in the references. Signature :. Author : Farah Najwa Binti Mokhtar Date : 3 rd May 2011
4 iv I hereby declare that I have read this report and in my opinion this report is sufficient in terms of the scope and quality for the award of Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Computer Engineering) With Honours Signature : Supervisor : En. Nik Mohd. Zarifie Bin Hashim Date : 3 rd May 2011
5 Dedicated to my beloved family especially and also to all my friends v
6 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First praise is to Allah, the Almighty, on whom ultimately we depend for sustenance and guidance. The special thank goes to my helpful supervisors, Mr. Mohd. Riduan Bin Ahmad and Mr. Nik Mohd. Zarifie Bin Hashim. The supervision and support that they gave truly help the progression and smoothness of the subject PSM 1 and PSM 2. The co-operation is much appreciated. My grateful thanks also goes to both my parents and family. A big contribution and supports from all of you during the first week until the last week I spend for PSM 1 and PSM 2 is very great indeed. Besides, this project makes me realized the value of work hard and as a new experience in being positives, which challenges me every minute. Not to forget, great appreciation goes to the rest of my friends that help me from time to time during the project. The whole time doing this project really brought us together to appreciate the true value of friendship and respect of each other. Great deals appreciated goes to the contribution of my faculty - Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering (FKEKK). Finally I apologize all other unnamed who helped me in various ways to have a completed thesis. Thank you very much for all your kindness and contributions.
7 vii ABSTRACT Poor link quality that may occur from environment factor such as noise and fading drops the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) value. This contributes to packet loss during the packet transmission in wireless networks. The objectives of this thesis are to re-design existing MAC protocol to support piggybacking by inserting SNR field in the RTS-CTS frames. It is also to evaluate the protocol performance in terms of average delay and throughput. Non-persistent CSMA has been used as the access protocol and Rayleigh fading channel is chosen as the channel model. As we discovered, WCN with piggybacking mechanism does improve the link quality and hence increase the throughput performance by more than 3 times compared to normal WLAN.
8 viii ABSTRAK Kualiti laluan yang rendah boleh berlaku daripada faktor alam sekitar seperti daripada hingar boleh merendahkan nilai Nisbah Isyarat kepada Hingar (SNR). Ini menyumbang kepada kehilangan paket semasa penghantaran paket dalam rangkaian tanpa wayar. Objektif tesis ini adalah untuk mereka semula protokol MAC sedia ada untuk memuatkan mekanisma sokongan dengan memasukkan ruangan SNR ke dalam rangka RTS-CTS. Ia juga bertujuan untuk menilai pencapaian protokol di dalam purata masa penangguhan dan daya pemprosesan. CSMA bukan persis telah digunakan sebagai protokol akses dan saluran Rayleigh dipilih sebagai model saluran. Seperti yang telah ditemui, WCN dengan mekanisma sokongan telah memperbaiki mutu laluan dan oleh sebab itu, ia telah meningkatkan pencapaian daya pemprosesan lebih daripada 3 kali ganda berbanding WLAN yang normal.
9 ix TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER CONTENTS PAGES TITLE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES i ii v vi vii viii ix xii xiii I INTRODUCTION PROJECT BACKGROUND PROBLEM STATEMENTS OBJECTIVES SCOPES OF WORK CONTRIBUTION OF PROJECT THESIS ORGANIZATION 6 II LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION WIRELESS COGNITIVE NETWORK MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL (MAC) PROTOCOL 9
10 x 2.3 MAC PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS COGNITIVE NETWORK Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) 2.4 PIGGYBACKING MECHANISM The Proposed Piggybacking Mechanism Algorithm 2.5 LINK QUALITY ESTIMATION Channel Model Received Signal Power Thermal Noise SNR Estimation 2.6 SUMMARY III METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION PROJECT FLOW CHART PIGGYBACKING ALGORITHM DESIGN PIGGYBACKING CODING DEVELOPMENT GANTT CHART SUMMARY 28 IV RESULT AND ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION THROUGHPUT AND AVERAGE DELAY 29 PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS 4.2 THROUGHPUT PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AVERAGE DELAY PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS SUMMARY 33
11 xi V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION AND FUTURE WORK 35 REFERENCES 36
12 xii LIST OF TABLES NUMBER NO. TITLE PAGES 2.1 Comparison of Non-persistent CSMA/CA and P-Persistent CSMA/CA 12
13 xiii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGES 1.1 OSI Model WLAN frame transmission Frame transmission in cognitive network Example of Cognitive Communication CSMA protocol Timing Diagram of Algorithm Project Flow Chart Timing Diagram of Piggybacking Mechanism Packet Generation diagram Piggybacking Coding Development in MATLAB MATLAB Simulation configuration flowchart Throughput Performance of WCN vs. WLAN Average Delay Performance 32
14 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.0 Project Background Wireless network is a network set up by using radio signal frequency to communicate among computers and other network devices. One of wireless networks that is really famous is known as WiFi network or WLAN. Wireless Local Area Networks based on IEEE  promote significant attention in both the industry and academic, as provide very essential characteristics for example high bandwidth and ease of deployment.this type of network is getting popular nowadays due to easy to setup feature and no cabling involved. Users are able to connect computers anywhere in their home without the need for wires. The success of the Internet has caused a demand for wireless communications. Moreover packet switching plays important role where it is being applied in almost all technologies. The International Standards Organization (ISO) has defined the fundamental of Open System Interconnection (OSI) to partition computer network design and development areas into seven layers .
15 2 In this model, a networking system is divided into layers. In each layer, one or more elements implement its functionality. Every elements will communicate directly only with the layer with the nearest layer, and provides facilities for use by the layer above it. Protocol enables an element in one host to interact with other element at the same layer. Figure 1.1: OSI Model  The four upper layers are mainly logical and the rest are considered physical. The physical layer of wireless network therefore transmits bits and receives bits in wireless medium, while Medium Access Control (MAC) coordinates the packet transmission using the medium formed by a number of bits . However, this existing MAC protocol does not provide smart protocol for user since it does not have the feedback element to improve the quality of network link. This may contributes to few problems due to poor link quality such as packet loss or collision during the data transmission. Wireless cognitive network is one of the protocols that can be applied in order to provide reliable link quality so that problems that are mentioned above can be avoided. This cognitive network has several types that are being used in MAC protocol for such as cognitive single channel MAC protocol and also cognitive multichannel MAC protocol .
16 3 The focus of this thesis is only on the single channel wireless cognitive network solution by modification of the MAC layer. The proposed MAC protocol should provide information of SNR by using piggybacking mechanism. It used CSMA access protocol since the piggybacking mechanism is provided in RTS and CTS frames that only exist in CSMA. 1.1 Problem Statement Even though wireless network is not a new technology among us, the process of designing and deploying wireless network is still facing many constraints that should be overcome in order to improve the quality of the network. There are various ways to improve the network quality such as prediction of signal propagation based on site-specific information and positioning of access points or routers during planning stage, however, still the performance of the designed wireless network for most of the time is unpredicted . The main reason behind this is may due to the predicted information is non real-time while the wireless link is always changing due to various factors such as movement of objects. Therefore there is a need to provide real-time link quality information to every node in order to improve the network quality. As a MAC protocol main function is to transfer data between two or more nodes in the network, it is not intelligent or smart enough to determine the real-time link quality as well as the real-time throughput of the network. Therefore, this thesis tries to make the network becomes cognitive by piggybacking the information of SNR and throughput so that the communicating nodes know and provide proper responses regarding the given real-time link quality.
17 4 A (a) B A (b) B Figure 1.2 (a): Normal WLAN frame transmission at time = t 0 and (b): Normal WLAN frame transmission at time = t 1 In Figure 1.2, the diagram shows the packet transmission in the normal WLAN that can easily contributes to packet loss during the transmission. As can be seen, in (a) at t 0, the SNR is 70 db but then it is drop to 2 db. The same situation happened at timet 1 in (b) the SNR also drops at the packet sending from B to A. Therefore by using cognitive MAC protocol, the link quality can be improved by adjusting the value of power transmission associated with given real-time SNR because the power transmission affects the link quality or in other words, the SNR value is proportional with the value of Transmission Power, P t. A B Figure 1.3: Frame transmission in cognitive network
18 5 Figure 1.3 represents the transmission by using improved MAC protocol. As can be observed here, when packet is transmitted from A to B, the SNR value is 70 db, and the transmission of packet from B to A also has the same SNR value. This is due to cognitive element that has been applied to the MAC protocol. The transmission power, P t has been increased to higher value that is suitable to increase the value of SNR. It is important to note that P t is proportional to SNR. 1.2 Objectives To re-design non-persistent CSMAwith RTS-CTS protocol to support piggybacking by inserting SNR field in the RTS-CTS frames. To evaluate the performance of non-persistent CSMA protocol before and after piggybacking mechanism is applied in terms of average throughput and average delay. 1.3 Scopes of work The scopes of work of this thesis consists several parts which are divided into three major phases: Phase One : Design This phase consist the basic part of this thesis that includes literature review to the related topic that needed in completing this thesis. For example, the network architecture of wireless cognitive network, the architecture of RTS and CTS packet frame and how to include it in nonpersistent CSMA. Also in this phase, the proposed piggybacking algorithm is designed. Phase Two : Development This phase process includes the simulation of the proposed protocol in MATLAB software. This process requires the output of throughput and average delay performances in the form of performance graphs.
19 6 Phase Three : Evaluation The final process in this thesis is to provide the performance analysis from the results that has been obtained before. This is the most essential part to determine whether the protocol provides improvement of the link quality or otherwise. 1.4 Contribution of Project The major contribution of this thesis is the improvement of throughput and average delay where at the end of the thesis, it can be assumed that the throughput has improved from the simulation results while at the same time still produce average delay in the range of existing MAC protocol. 1.5 Thesis Organization The thesis is organized into five chapters. The first chapter introduces the project background and provides the direction of the work. Followed by the second chapter contains all the theoretical study related to the project. The study includes software or the tools part. Chapter 3 is where the flow of the project is shown using a flow chart. In addition, all the works related to the project will be well explained in this section. The analysis and findings of the results are explained in Chapter 4. Finally, this thesis is concluded in Chapter 5. The future work included in this chapter as well.
20 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction Literature review can be divided into three parts. The first one is study about the Wireless Cognitive Network. Followed by, the fundamental study of the project such as the understanding of MAC Protocol in WCN. The final part is the study on the piggybacking mechanism that is used in the project. All the literature review parts are essential to give better understanding of the project and to know the limitation and constraints. Finally this chapter will be summarized at the end of this chapter. 2.1 Wireless Cognitive Network Cognitive according to Cobuild Learner s Dictionary  can be defined as relating to the mental process involved in knowing, learning and understanding things. Cognitive wireless network (CWN) by J. Mitola III  is originally considered to improve spectrum utilization and generally considered as a technology to identify the opportunities using the spectrum holes for telecommunications.
21 8 In a cognitive network, the collection of elements that construct the network observed the network conditions and then, using the information gained from previous communication with the network, plans, decides and acts on this information. Figure 2.1: Example of Cognitive Communication  It can be consisting of transmitter, receiver, and also user as can be seen in Figure 2.1 above. Cognitive networks are different from other intelligent communication technologies since the actions are taken with respect to the end-toend goals of a data flow. In addition to the cognitive aspects of the network, a specification language is needed to translate the user s end-to-end goals into a form understandable by the cognitive process Cognitive network is a network with a cognitive process that can perceive current network conditions, plan, decide, act on those conditions, learn from the consequences of its actions, all while following endto-end goals . As far as this thesis concern, wireless cognitive network is a closed loop system where it gives essential feedback to the receiver so that it can improve the link quality by increasing element such as transmission power as one of the method to make sure better performance in the wireless network.
22 9 2.2 Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocol MAC layer, sometimes also known as a sub-layer of the Data Link layer, involves the functions and procedures necessary to transfer data between two or more nodes of the network . It is the responsibility of the MAC layer to perform error correction for anomalies occurring in the physical layer. The layer performs specific activities for framing, physical addressing, and flow and error controls responsible for resolving. Conflict may happen among different nodes for channel access. Since the MAC layer has a direct bearing on how reliably and efficiently data can be transmitted between two nodes along the routing path in the network, it affects the Quality of Service (QoS) of the network. The design of a MAC protocol should also address issues caused by mobility of nodes and an unreliable time varying channel . 2.3 MAC Protocol in Wireless Cognitive Network For Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, which the protocol that coordinates transmission between users that share the same spectrum, the goals of this MAC protocol is to prevent collisions and packet loss while maximizing the throughput and minimizing delay. The design of MAC is considerably more difficult task in wireless than wired networks . This is due to the fact that in the wireless medium, the signal strength decays causing the medium characteristics to be highly location-dependent. Therefore, mechanism such as CSMA does not work very well because the channel state may be different at the receiver from what is estimated at the receiver.
23 10 The main functions of MAC Protocol in Wireless Cognitive Network are: Observe stage: to sense the environment of network. The environment refers to existing environment of wireless system that has fixed and non-overlapped frequency spectrum. Observe stage also record the usage of the existing systems where there is no usage of cognitive network and make the comparison with and without cognitive network. Plan stage: check if a temporary link can be used without interfering current users. Temporary link is unused spectrum that may not be used of existing system. Decide stage: to determine the transmitted power, frequency, duration between two periods which are Contention Period (CP) and Contention-Free-Period (CFP) and schedule the frame transmissions; Act stage: to perform transmission with synchronize frame distribution. This frame synchronization is used to inform the channel the start time of CFP as well as CP. This thesis focusing only on CSMA  since CSMA has the collision avoidance that listen to the channel before transmitting packet Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) Protocol In terms of computer networking, Carrier Sense Multiple Access is a part of the data link layer, which is part of how networks and Internet Protocol (IP) addresses work. Carrier Sense Multiple Access, also known by CSMA, is where packets are data bits that are sent over a network . CSMA is a medium access protocol that works as follows: When a unit has data to send, it listens to see if the network is busy. If the network is not busy, data can be sent. If the network is busy, it waits until the network free, then send data.
24 11 Figure 2.2: CSMA protocol As shown in Figure 2.2, if node 4 and node 5 can sense the packet transmission at node 2 and node 3, there will be no collision occurs like what already happen at the red circle. Even though CSMA waits for the line to be clear before transmitting, a collision can still occur. This method is thus often combined with Collision Detection (CD). When a collision is detected, a jam signal will be sent, alerting the receivers of the collision. The data will then be sent again when the line is clear, until either the data is received or a maximum number of attempts are reached. However, the hidden node problem can still occur. Hidden node problem is nodes that are out of range of other nodes that it cannot be reached or sensed. To resolve the hidden terminal problem, Karn  originally proposed the use of Request-to-Send and Clear-to-Send (RTS/CTS) handshaking scheme leading to the Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) protocol. If a node has a packet to send, it first transmits a RTS packet to request the channel. If available, the receiver replies with a CTS packet. After the sender receives the CTS packet successfully, it proceeds to transmit the actual data packet. Nodes that hear the RTS packet will stop transmission for a long enough period of time to allow the transmitter to receive the CTS packet. Nodes hear the CTS packet will back off for a period of time that is sufficiently enough to allow the receiver to receive the entire data packet .
PERFOMANCE ANALYSIS OF SEAMLESS VERTICAL HANDOVER IN 4G NETWOKS MOHAMED ABDINUR SAHAL A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering
ii DETECTION OF WORMHOLE ATTACK IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS MOJTABA GHANAATPISHEH SANAEI A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Computer
AN IMPROVED PACKET FORWARDING APPROACH FOR SOURCE LOCATION PRIVACY IN WIRELESS SENSORS NETWORK MOHAMMAD ALI NASSIRI ABRISHAMCHI A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award
DYNAMIC TIMESLOT ALLOCATION TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK OON ERIXNO A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science (Computer Science) Faculty
AUTOMATIC APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE FOR MULTI HOP WIRELESS FIDELITY WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK MOHD HUSAINI BIN MOHD FAUZI UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA AUTOMATIC APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE
SECURE-SPIN WITH HASHING TO SUPPORT MOBILITY AND SECURITY IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN AMRI UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA SECURE-SPIN WITH HASHING TO SUPPORT MOBILITY AND SECURITY IN WIRELESS
A-PDF Merger DEMO : Purchase from www.a-pdf.com to remove the watermark MEDICAL FACILITIES DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM By MUHAMMAD FAIZAL BIN OSMAN Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
INTEGRATION OF CUBIC MOTION AND VEHICLE DYNAMIC FOR YAW TRAJECTORY MOHD FIRDAUS BIN MAT GHANI A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master ofengineering (Mechanical)
SMART AQUARJUM (A UTOMATIC FEEDING MACHINE) SY AFINAZ ZURJATI BINTI BAHARUDDIN This Report Is Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of Requirements For The Bachelor Degree of Electronic Engineering (Industry
LINK QUALITY AWARE ROUTING ALGORITHM IN MOBILE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS RIBWAR BAKHTYAR IBRAHIM UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA LINK QUALITY AWARE ROUTING ALGORITHM IN MOBILE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS RIBWAR
IV ABSTRACT In this project, the suitability of 802.11 b networks to carry real time voice traffic communication will be assessed using the Internet Protocol, where in the network the voice session have
ADAPTIVE ONLINE FAULT DETECTION ON NETWORK-ON-CHIP BASED ON PACKET LOGGING MECHANISM LOO LING KIM UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA ADAPTIVE ONLINE FAULT DETECTION ON NETWORK-ON-CHIP BASED ON PACKET LOGGING
ENHANCING TIME-STAMPING TECHNIQUE BY IMPLEMENTING MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL ADDRESS PACU PUTRA SUARLI A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master
"I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this thesis is sufficient in term of scope and quality for the reward of the Bachelor' s degree of Mechanical Engineering (Structure and
BLOCK-BASED NEURAL NETWORK MAPPING ON GRAPHICS PROCESSOR UNIT ONG CHIN TONG UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA BLOCK-BASED NEURAL NETWORK MAPPING ON GRAPHICS PROCESSOR UNIT ONG CHIN TONG A project report submitted
OPTIMIZE PERCEPTUALITY OF DIGITAL IMAGE FROM ENCRYPTION BASED ON QUADTREE HUSSEIN A. HUSSEIN A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science
MICRO-SEQUENCER BASED CONTROL UNIT DESIGN FOR A CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT TAN CHANG HAI A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering
AMBA AXI BUS TO NETWORK-ON-CHIP BRIDGE NG KENG YOKE UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA AMBA AXI BUS TO NETWORK-ON-CHIP BRIDGE NG KENG YOKE A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
i SERVICE QUALITY OPTIMISATION SCHEME OF MOBILE VIDEO STREAM SERVICE HERMAN A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Computer Science) Faculty
DYNAMIC MOBILE SERVER FOR LIVE CASTING APPLICATIONS MUHAMMAD SAZALI BIN HISHAM UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA DYNAMIC MOBILE SERVER FOR LIVE CASTING APPLICATIONS MUHAMMAD SAZALI BIN HISHAM A thesis submitted
CMPE 257: Wireless and Mobile Networking Katia Obraczka Computer Engineering UCSC Baskin Engineering Lecture 3 CMPE 257 Winter'11 1 Announcements Accessing secure part of the class Web page: User id: cmpe257.
MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE SYSTEM FOR WIRE ROPE INSPECTION USING BLUETOOTH COMMUNICATION MUHAMMAD MAHFUZ BIN SALEHHON UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE SYSTEM FOR WIRE ROPE INSPECTION USING
A LEVY FLIGHT PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER FOR MACHINING PERFORMANCES OPTIMIZATION ANIS FARHAN BINTI KAMARUZAMAN UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA A LEVY FLIGHT PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER FOR MACHINING PERFORMANCES
ENHANCING SRAM PERFORMANCE OF COMMON GATE FINFET BY USING CONTROLLABLE INDEPENDENT DOUBLE GATES CHONG CHUNG KEONG UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA ENHANCING SRAM PERFORMANCE OF COMMON GATE FINFET BY USING
AUTOMATIC RAILWAY GATE CONTROLLERUSING ZIGBEE NURLIYANA HAZIRAH BINTI MOHD SAFEE (B021110154) This report is submitted in partial fulfilment of requirements for the Bachelor Degree of Electronic Engineering
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS JUDUL: RFID BASED SYSTEMATIC STUDENT S ATTENDANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SESI PENGAJIAN: 2010/2011 Saya HANISAH BT HAMID ( 860210-02-5274 ) (HURUF BESAR)
University of Wollongong Research Online University of Wollongong Thesis Collection 1954-2016 University of Wollongong Thesis Collections 2008 On exploiting spatial reuse in wireless ad hoc networks Ziguang
ENHANCEMENT OF UML-BASED WEB ENGINEERING FOR METAMODELS: HOMEPAGE DEVELOPMENT CASESTUDY KARZAN WAKIL SAID A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree
FINGERPRINT DATABASE NUR AMIRA BINTI ARIFFIN THESIS SUBMITTED IN FULFILMENT OF THE DEGREE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE (COMPUTER SYSTEM AND NETWORKING) FACULTY OF COMPUTER SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 2015 i
SEMANTICS ORIENTED APPROACH FOR IMAGE RETRIEVAL IN LOW COMPLEX SCENES WANG HUI HUI A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Computer Science)
IMPLEMENTATION OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE MOVING OBJECT DETECTION ALGORITHM ON INTEL ATOM EMBEDDED SYSTEM CHEONG WEI WEI UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA IMPLEMENTATION OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE MOVING OBJECT
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS JUDUL: MODAL ANALYSIS OF CAR DISC BRAKE SESI PENGAJIAN: 2010/2011 Saya AHMAD ZAKI BIN CHE ZAINOL ARIFF (871228-11-5749) (HURUF BESAR) mengaku membenarkan
ISOGEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF PLANE STRESS STRUCTURE CHUM ZHI XIAN A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil-Structure)
be in charge Strengthening Unlicensed Band Wireless Backhaul Use TDD/TDMA Based Channel Access Mechanism WHITE PAPER Strengthening Unlicensed Band Wireless Backhaul: Use TDD/TDMA Based Channel Access Mechanism
HARDWARE/SOFTWARE SYSTEM-ON-CHIP CO-VERIFICATION PLATFORM BASED ON LOGIC-BASED ENVIRONMENT FOR APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACING TEO HONG YAP A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
HIGH SPEED SIX OPERANDS 16-BITS CARRY SAVE ADDER AWATIF BINTI HASHIM SCHOOL OF MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS 2007 HIGH SPEED SIX OPERANDS 16-BITS CARRY SAVE ADDER by AWATIF BINTI
IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IDENTITY- BASED AUTHENTICATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS MIR ALI REZAZADEH BAEE A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree
A TRUST MODEL FOR BUSINESS TO CUSTOMER CLOUD E-COMMERCE HOSSEIN POURTAHERI A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science (Information
AN ENHANCED CONNECTIVITY AWARE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORKS AHMADU MAIDORAWA A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of
Design and Implementation of I2C BUS Protocol on Xilinx FPGA. Meenal Pradeep Kumar Thesis Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Jun 2017 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to
Lecture 12 December 04, 2017 Wireless Access Graduate course in Communications Engineering University of Rome La Sapienza Rome, Italy 2017-2018 Random Medium Access Control Part II - CSMA and Collision
i PRIVACY FRIENDLY DETECTION TECHNIQUE OF SYBIL ATTACK IN VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORK (VANET) SEYED MOHAMMAD CHERAGHI A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of
ADAPTIVE LOOK-AHEAD ROUTING FOR LOW LATENCY NETWORK ON-CHIP NADERA NAJIB QAID AL AREQI UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA ADAPTIVE LOOK-AHEAD ROUTING FOR LOW LATENCY NETWORK ON-CHIP NADERA NAJIB QAID AL AREQI
RECOGNITION OF PARTIALLY OCCLUDED OBJECTS IN 2D IMAGES ALMUASHI MOHAMMED ALI UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA i RECOGNITION OF PARTIALLY OCCLUDED OBJECT IN 2D IMAGES ALMUASHI MOHAMMED ALI A dissertation submitted
ANOMALY DETECTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK (WSN) LAU WAI FAN FACULTY OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATICS UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH 2015 i ABSTRACT Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) composed of a lot of randomly
THREE BIT SUBTRACTION CIRCUIT VIA FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAY (FPGA) NOORAISYAH BINTI ARASID B021010227 A report submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH EVALUATION OF EXTENSION OF TIME (EOT) CLAIM IN GOVERNMENT PROJECTS SITI AISAH BINTI MAT ISA UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH EVALUATION OF EXTENSION OF TIME
Wireless Medium Access Control Protocols Telecomunicazioni Undergraduate course in Electrical Engineering University of Rome La Sapienza Rome, Italy 2007-2008 Classification of wireless MAC protocols Wireless
AUTOMATIC PET FEEDER WITH CLIENT/SERVER APPLICATION KHAIRUL ANWAR B MOHD YAKOP UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG AUTOMATIC PET FEEDER WITH CLIENT/SERVER APPLICATION KHAIRUL ANWAR B MOHD YAKOP A thesis submitted
SOLUTION AND INTERPOLATION OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL HEAT EQUATION BY USING CRANK-NICOLSON, CUBIC SPLINE AND CUBIC B-SPLINE WAN KHADIJAH BINTI WAN SULAIMAN A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements
ADAPTIVE VIDEO STREAMING FOR BANDWIDTH VARIATION WITH OPTIMUM QUALITY Joseph Michael Wijayantha Medagama (08/8015) Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science
A SEED GENERATION TECHNIQUE BASED ON ELLIPTIC CURVE FOR PROVIDING SYNCHRONIZATION IN SECUERED IMMERSIVE TELECONFERENCING VAHIDREZA KHOUBIARI A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF EXTERIOR CAR BODY PART BASTIAN WIBAR BIN MOMANG Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for award of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering with Automotive Engineering
DEVELOPMENT OF VENDING MACHINE WITH PREPAID PAYMENT METHOD AMAR SAFUAN BIN ALYUSI Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering
CAMERA CALIBRATION FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE MAPPING AHMAD RAZALI BIN YUSOFF A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Science (Geomatic Engineering)
TOWER BASE STATION SAFETY SYSTEM USING GSM TECHNOLOGY NIZAR ZACARIYYA BIN SHAPHERI This report is submitted in partial of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Telecommunication)
Link Layer: Retransmissions Context on Reliability Where in the stack should we place reliability functions? Application Transport Network Link Physical CSE 461 University of Washington 2 Context on Reliability
SECTION A: 60 MARKS BAHAGIAN A: 60 MARKAH INSTRUCTION: This section consists of FOUR (4) structured questions. Answer ALL questions. ARAHAN: Bahagian ini mengandungi EMPAT (4) soalan berstruktur. Jawab
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A MUSIC BOX USING FPGA TAN KIAN YIAK SCHOOL OF MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA PERLIS MALAYSIA 2007 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A MUSIC BOX USING FPGA by TAN
REAL-TIME WIRELESS FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM (RT-WiFARES) UMMI NAZIRAH BINTI JAMIL KHAIR This Report Is Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Bachelor Degree In Electronic Engineering
Unit 7 Media Access Control (MAC) 1 Internet Model 2 Sublayers of Data Link Layer Logical link control (LLC) Flow control Error control Media access control (MAC) access control 3 Categorization of MAC
STUDY OF FLOATING BODIES IN WAVE BY USING SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS (SPH) HA CHEUN YUEN UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA STUDY OF FLOATING BODIES IN WAVE BY USING SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS (SPH)
MAC LAYER Murat Demirbas SUNY Buffalo MAC categories Fixed assignment TDMA (Time Division), CDMA (Code division), FDMA (Frequency division) Unsuitable for dynamic, bursty traffic in wireless networks Random
1 A NEW STEGANOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE USING MAGIC SQUARE MATRIX AND AFFINE CIPHER WALEED S. HASAN AL-HASAN UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA 4 A NEW STEGANOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE USING MAGIC SQUARE MATRIX AND AFFINE CIPHER
Random Assignment Protocols Random assignment strategies attempt to reduce problem occur in fixed assignment strategy by eliminating pre allocation of bandwidth to communicating nodes. Random assignment
Wireless MACs: MACAW/802.11 Mark Handley UCL Computer Science CS 3035/GZ01 Fundamentals: Spectrum and Capacity A particular radio transmits over some range of frequencies; its bandwidth, in the physical
THE COMPARISON OF IMAGE MANIFOLD METHOD AND VOLUME ESTIMATION METHOD IN CONSTRUCTING 3D BRAIN TUMOR IMAGE SHAMSHIYATULBAQIYAH BINTI ABDUL WAHAB UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA THE COMPARISON OF IMAGE MANIFOLD
NMA Radio Networks Network Level: Medium Access Control Roberto Verdone Outline 1. Introduction 2. Fundamentals of Random MAC Aloha in Compact Networks Slotted Aloha in Compact Networks CSMA in Compact
CS 3640: Introduction to Networks and Their Applications Fall 2018, Lecture 7: The Link Layer II Medium Access Control Protocols Instructor: Rishab Nithyanand Teaching Assistant: Md. Kowsar Hossain 1 You
ABSTRACT This project has analysed the requirements and needs, as well as proposed a few solution models for implementing a wireless local area network (WLAN) infrastructure for network and Internet access
Intelligent Transportation Systems Medium Access Control Prof. Dr. Thomas Strang Recap: Wireless Interconnections Networking types + Scalability + Range Delay Individuality Broadcast o Scalability o Range
iii SYSTEMATIC SECURE DESIGN GUIDELINE TO IMPROVE INTEGRITY AND AVAILABILITY OF SYSTEM SECURITY ASHVINI DEVI A/P KRISHNAN A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award
Medium Access Control MAC protocols: design goals, challenges, contention-based and contention-free protocols 1 Why do we need MAC protocols? Wireless medium is shared Many nodes may need to access the
INFORM DEPARTURE AND ARRIVING OF BUSSES USING BLUETOOTH By MOHD SUHKRI BIN YASRI Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering MARCH 2007 ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Multiple Access Links and Protocols Two types of links : point-to-point PPP for dial-up access point-to-point link between Ethernet switch and host broadcast (shared wire or medium) old-fashioned Ethernet
SENSOR-MAC CASE STUDY Periodic Listen and Sleep Operations One of the S-MAC design objectives is to reduce energy consumption by avoiding idle listening. This is achieved by establishing low-duty-cycle
RGB COLOR IMAGE WATERMARKING USING DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM DWT TECHNIQUE AND 4-BITS PLAN BY HISTOGRAM STRETCHING KARRAR ABDUL AMEER KADHIM A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
Announcements 18-452/18-750 Wireless Networks and Applications Lecture 9: Wireless LANs 802.11 Wireless Peter Steenkiste Homework 1 should be out by tomorrow Project 1 by Friday Schedule:» Thursday lecture
IEEE 802.11 The standard defines a wireless physical interface and the MAC layer while LLC layer is defined in 802.2. The standardization process, started in 1990, is still going on; some versions are:
Lecture 4: Wireless MAC Overview Hung-Yu Wei National Taiwan University Medium Access Control Topology 3 Simplex and Duplex 4 FDMA TDMA CDMA DSSS FHSS Multiple Access Methods Notice: CDMA and spread spectrum
i AUTOMATIC DETECTION TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER FOR CALIBRATION PROCESS USING THERMOCOUPLE MUHAMAD FARID BIN A.WAHAB This thesis is submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the
Wireless networks two components to be considered in deploying applications and protocols wireless links ; mobile computing they are NOT the same thing! wireless vs. wired links lower bandwidth; higher