# Energy and Power Aware Stable Routing Strategy for Ad hoc Wireless Networks based on DSR

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3 Pseudo Code : Performed at destination node: - ::recv_pkt (Packet *P) generate RREP inserts res_energy into RREP send RREP process P After calculating the distance from the sender of RREP and calculating the transmission power required for that, intermediate node forwards RREP to the direction of source node. Each intermediate node performs the same thing as described in the pseudo code. Pseudo Code : Performed at each intermediate node: - ::recv_pkt (Packet *P) forward it if P is RREP then if res_energy <= Threshold then discard RREP else insert res_energy in RREP, calculate distance from sender of RREP, calculate signal strength, forward RREP adjust signal strength based on distance, transmit P Each intermediate node also calculates the distance from the sender of RREP and also calculates the signal strength required for data transmission. In ad hoc wireless network distance and signal strength (transmission power) have some relations; it is shown by following equation [5, 7].. Where, = receiving power (in terms of signal strength) = transmission power (in terms of signal strength) d = distance between two nodes in the route k = constant Calculating the transmission signal strength by using following equation based on distance (d) and received signal strength [5, 7]. p t` = p r. k / d 4 Fig. 4: Sending of RREP by Destination In Fig. 4, where destination node D generates the RREP and send back to each reverse path from where it received RREQ, so here it sent back to F, G and H nodes respectively. But as shown in Fig. 4, node G, is not having residual energy greater than the threshold value, so it simply discards the RREP and cannot forward to source. While other two nodes node F and node H is having enough energy so they calculate the distance and transmission power according to the pseudo code and forwards RREP towards the source node. Finally source node received RREP from multiple paths with energy value of each intermediate node. Source node calculates the average energy-level of each node. Source node selects the route with highest energy-level among all available routes and start data packet transmission through that route. Source node stores other routes as back up inside the cache so; they can be used in future if required. In our example we can find the route <S, E, F, D> with highest energy-level. So source node starts the transmission of data packet through that route while keeping other route <S, A, B, H, D> as back up in the cache. During data transmission, source sends the data packet to the first intermediate node in the route. At intermediate node, it adjusts the signal strength according to the distance of next node in the route and then forwards the data packet with only required transmission power. IV. SIMULATIONS All the simulations were run on the Network Simulator ns.4 [9]. The all the modifications were made to the normal code written for the ns.4. I have tested with 5 nodes network in a field size of X sq. m area with seconds of simulation time. Node movement was modeled using the Random Waypoint model [4]. 9

4 Routing Overhead 5 5 SSE Fig. 7: Routing Overhead V/s Pause Time Fig. 5: Source Starts the Transmission This model is characterized by two parameters: the maximum speed and the PAUSE TIME. Each node arbitrarily selects a destination and a speed, where the speed value is consistently dispersed among m/sec and the maximum velocity. The node then moves to its selected destination at the selected velocity. Once it reaches the destination, it stops for a random pause time. The pause time is consistently dispersed between and PAUSE TIME. The node ultimately selects a new destination and speed, and repeats the previous steps. The simulation environments and other details that we have considered during the simulation are described in bellow table. The whole simulation is performed to evaluate the basic with our proposed routing strategy. Parameter Values,,, 5,, 5 Speed (m / sec),, 5,, 5, Max. Connection Transmission Range 5m Bandwidth Mbps Mobility Model Random way out Packet Size 64 Bytes Packet Rate 4 Packets / Sec No. of Nodes 5 Initial Energy J. Table : Simulation Setup ns.4 Fig. 6, 7 and 8 represents the comparison of basic and our proposed routing strategy in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Overhead and Delay respectively with reference to pause time. From Fig. 6, we can say that in our proposed routing strategy, the Packet Delivery Ratio increased and provides improved performance compare to basic. Delay Fig. 8: Delay V/s Pause Time From fig. 8, we can say that the EE delay has a little increased in our proposed routing strategy compared to basic. Because in our proposed routing strategy, we have calculated energy-level, transmission power and distance at each intermediate node, so it takes some more delay SSE P D R SSE P D R SSE Fig. 6: Packet Delivery Ration V/s Pause Time Fig. 9: PDR V/s Speed

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