# AN ANALYSIS FOR RECOGNITION AND CONFISCATION OF BLACK HOLE IN MANETS

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3 Figure 3 Behaviour of black hole in AODV On getting the reply, the source node assumes that the process of route discovery is complete and it ignores further coming replies from other nodes. It selects the reply from the malicious node as the best route to send the messages using data packets. The reply sent from the malicious node has the highest sequence number which signifies the route to be the fresh enough and the source node relies on that reply. The attacker now drops all the packets coming to it. Let us consider the following example: B Ns=200 A 30[p] 90[p] C E 25[p] 50[p] D F 0[p] G Fig. 4 Blackhole node Here, node A is sending packets to node G. Node F does not contain any route to node G but it responds to A as if it has fresh enough route to node G. This node F is known as black hole node. All the packets sent by A destined for G are dropped by F. This is the problem in the network and in this paper proposes a solution to this problem named as feedback solution. The problem can be stated as follows: Ns = Total no of packets sent by source A 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 23

4 Ns ij = No of packets sent by node i to node j. Let us consider, Ns = 100 (1) N s b = (2) As F is a black hole node, therefore, Nr = No of packets received at the destination G. nr j = no of packets received at node j nr ji = no of packets received at node j from node i. Ns ef = (3) Ns fg = 0 (4) nr b = 105 Ns=200 A C 30[p] 90[p] E nr c = 30 nr e 25[p] D 50[p] F nr d = 55 nr f = 75 Nr=40 From the above figure, Fig. 5 No of packets received at G Nr b = nr ba + nr bc (5) Let, nr ba = 80[p], nr bc =25[p] (6) and as F is a black hole, So as to solve this problem, following solution is proposed. Nr b = 80[p] +25[p] (7) Nrb = 105 (8) nr eb = 100 (9) Nr g =Nr = nr dg = 40 (10) 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 24

5 C. The Solution One of the problems to this problem is to detect in the network, the blackholes by examining the no of sent packets at that node which will always be equal to zero for most of the cases. After the malicious black nodes have been detected we can adopt a feedback method to avoid the receptance of incoming packets at these blackholes. The packets coming at the immediate previous nodes to blacknodes are propagated back to the sender and the sender follows an alternative safer route to the destination. 70[p] B 80[p] A C E D F 130[p] G Nr= 170 New route to the destination Fig. 5 Solution to black hole attack 1) Result : To calculate the amount of packet loss due to the presence of blackhole [5] in the network can be analysed as follows: i) Absence of black hole in the network: Packet loss (%), L = (Ns-Nr /Ns) *100 (11) L = (( /200)) * 100 (12) L= 12.5 % (13) ii) Presence of black hole in the network: iii) When the solution is adopted : L = ((200-40)/200) * 100 (14) L = 80 % (15) L = (( ))/200)* 100 (16) L = 15 % 2014, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page - 25

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