# GSM Based Comparative Investigation of Hybrid Routing Protocols in MANETS

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3 Number of Packet Received Number of Packets sent Gsm Based Comparative Investigation of Hybrid Routing Protocols in Manets 3.Number of packets dropped: When one or more packets sent from source to the destination fail to reach their destination and are dropped by the routers in between the transmission due to any error condition in the network, they are considered as dropped packets. 4.Throughput: Throughput is the average rate of successful data packets received at destination. It is usually measured in bits per second (bit/s or bps), and sometimes in data packets per second. 5.Packet Delivery Ratio It is the ratio of the packets received by destination to those generated by the sources. It measures the loss rate as seen by transport protocols and as such,it characterizes both the correctness and efficiency of adhoc routing protocols. Mathematically, it can be represented as, PDR= P r /P s where P r is number of received packets, P s is number of sent packets. A high PDR is desired in any network[6]. VI. Results And Observations In this research work, three hybrid routing protocols are discussed by varying the number of nodes in a standard area of 5m*5m on the basis of the some performance parameters viz. number of packets sent, number of packets received, number of packets dropped, throughput and PDR which are discussed below with the help of line graphs: Number of nodes Fig. 1: Number of packets sent for, and by varying number of nodes. In figure1,the number of packets sent are maximum in case of as compared to which is further more than Fig.2: Number of packets received for, and by varying number of nodes. In figure2,the number of packets received are maximum in case of as compared to which is further more than. 84 Page

4 Packet Delivery Ratio Throughput Number of Packets Dropped Gsm Based Comparative Investigation of Hybrid Routing Protocols in Manets Fig. 3: Number of packets dropped for, and by varying number of nodes. In figure3, the number of packets dropped in case of is less in comparison to which is further less than. So, here in this case is counted better than and Fig. 4: Throughput for, and by varying number of nodes. In figure4, has maximum value of throughput as compared to as well as. So, it gives better output response than the other two protocols Fig.5: Packet Delivery Ratio for, and by varying number of nodes. In figure5,the ratio of number of packets received to the number of packets sent i.e. packet delivery ratio is more in case of as compared to and. VII. Conclusion On the basis of parameters discussed in results section, the overall result concludes that sends maximum number of packets, receives maximum number of packets, drops less number of packets, gives nice throughput and PDR. Due to all these parameters, gives overall outstanding results as compared to which is further better than. 85 Page

5 Gsm Based Comparative Investigation of Hybrid Routing Protocols in Manets VIII. Future Scope In future, this work can be extended by increasing number of nodes, by increasing the simulation area or by using any other simulators instead of NS-2. References Journal Papers: [1] Anuj K. Gupta, D. H. Performance analysis of AODV, DSR & Routing Protocols. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 21, [2] CHANDNI, A. B. QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS OF MANET IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK. International Journal of Computer & Communication Technology, 213, [3] G.V.Sai Aravind, D. S. A Study on Scalable Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks. IJCSET, 213, [4] Hrituparna Paul, P. S. A STUDY AND COMPARISON OF OLSR, AODV AND ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN AD HOC NETWORKS. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 213, [5] M. Ravi Kumar, N. G. A Literature Survey of Routing Protocols in MANETs. International Journal of Science and Research 213, [6] Meenakshi Sharma, N. K. High Quality GSM Voice based Analysis of the Prominent Routing Protocols of MANET. International Journal of Computer Applications,214, 1-3. [7] Mukesh Kumar Garg, D. V. Simulation Analysis of AODV, DSR and Routing Protocols in MANET using QualNet 5. Simulator. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,213, 1-6. [8] Rachna Bagwari, N. G. Comparative Implementation of and Prioritized for MANETs. International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science, 214, [9] Rai, R. K. A Novel Review on Routing Protocols in MANETs. Undergraduate Academic Research Journal (UARJ),212, [1] S.Divya, B. Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) A Review. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 213, [11] Shiva Prakash, J. P. A review of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Networks. International Journal of Computer Information Systems,21, [12] Vishal Sharmaa, H. S.Performance evaluation of reactive routing protocols in MANET networks using GSM based voice traffic applications. International Journal for light and electron optics,212, Page

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