2 Parts of Computer If you use a desktop computer, you might already know that there is not any single part called the "computer." A computer is really a system of many parts working together. The physical parts, which you can see and touch, are collectively called hardware. On the other hand, Software refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do. The following illustration (picture) shows the most common hardware in a desktop computer system. Your system might look a little different, but it probably has most of these parts. A laptop computer has similar parts but combines them into a single, notebook-sized package.
3 Parts of Computer
4 Parts of Computer 1. Monitor
5 Monitor A monitor displays information in visual form, using text and graphics. The portion of the monitor that displays the information is called the screen. Like a television screen, a computer screen can show still or moving pictures. There are two basic types of monitors: CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors and the newer LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors. Both types produce sharp images, but LCD monitors have the advantage of being much thinner and lighter.
7 Parts of Computer 2. Modem
8 Modem To connect your computer to the Internet, you need a modem. A modem is a device that sends and receives computer information over a telephone line or high-speed cable. Modem modulates analog signals into digital signals and demodulates the digital signals into analog signals. Modems are sometimes built into the system unit, but higher-speed modems are usually separate components.
9 Parts of Computer 3. System Unit
10 System unit The system unit is the core of a computer system. Usually it's a rectangular box placed on or underneath (below) your desk. Inside this box are many electronic components that process information. The most important of these components is the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor, which acts as the "brain" of your computer. Another component is random access memory (RAM), which temporarily stores information that the CPU uses while the computer is on. The information stored in RAM is erased when the computer is turned off. Almost every other part of your computer connects to the system unit using cables. The cables plug into specific ports, typically on the back of the system unit. A hardware which connected to the system unit (that is not a part of the system unit) is sometimes called a peripheral device or device.
27 ROM ROM stands for Read Only Memory. It is a type of internal memory. The data and instructions in ROM are stored by the manufacturer at the time of its manufacturing. This data and programs cannot be changed or deleted after wards. The data or instructions stored in ROM can only be read but new data or instructions cannot be written into it. This is the reason why it is called Read Only Memory. ROM stores data and instructions permanently. When the power is turned off, the instructions stored in ROM are not lost. That is the reason ROM is called non-volatile memory. ROM is used to store frequently used instructions and data to control the basic input & output operations of the computer. Mostly, frequently used small programs like operating system routines and data, are stored into the ROM. When the computer is switched on, instructions in the ROM are automatically activated. These instructions help the booting process of a computer. Read Only Memory (ROM), also known as firmware, is an integrated circuit programmed with specific data when it is manufactured. The instructions (BIOS) for starting the computer are housed on Read Only Memory chip.
28 Types of ROM ROM is divided into following types: 1. PROM 2. EPROM 3. EEPROM 4. Flash Memory 5. CMOS 1. PROM: PROM stands for Programmable Read Only Memory. This form of ROM is initially blank. The user or manufacturer can write data/program on it by using special devices. However, once the program or data is written in PROM chip, it cannot be changed. If there is an error in writing instructions or data in PROM, the error cannot be erased. PROM chip becomes unusable. 2. EPROM: EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. This form of ROM is also initially blank. The user or manufacturer can write program or data on it by using special devices. Unlike PROM, the data written in EPROM chip can be erased by using special devices and ultraviolet rays (An EPROM is erased by removing the chip from the system and exposing the array to ultraviolet light to erase data.). So program or data written in EPROM chip can be changed and new data can also be added. When EPROM is in use, its contents can only be read.
29 3. EEPROM: EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. This kind of ROM can be written or changed with the help of electrical devices. So data stored in this type of ROM chip can be easily modified. EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge. Like other types of PROM, EEPROM retains its contents even when the power is turned off. Also like other types of ROM, EEPROM is not as fast as RAM. 4. Flash Memory: Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. Flash memory developed from EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) in the early 1980s and introduced it to the market in Flash memory is a type of EEPROM that uses in circuit wiring to erase by applying an electrical field to the entire chip or to predetermined sections of the chip called blocks. Flash memory works much faster than traditional EEPROMs because it writes data in chunks, usually 512 bytes in size, instead of 1 byte at a time. 5. CMOS: Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor, or CMOS (pronounced 'sea-moss') is a special type of non-volatile memory in which important configuration information is stored and requires a little power to hold on to its contents.
30 Parts of Computer 4. Mouse
31 Mouse A mouse is a small device used to point and select items on your computer screen. Although mice come in many shapes, the typical mouse does look a bit like an actual mouse. It's small, oblong (rectangle/four sided shape), and connected to the system unit by a long wire that resembles a tail. Some newer mice are wireless. A mouse usually has two buttons: A primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary button (right button). Many mice also have a wheel between the two buttons, which allows you to scroll smoothly through screens of information. Mouse pointers: When you move the mouse with your hand, a pointer on your screen moves in the same direction. (The pointer's appearance might change depending on where it's positioned on your screen.) When you want to select an item, you point to the item and then click (press and release) the primary button. Pointing and clicking with your mouse is the main way to interact with your computer.
33 Using your mouse Basic parts : A mouse typically has two buttons: a primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary button (usually the right button). You will use the primary button most often. Most mice also include a scroll wheel between the buttons to help you scroll through documents and WebPages more easily. On some mice, the scroll wheel can be pressed to act as a third button. Advanced mice might have additional buttons that can perform other functions.
34 Mouse Pointer
35 Holding and moving the mouse Place your mouse beside your keyboard on a clean, smooth surface, such as a mouse pad. Hold the mouse gently, with your index finger resting on the primary button and your thumb resting on the side. To move the mouse, slide it slowly in any direction. Don't twist it keep the front of the mouse aimed away from you. As you move the mouse, a pointer (see picture) on your screen moves in the same direction. If you run out of room to move your mouse on your desk or mouse pad, just pick up the mouse and bring it back closer to you
36 Holding and moving the mouse
37 Parts of Computer 5. Speakers
38 Speakers are used to play sound. They can be built into the system unit or connected with cables. Speakers allow you to listen to music and hear sound effects from your computer. Speakers
39 Parts of Computer 6. Printer
40 Printer A printer transfers data from a computer onto paper. You don't need a printer to use your computer, but having one allows you to print , cards, invitations, announcements, and other material. Many people also like being able to print their own photos at home. The two main types of printers are inkjet printers and laser printers. Inkjet printers are the most popular printers for the home. They can print in black and white or in full color and can produce high-quality photographs when used with special paper. Laser printers are faster and generally better able to handle heavy use.
42 Parts of Computer 7. Keyboard
43 Keyboard A keyboard is used mainly for typing text into your computer. Like the keyboard on a typewriter, it has keys for letters and numbers, but it also has special keys: The function keys, found on the top row, perform different functions depending on where they are used. The numeric keypad, located on the right side of most keyboards, allows you to enter numbers quickly. The navigation keys, such as the arrow keys, allow you to move your position within a document or webpage
45 Using your keyboard Whether you're writing a letter or calculating numerical data, your keyboard is the main way to enter information into your computer. But did you know you can also use your keyboard to control your computer? Learning just a few simple keyboard commands (instructions to your computer) can help you work more efficiently. This article covers the basics of keyboard operation and gets you started with keyboard commands
46 How the keys are organized Typing (alphanumeric) keys. These keys include the same letter, number, punctuation, and symbol keys found on a traditional typewriter. Control keys. These keys are used alone or in combination with other keys to perform certain actions. The most frequently used control keys are Ctrl, Alt, the Windows logo key, and Esc. Function keys. The function keys are used to perform specific tasks. They are labeled as F1, F2, F3, and so on, up to F12. The functionality of these keys differs from program to program. Navigation keys. These keys are used for moving around in documents or webpages and editing text. They include the arrow keys, Home, End, Page Up, Page Down, Delete, and Insert. Numeric keypad. The numeric keypad is handy for entering numbers quickly. The keys are grouped together in a block like a conventional calculator or adding machine.
47 How the keys are organized
48 Typing text Whenever you need to type something in a program, e - mail message, or text box, you'll see a blinking vertical line ( ). That's the cursor, also called the insertion point. It shows where the text that you type will begin. You can move the cursor by clicking in the desired location with the mouse, or by using the navigation keys (see the "Using navigation keys" section of this article). In addition to letters, numeral (number), punctuation marks, and symbols, the typing keys also include Shift, Caps Lock, Tab, Enter, the Spacebar, and Backspace.
49 Shift: Key name & How to use it Press Shift in combination with a letter to type an uppercase letter. Press Shift in combination with another key to type the symbol shown on the upper part of that key. Caps Lock: Tab: Press Caps Lock once to type all letters as uppercase. Press Caps Lock again to turn this function off. Your keyboard might have a light indicating whether Caps Lock is on. Press Tab to move the cursor several spaces forward. You can also press Tab to move to the next text box on a form.
50 Enter: Key name & How to use it Press Enter to move the cursor to the beginning of the next line. In a dialog box, press Enter to select the highlighted button. Spacebar: Backspace: Press the Spacebar to move the cursor one space forward. Press Backspace to delete the character before the cursor, or the selected text.
51 Using the numeric keypad The numeric keypad arranges the numerals 0 though 9, the arithmetic operators + (addition), - (subtraction), * (multiplication), and / (division), and the decimal point as they would appear on a calculator or adding machine. These characters are duplicated elsewhere on the keyboard, of course, but the keypad arrangement allows you to rapidly enter numerical data or mathematical operations with one hand. To use the numeric keypad to enter numbers, press Num Lock. Most keyboards have a light that indicates whether Num Lock is on or off. When Num Lock is off, the numeric keypad functions as a second set of navigation keys (these functions are printed on the keys next to the numerals or symbols). You can use your numeric keypad to perform simple calculations with Calculator.
52 The Numeric keypad
53 Parts of Computer 8. Storage Devices
54 Storage Devices Computer has one or more disk drives devices that store information on a metal or plastic disk. The disk preserves the information even when your computer is turned off. The following are some storage devices: i. Hard Disk drive ii. RAM iii. CD and DVD drives iv. Floppy Disk drive
55 Hard Disk drive Computer's hard disk drive stores information on a hard disk - a rigid (unbending/inflexible) platter or stack of platters with a magnetic surface. Because hard disks can hold massive (huge) amounts of information, they usually serve as computer's primary means of storage, holding almost all of your programs and files. The hard disk drive is normally located inside the system unit.
56 Hard disk drive
57 RAM The RAM (Random Access Memory) is the temporary memory of a computer
58 CD and DVD drives Nearly all computers today come equipped with a CD (Compact Disc) or DVD drive, usually located on the front of the system unit. CD drives use lasers to read (retrieve) data from a CD; many CD drives can also write (record) data onto CDs. If you have a recordable disk drive, you can store copies of your files on blank CDs. You can also use a CD drive to play music CDs on your computer. The size of the CD disc is 700 MB DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) drives can do everything that CD drives can, plus read DVDs. If you have a DVD drive, you can watch movies on your computer. Many DVD drives can record data onto blank DVDs. The size of the DVD disc is 4 GB. Tip : If you have a recordable CD or DVD drive, periodically back up (copy) your important files to CDs or DVDs. That way, if your hard disk ever fails, you won't lose your data.
59 CD and DVD drives
60 Floppy Disk drive Floppy disk drives store information on floppy disks, also called floppies or diskettes. Compared to CDs and DVDs, floppy disks can store only a small amount of data. They also retrieve information more slowly and are more prone to damage. For these reasons, floppy disk drives are less popular than they used to be, although some computers still include them. Why are these disks called "floppy" disks? The outside is made of hard plastic, but that's just the sleeve (Cover). The disk inside is made of a thin, flexible vinyl (disc/record) material
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