# 10.2 Video Compression with Motion Compensation 10.4 H H.263

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1 Chapter 10 Basic Video Compression Techniques Introduction to Video Compression 10.2 Video Compression with Motion Compensation 10.3 Search for Motion Vectors 10.4 H H Further Exploration 1

2 10.1 Introduction to Video Compression A video consists of a time-ordered sequence of frames, i.e., images. An obvious solution to video compression would be predictive coding based on previous frames. Compression proceeds by subtracting images: subtract in time order and code the residual error. It can be done even better by searching for just the right parts of the image to subtract from the previous frame. 2

3 10.2 Video Compression with Motion Compensation Consecutive frames in a video are similar temporal redundancy exists. Temporal redundancy is exploited so that not every frame of the video needs to be coded independently as a new image. The difference between the current frame and other frame(s) in the sequence will be coded small values and low entropy, good for compression. Steps of Video compression based on Motion Compensation (MC): Motion Estimation (motion vector search). MC-based Prediction. Derivation of the prediction error, i.e., the difference. 3

4 Motion Compensation Each image is divided into macroblocks of size N N. By default, N = 16 for luminance images. For chrominance images, N = 8 if 4:2:0 chroma subsampling is adopted. Motion compensation n is performed rmed at the macroblock level. The current image frame is referred to as Target Frame. A match is sought between the macroblock in the Target Frame and the most similar macroblock in previous and/or future frame(s) ()(referred to as Reference frame(s)). The displacement of the reference macroblock to the target macroblock is called a motion vector MV. Figure shows the case of forward prediction in which the Reference frame is taken to be a previous frame. 4

5 MV search is usually limited to a small immediate neighborhood both horizontal and vertical displacements in the range [ p, pp] p]. This makes a search window of size (2p +1) (2p +1). 5

6 10.3 Search for Motion Vectors The difference between two macroblocks can then be measured by their Mean Absolute Difference (MAD): The goal of the search is to find a vector (i, j) as the motion vector MV =(u, v), such that MAD(i, j) is minimum: 6

7 Sequential Search Sequential search: sequentially search the whole (2p +1) (2p + 1) window in the Reference frame (also referred to as Full search). a macroblock centered at each of the positions within the window is compared to the macroblock in the Target frame pixel by pixel and their respective MAD is then derived using Eq. (10.1). 1) The vector (i, j) that offers the least MAD is designated as the MV (u, v) for the macroblock in the Target frame. sequential il search method is very costly assuming each pixel comparison requires three operations (subtraction, absolute value, addition), the cost for obtaining a motion vector for a single macroblock is (2p+1) (2p+1) N 2 3 O(p 2 N 2 ). 7

8 PROCEDURE 10.1 Motion- vector:sequential-search search 8

9 2D Logarithmic Search Logarithmic search: a cheaper version, that is suboptimal but still usually e ective. The procedure for 2D Logarithmic Search of motion vectors takes several iterations and is akin to a binary search: As illustrated in Fig.10.2, initially only nine locations in the search window are used as seeds for a MADbased search; they are marked as '1'. After the one that yields ild the minimum ii MAD is located, the center of the new search region is moved to it and the step-size ("offset") is reduced to half. In the next iteration, the nine new locations are marked as '2', and so on. 9

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12 Using the same example as in the previous subsection, the total operations per second is dropped to: 12

13 Hierarchical Search The search can benefit from a hierarchical (multiresolution) approach in which initial estimation of the motion vector can be obtained from images with a significantly reduced resolution. Figure 10.3: a three-level hierarchical search in which the original image is at Level 0, images at Levels 1 and 2 are obtained by down-sampling from the previous levels l by a factor of 2, and the initial search is conducted at Level 2. Since the size of the macroblock is smaller and p can also be proportionally reduced, the number of operations required is greatly reduced. 13

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15 Hierarchical Search (Cont'd) 15

16 PROCEDURE 10.3 Motion- vector:hierarchical-search 16

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18 10.4 H.261 H.261: An earlier digital video compression standard, its principle of MC-based compression is retained in all later video compression standards. The standard was designed for videophone, video conferencing and other audiovisual services over ISDN. The video codec supports bit-rates of p 64 kbps, where p ranges from 1 to 30 (Hence also known as p 64). Require that the delay of the video encoder be less than 150 msec so that the video can be used for real- time bidirectional video conferencing. 18

19 ITU Recommendations & H.261 Video Formats H.261 belongs to the following set of ITU recommendations for visual telephony systems: H.221 Frame structure for an audiovisual channel supporting 64 to 1,920 kbps. H.230 Frame control signals for audiovisual i systems. H.242 Audiovisual communication protocols. H.261 Video encoder/decoder for audiovisual services at p 64 kbps. H.320 Narrow-band audiovisual terminal equipment for p 64 kbps transmission. 19

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22 H.261 Frame Sequence Two types of image frames are defined: Intra-frames (I-frames) and Inter-frames (P-frames): I-frames are treated as independent images. Transform coding method similar to JPEG is applied within each I- frame, hence "Intra". P-frames are not independent: coded by a forward predictive coding method (prediction from a previous P- frame is allowed not just from a previous I-frame). Temporal redundancy removal is included in P-frame coding, whereas I-frame coding performs only spatial redundancy removal. To avoid propagation of coding errors, an I-frame is usually sent a couple of times in each second of the video. Motion vectors in H.261 are always measured in units of full pixel and they have a limited range of ±15 pixels, i.e., p =

23 Intra-frame (I-frame) Coding Macroblocks are of size pixels for the Y frame, and 8 8for Cb and Cr frames, since 4:2:0 chroma subsampling is employed. A macroblock consists of four Y, one Cb, and one Cr 8 8blocks. For each 8 8 block a DCT transform is applied, the DCT coefficients then go through quantization zigzag scan and entropy coding. 23

24 Intra-frame (P-frame) Coding Figure 10.6 shows the H.261 P-frame coding scheme based on motion compensation: For each macroblock in the Target frame, a motion vector is allocated by one of the search methods discussed earlier. After the prediction, a di erence macroblock is derived to measure the prediction error. Each of these 8 8 blocks go through DCT, quantization, zigzag scan and entropy coding procedures.. 24

25 The P-frame coding encodes the di erence macroblock (not the Target macroblock itself) Sometimes, a good match cannot be found, i.e., the prediction error exceeds a certain acceptable level. The MB itself is then encoded (treated as an Intra MB) and in this case it is termed a non-motion compensated MB. For motion vector, the di erence MVD is sent for entropy coding: 25

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27 Quantization in H.261 The quantization in H.261 uses a constant step size,for all DCT coefficients within a macroblock. If we use DCT and QDCT to denote the DCT coefficients before and after the quantization, then for DC coefficients in Intra mode: for all other coefficients: scale an integer in the range of [1, 31]. 27

28 H.261 Encoder and Decoder Fig shows a relatively complete picture of how the H.261 encoder and decoder work. A scenario is used where frames I, P 1,and P 2 are encoded and then decoded. Note: decoded frames (not the original frames) are used as reference frames in motion estimation. The data that goes through the observation points indicated by the circled numbers are summarized in Tables 10.3 and

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32 A Glance at Syntax of H.261 Video Bitstream Fig shows the syntax of H.261 video bitstream: a hierarchy of four layers: Picture, Group of Blocks (GOB), Macroblock, and Block. The Picture layer: PSC (Picture Start Code) delineates boundaries between pictures. TR (Temporal Rf Reference) provides a time-stamp for the picture. The GOB layer: H.261 pictures are divided into regions of 11 3 macroblocks, each of which is called a Group of Blocks (GOB). Fig depicts the arrangement of GOBs in a CIF or QCIF luminance image. For instance, the CIF image has 2 6 GOBs, corresponding to its image resolution of pixels. Each GOB has its Start Code (GBSC) and Group number (GN). 32

33 In case a network error causes a bit error or the loss of some bits, H.261 video can be recovered and resynchronized at the next identifiable GOB. GQuant indicates the Quantizer to be used in the GOB unless it is overridden by any subsequent MQuant (Quantizer for Macroblock). GQuant and MQuant are referred to as scale in Eq. (10.5). The Macroblock layer: Each Macroblock (MB) has its own Address indicating its position within the GOB, Quantizer (MQuant), and six 8 8 image blocks (4 Y, 1 Cb, 1 Cr). The Block layer: For each 8 8 block, the bitstreamt starts t with DC value, followed by pairs of length of zero-run (Run) and the subsequent non-zero value (Level) for ACs, and finally the End of Block (EOB) code. The range of Run is [0, 63]. Level reflects quantized values its range is [ 127, 127] and Level 0. 33

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36 10.5 H.263 H.263 is an improved video coding standard for video conferencing and other audiovisual services transmitted on Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN). Aims at low bit-rate communications i at bitrates of less than 64 kbps. Uses predictive coding for inter-frames to reduce temporal redundancy and transform coding for the remaining signal to reduce spatial redundancy (for both Intra-frames and inter-frame prediction). 36

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38 H.263 & Group of Blocks (GOB) As in H.261, H.263 standard also supports the notion of Group of Blocks (GOB). The di erence is that GOBs in H.263 do not have a fixed size, and they always start and end at the left and right borders of the picture. As shown in Fig , each QCIF luminance image consists of 9 GOBs and each GOB has 11 1 MBs ( pixels), whereas each 4CIF luminance image consists of 18 GOBs and each GOB has 44 2 MBs ( pixels). 38

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40 Motion Compensation in H.263 The horizontal and vertical components of the MV are predicted from the median values of the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, of MV1, MV2, MV3 from the " previous s", "above" and "above and right" MBs (see Fig (a)). For the Macroblock with MV(u, v): Instead of coding the MV(u, v) itself, the error vector (δu, δv) is coded, where δu = u u p and δv = v v p. 40

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42 Half-Pixel Precision In order to reduce the prediction error, half-pixel precision is supported in H.263 vs. full-pixel precision only in H.261. The default range for both the horizontal and vertical components u and v of MV(u, v)are now [ 16, 15.5]. The pixel values needed at half-pixel positions are generated by a simple bilinear interpolation method, as shown in Fig

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44 Optional H.263 Coding Modes H.263 specifies many negotiable coding options in its various Annexes. Four of the common options are as follows: Unrestricted motion vector mode: The pixels referenced are no longer restricted to be within ihi the boundary of the image. When the motion vector points outside the image boundary, the value of the boundary pixel that is geometrically closest to the referenced pixel is used. The maximum range of motion vectors is [-31.5, 31.5]. 44

45 Syntax-based arithmetic coding mode: As in H.261, variable length coding (VLC) is used in H.263 as a default coding method for the DCT coefficients. Similar to H.261, the syntax of H.263 is also structured as a hierarchy of four layers. Each layer is coded using a combination of fixed length code and variable length code. Advanced prediction mode: In this mode, the macroblock size for MC is reduced from 16 to 8. Four motion vectors (from each of the 8 8 blocks) are generated for each macroblock in the luminance image. 45

46 PB-frames mode: In H.263, a PB-frame consists of two pictures being coded as one unit, as shown Fig The use of the PB-frames mode is indicated in PTYPE. The PB-frames mode yields satisfactory results for videos with moderate motions. Under large motions, PB-frames do not compress as well as B-frames and an improved new mode has been developed in Version 2 of H

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48 H.263+ and H The aim of H.263+: broaden the potential applications and o er additional flexibility in terms of custom source formats, di erent pixel aspect ratio and clock frequencies. H.263+ provides 12 new negotiable modes in addition to the four optional modes in H.263. It uses Reversible Variable Length Coding (RVLC) to encode the di erence motion vectors. A slice structure is used to replace GOB to o er additional flexibility. y 48

49 H.263+ implements Temporal, SNR,and Spatial scalabilities. Support of Improved PB-frames mode in which the two motion vectors of the B-frame do not have to be derived d from the forward motion vector of the P-frame as in Version 1. H.263+ includes deblocking filters in the coding loop to reduce blocking e ects. 49

50 H includes the baseline coding methods of H.263 and additional recommendations for Enhanced Reference Picture Selection (ERPS), Data Partition Slice (DPS), and Additional Supplemental Enhancement Information. The ERPS mode operates by managing a multi-frame buffer for stored frames enhances coding efficiency and error resilience capabilities. The DPS mode provides additional enhancement to error resilience by separating header and motion vector data from DCT coefficient data in the bitstream and protects the motion vector data by using a reversible code. 50

51 10.6 Further Exploration Text books: A Java H.263 decoder by A.M. Tekalp Digital Video and HDTV Algorithms and Interfaces by C.A. Poynton Image and Video Compression Standards by V. Bhaskaran and K. Konstantinides Video Coding: An introduction to standard codecs by M. Ghanbari Video processing and communications by Y. Wang et al. Web sites: Link to Further Exploration for Chapter 10.. including: Tutorials and White Papers on H.261 and H263 H.261 and H.263 software implementations i An H263/H263+ library A Java H.263 decoder 51

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