# Group Testing for Image Compression

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1 Group Testing for Image Compression Edwin Hong and Richard Ladner. IEEE Transations on Image Processing. Aug By Chih-Yu (Joey) Tang November 22, 2006

2 The Concept of Group Testing Identify Army recruits that were infected with syphilis. Instead of test recruits individually, the blood sample of several men could be pooled together and test. If the percentage of infected recruits is small, the laboratory tests are greatly reduced.

3 The Concept of Group Testing Given n items, s of which are significant and n-s are insignificant items. The group testing problem itself is to find the best way to identify the s significant items Applications are Identifying defective Christmas lights Because the significance is small, testing is reduced. Screening disease When the infected individual size is small, testing is reduced.

4 Group Testing for Data Compression Group testing can also be used for Data compression?! Why?

5 Group Testing for Data Compression Given a binary bit stream as input 1 is significant and 0 is insignificant Use deterministic group test algorithm to encode and decode If a group testing algorithm can minimize the number of group tests, it also minimize the number of bits in the encoder s output

6 Group Testing for Data Compression Example 1: Src (Group iteration size 8) State of Input Output Bit????????

7 Group Testing for Data Compression Example 2: Src (Group iteration size 8) State of Input Output Bit???????? 1???????? ???? ???? ?? ?

8 Group Testing for Data Compression So if the probability of INSIGNIFICANT bits in a given group iteration size is big, the number of bits needed to encode this insignificant group iteration is then small.

9 Group Testing Code with Group Iteration Size 8 Src 0001???? State of Input Output Bit???????? 1???????? 1 1???????? ?????? 110 0

10 Group Testing for Data Compression All the following cases can produce 1 bit output about half of the time: Group iteration size Probability of insignificance 1: n0 2: n0 n1 3: n0 n1 n2 4: n0 n1 n2 n (Group insignificant probability = 0.5)

11 Apply Group Testing Key: Choose a best group iteration size to perform group testing The best group iteration size means most likely to produce a fewer output.

12 Wavelet-based Compression Recall, Wavelets compression 3-level wavelet transform of LENA

13 Group Testing for Wavelets (GTW) The paper defined classes Subband level Significant neighbor metric Pattern type Each class uses a corresponding entropy encoder Such as choose the best group iteration size of a class The best compression result is by carefully choosing the group iteration size in each of the defined classes

14 Class: Subband level The lowest frequency subband counts 1. The lower frequency subbands are more likely to be significant. Each level of the wavelet transform counts 1. Example: 4 subband levels when 3 levels of the wavelet transform are performed

15 Class: Significant Neighbor Metric A coefficient in a bit-plane is likely to be significant if more of its neighbors are significant. Defined a significant neighbor metric Can be a value of 0, 1, 2, or 3+ for significant neighbors

16 8 spatially adjacent coefficients in the same subband (a) counting 1 for each 2 spatially identical coefficient in the next lower subband (i) counting 1 for each The parent coefficient in the next lower subband (p) counting 1 for each The 4 child coefficients (c) counting 1 when any of them are significant The max count is then 12 over 15 neighbors.

17 Class: Pattern type Coefficients adjacent to each other are assigned different pattern types. The pattern type is based solely on position in a subband. Make coefficients in any class less likely to be correlated, which means more independent of each other. Control the order in which the information known about neighboring coefficients propagates. More info to code Ci+1 than Ci

18 Experiment A GTW class 7 subband levels (6 level of wavelet transform) 4 significant neighbor metric types 4 pattern types Totally 112 classes

19 Results All results are measured in terms of PSNR, in db. The SPIHT-AC rows represent the difference in PSNR between SPIHT- AC and GTW (with arithmetic code) (w/o arithmetic code) SPIHT: Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees PSNR: peak signal-to-noise-ratio

20 Summary The author uses Group Testing for Wavelets (GTW) as a compression technique. If the probability of insignificant bits in a given group iteration size is big, the number of bits needed to encode this insignificant group iteration is then small. The best compression result of GTW is by carefully choosing the group iteration size in each of the defined classes.

21 References Group Testing for Image Compression. Edwin Hong and Richard Ladner. IEEE Transations on Image Processing. Vol.11, No. 8, August Introduction to Data Compression. Khalid Sayood. Third Edition, Elsevier Inc.

22 Questions?

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