# SUBSTITUTING GOMORY CUTTING PLANE METHOD TOWARDS BALAS ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING BINARY LINEAR PROGRAMMING

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1 Bulletin of Mathematics Vol. 06, No. 0 (20), pp.. SUBSTITUTING GOMORY CUTTING PLANE METHOD TOWARDS BALAS ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING BINARY LINEAR PROGRAMMING Eddy Roflin, Sisca Octarina, Putra B. J Bangun, Cytra Ria Atmanegara and F. E. Zulvia Abstract. Application of binary linear programming can be found in many fields such as scheduling, production planning, networking and etc. Unlike linear programming problems, binary integer linear programming problem is more difficult to solve since its variables must be a binary number zero or one. Thus, solving this problem efficiently becomes an interesting issue. This paper proposes a combination of Balas additive method and Gomory cutting plane method. Balas additive method is a well-known method in binary linear programming. It systematically enumerates subset of the possible binary solution to ensure all possible solutions are examined. In this paper, a drawback of this method which is requiring long iterations is fixed. It uses the Gomory cutting plane method to eliminate non-integer partial solution. The Gomory cutting plane method generates an additional constraint to eliminate a non-integer solution. In general, this additional constraint increases the problem complexity. Therefore, combining Balas algorithm and Gomory cutting plane method can solve binary linear problem faster without facing more complex mathematical model. Substituting Gomory cutting plane to the Balas algorithm is conducted by performing the cut based on condition in Gomory algorithm towards the enumeration process conducted by Balas algorithm. The computational result using a test function proves that the proposed substituting strategy can solve binary linear programming efficiently which is shown by the number of iterations required by this method. Received 2--20, Accepted Mathematics Subject Classification: 90C0, 6K0 Key words and Phrases: Binary linear programming, Balas algorithm, Gomory cutting plane.

2 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method INTRODUCTION Linear programming (LP) has been applied in many different fields. One of application of linear programming can be founded in a problem requiring a yes-no decision. Herein, a binary zero-one LP can be applied to solve this kind of problem. Due to its importance, many algorithms have been proposed to solve a zero-one LP. One of them is Balas algorithm proposed by Balas []. This method has been proven can solve zero-one LP well, yet it requires a long iterations[2]. On the other hand, A Gomory cutting plane method was proposed for solving an integer LP[]. This method does not require too long iterations as proceed by Balas algorithm. The approach taken in the Cutting Plane technique is to create an additional constraint that cuts feasible space of the linear programming relaxation to eliminate a solution that is not integer. But this method has the disadvantage such a solution obtained was shaped shards or fractional integer which does not require complex simplex iteration[]. Unfortunately, this method does not obtain an absolute zero-one solution. This paper aims to overcome the drawback of Balas algorithm by embedding it with Gomory cutting plane method. The main concept of the proposed method is eliminating the backtracking procedure in Balas algorithm and replacing it with Gomory cutting plane. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 briefly reviews the literature study of Balas algorithm and Gomory cutting plane method. In Section, the proposed combination of Balas and Gomory algorithm is discussed. Furthermore, two numerical examples are given in Section. Finally, a concluding remark is given in Section. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW This section discusses some basic theories of linear programming, Balas algorithm and Gomory cutting plane which are applied in this paper. 2. BINARY LINEAR PROGRAMMING Linear programming is a tool for solving optimization problem. It aims to minimize or maximize the objective function with respect to some constraints. In the real-world problem, optimization problems usually involves

3 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method... a yes-no decision. These problems are modeled as binary linear programming or zero-one linear programming. The general form of binary linear programming model is as follows. Objective function: Maximize or Minimize: f(x) = C T X () where X = x x 2. x n Subject to: AX + Y = B (2) c C = c 2. c n a a 2 a n a 2 a 22 a 2n and A = a m a m2 a mn x i {0, } () Y 0 () b 0, B = b BALAS ALGORITHM Balas algorithm was proposed by Egon Balas []. This method works by successively assigning the value to a certain variables. Notations used in Balas algorithm are defined as follows: J k = Set of decision variables at iteration k. It is a partial solution at iteration k. R J k = Set of decision variables in objective function. = Set of decision variables which are not included in J k. All decision variables are assumed the be zero unless it has been defined as one in advance. Jk = R J k. P k = Set of decision variables which can repair the final solution. Is k = Number of violated constraints when variable x s = at iteration k. f k = Objective value at iteration k. = Final objective value. yj k = Slack variable at iteration k. f b n

4 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method... The Balas algorithm is as follows. STEP. Initialization Set k = 0, J 0 =, Y (k) = B with at less one component from B < 0, f =, f 0 = 0, R = {x, x 2,, x n } and J 0 = R. STEP 2. Determine variable in J k which can be moved to J k. Choose one set of decision variables in Pk which has objective value better than J k. Eliminate variables which have negative value. y k+ j = y k j a js, y k j < 0 () Variable yj k is feasible if a js < 0. The x s J k with a js = 0 can be eliminated and inserted to the set N k. Eliminate all variables causing the current objective value f ( k) higher than f. Let the objective function: f k = j J k c j x j (6) If x s J k, is set as, the objective function becomes (f k + c s ). Thus x s which makes the objective value greater than f cannot be included in solution. Let M k = {x s x s L, L = f k + c s = f }, then: P k = J k (N k M k ) = R J k (N k M k ) () If P k =, then go to STEP. Otherwise, go to the next step. Given constraints: which can be written as: a j x + a j2 x a jn x n + y = b j, y j < 0 () y k+ j = y k j By considering only variables in P k, we get: x s J k a js x s, y k j < 0 (9) x s J k a js y k j, y k j < 0 (0) Change variable,x t P k, to. The variable x t is chosen based on Equation. (). { ( )} x t = argmin It k = max Is k () x t P k

5 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method... where, I k j = m j= Defines new solution J k+. ) min (0, yj k a js, x P k (2) STEP. Update y k+ j. Update objective function: y k+ j = y k j a js () f k+ = f k + c t () If all yj k+ to STEP 2. 0, then f = f k+, and go to STEP. Otherwise, back STEP. Backtracking and determining optimal solution. The backtracking process is conducted towards partial solution J k. It is started by assuming all variables in J k are one. Then, successively assigning zero to certain variables. Here in, 2 n possibilities are evaluated where n is number of variables in J k. Then, a combination which gives the smallest value is the final objective value. 2. GOMORY CUTTING PLANE The Gomory cutting plane is an algorithm for obtaining integer solutions of the linear programming []. This algorithm works by examine a solution of the linear programming obtained by simplex method. If the solution is not in integers, a new constraint which can cut the search space so that non integer solution can be eliminated. The procedure of generating new constraints is as the following. STEP. Given an optimal simplex tableau. If x i < 0, then n a j i w j = β i () j= when a j i aj i and w j 0, equation () can be transformed to: n a j i w j β i (6) j=

6 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method... 6 and n a j i w j + S i = β i () j= where S i is a slack variable. Assumed β i is non-integer, then a j i + f ij = a j i and β i + f i = β i where 0 f ij and 0 < f i <. The additional constraint is the differences between eqs () and () which can be formulized as follows. n ( f ij )w j + S i = f i () j=. METHODOLOGY The idea of substituting Gomory cutting plane to the Balas algorithm is proposed to accelerate the procedure of Balas algorithm. As discussed in Section 2, Balas algorithm involves a backtracking procedure which takes a long iteration. Thus, we perform Gomory cutting plane method to replace the backtracking procedure. Herein, Gomory cutting plane condition is applied to determine which variable should be set as. Detail steps of the proposed Balas and Gomory combination is given as follows. STEP. Initialization Set k = 0. Transform the LP to a standard form. STEP 2. Solve the standard form LP using dual simplex method to obtain the optimal dual simplex tableau. STEP. If all decision variables in the optimal solution are integer, then stop. Otherwise, generate a new constraint based on Gomory procedure. The new constraint is derived from the basis variable which has the biggest non-integer solution. Solve the new LP with dual simplex method and obtain new optimal tableau. If the new solution is integer, then stop and go to STEP. Otherwise, back to STEP. STEP. Substitute solution the original LP form to get the final optimal solution.

7 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method.... NUMERICAL ANALYSIS In order to analyze the performance of the proposed method, a numerical analysis involving a binary LPs is conducted. Herein, a binary LP are solve using Balas algorithm, Gomory cutting plane method, and the proposed method. Problem: Objective function: Subject to: MIN f = x + x 2 + 0x x + x (9) x + x 2 x + x + x 0 (20) 2x + 6x 2 x + 2x + 2x (2) x 2 2x x + 2x 2 (22) x i {0, } i =, 2,, (2) Procedure the proposed substituting Balas and Gomory Solve the LP using the proposed Balas and Gomory algorithm as follows: Iteration. STEP. Transform LP to standard form and obtained new form as follows: Subject to: MIN f = x + x 2 + 0x x + x (2) x + x 2 x x + x + y = 2 (2) 2x 6x 2 + x + 2x 2x + y 2 = 0 (26) x 2 2x x + 2x + y = (2) x i {0, } i =, 2,, (2) y, y 2, y 0 (29) STEP 2. Solve the standard form using dual simplex method and obtain the optimal tableau as table. Since the current solution contains non-integer variables, a new constraint must be generated. According to the Gomory cutting plane rule, the

8 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method... Table : Optimal tableau Basic x x 2 x x x y y 2 y Solution f x x y x is used for the new constraint. The new constraint generating procedure is as follows: Change negative coefficient of all variables in row x into positive value. x 2/9 = /9 x /9 = /9 x /9 = /9 (0) y 2 /9 = /9 y 2/ = / Define new coefficient for all variables: x = /9; x = /9; x = /9; y 2 = /9; and y = /. Substitute to equation x. x + 9 x + 9 x + 9 x + 9 y 2 + y = 2 () Define the constraint as follows: S 9 x 9 x 9 x 9 y 2 y = 2 (2) Add the new constraint to the optimal tableau and solve using simplex method. The result is shown as table 2. From the current optimal tableau, the optimal solution still contains non-integer variable. Thus, return to STEP. Iteration 2. STEP. Generate a new constraint. From current optimal tableau, x and y 2 are variables which have the biggest integer solution. However, since coefficient S in row y 2 is less than -, the

9 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method... 9 Table 2: Optimal tableau 2 Basic x x 2 x x x y y 2 y S Solution f x x y y new constraint is generated from x. By following the same procedure in iteration, we get the new constraint as follow. ( x + + ) ( x + + ) ( x + + ) ( x + + ) y ( + + ) ( S = 0 + ) () S 2 x x x y S = () Add the new constraint to the current LP and solve it using Simplex method. The new optimal tableau is as follows. Table : Optimal tableau Basic x x 2 x x x y y 2 y S S 2 Solution f x x y y S Since the optimal solution still involves non-integer solution, go back to STEP.

10 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method... 0 Iteration. STEP. Generate new constraint. The optimal tableau shows the highest integer values are given by x and S. However, S 2 in row S has value less than -. Thus, x is chosen for the new constrain as follows. ( x + + ) ( ) S 2 = ( x + ( ) ) ( x + + ) y () S x x y 6 S 2 = 6 (6) Add the new constraint to the LP and solve it using Simplex method. The optimal tableau is as follows. Table : Optimal tableau Basic x x 2 x x x y y 2 y S S 2 S Solution f x x y y S x The optimal tableau shows that the solution is non-integer. However, there is one variable has negative value. Thus, recalculating coefficient f and y is performed instead of generating a new constraint. The ratio between coefficient f and y is given as follows. Choose variable with the smallest ratio to replace y is basis row. Recalculate the optimal tableau using Simplex method. The result is as follows. This optimal tableau shows that the current solution is integer solution. Thus stop the iteration and go to the next step.

11 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method... Table : Ratio between coefficients f and y x x 2 x x x y y 2 y S S 2 S f y Ratio Table 6: Final Optimal tableau Basic x x 2 x x x y y 2 y S S 2 S Solution f x 0 2 x 2 0 S y S x STEP. Substitute the optimal solution to the original LP form to get the final optimal solution. x = x 2 = S 2 =, y 2 =, S = 2, x = 0 () The final optimal solution: f min = 9 x = x 2 = x = x = () x = 0. DISCUSSION The same problem is also solve using Balas and Gomory algorithm. Since the aims of combining Balas and Gomory algorithm is to reduce the computational time in terms number of iterations, the evaluation is conducted by comparing number of iterations required by Balas, Gomory and the proposed method. The result is mentioned in Table. This result proves that the proposed Balas and Gomory algorithm can solve the binary LP better than Balas and Gomory algorithm. It is not only can obtain better result, but also only requires less iteration.

12 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method... 2 Table : Comparison between Balas, Gomory and the proposed method Method Number of Iterations Objective Value Balas Algorithm iterations: 2 steps 9 Gomory iteration: 2 steps The proposed method iteration: steps 9. CONCLUSION Balas algorithm is a method for solving binary LP. Although it has been proven can solve the binary LP well, this method has a drawback which is requiring a long iterations. On the other hand, Gomory method is a method for solving integer LP. Unlike Balas algorithm, this method only takes a few iterations to find an integer solution. This paper aims to propose a method for solving binary LP with less iteration. The proposed method combines Balas algorithm with Gomory cutting plane method. In this method, the backtracking procedure in Balas algorithm is replaced with Gomory cutting plane method. Backtracking procedure is a part of Balas algorithm which requires 2 n evaluation where n is number of variables. The proposed method avoids this procedure since it requires high computational. Herein, Gomory condition is applied to generate an additional constraint which reduces the search space so that it can find a binary integer solution faster. Furthermore, the proposed method is validated using a binary LP. Numerical computational result proves that the proposed substitution Balas and Gomory algorithm can solve binary LP better and faster than Balas and Gomory algorithm. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This paper is the publication of the Fundamental Research which was funded by BOPTN 20. We thank to the Ministry of Higher Education, Dikti and all who help us finished this research.

13 Eddy Roflin et. al. Substituting Gomory Cutting Plane Method... REFERENCES. Balas, E. An Additive Algorithm For Solving Linear Programs With Zero- One Variables.. Operations Research, 96. (): p.. 2. Balas, E. and J. Mazzola. Nonlinear 0 programming: I. Linearization techniques. Mathematical Programming, 9. 0(): p Gomory, R.E.Outline of an algorithm for integer solutions to linear programs. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 9. 6(): p Washburn, A.R., Branch and bound methods for a search problem. Naval Research Logistics. 99. (): p Eddy Roflin: Sriwijaya University, Indonesia. Sisca Octarina: Sriwijaya University, Indonesia. Putra BJ Bangun: Sriwijaya University, Indonesia. CytraRia Atmanegara: Sriwijaya University, Indonesia. F. E. Zulvia : Sriwijaya University, Indonesia.

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