A Comparative Analysis of Energy Preservation Performance Metric for ERAODV, RAODV, AODV and DSDV Routing Protocols in MANET

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1 A Comparative Analysis of Energy Preservation Performance Metric for ERAODV, RAODV, AODV and DSDV Routing Protocols in MANET Bhabani Sankar Gouda Department of Computer Science & Engineering National Institute of Science & Technology (NIST) Berhampur, Odisha, India Abstract In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs), mobile devices are operational with power. In order to utilize these energy operational devices resourcefully for transmission of data packets, many energy aware routing strategies are followed. As a key note to these routing strategies, the energy aware performance metrics are analyzed on three routing protocols like Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector Protocol (AODV), Reverse on Demand Distance Vector Protocol (RAODV) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Protocol (DSDV). The comparison results prove that ERAODV protocol can be adopted for any routing strategy, in order to increase the performance of the network lifetime in comparison with RAODV, AODV and DSDV. Keywords- Mobile Ad-Hoc Network, MANET Routing Protocols, ERAODV, RAODV, AODV, DSDV. I. INTRODUCTION Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANET) are self-configured and infrastructure less network with more number of mobile devices connected via a wireless associates. Energy conservation process in ad-hoc networks is very important due to the limited energy availability in each wireless node [1]. As the communication between two wireless nodes consumes more energy, it is significant to minimize the cost of energy required for communication by exercising an energy conscious routing scheme. Such routing procedures or policies potentially increase the lifetime of the network. In this paper, the energy metrics of RAODV, AODV and DSDV are compared by simulating with increasing the density of nodes. 1.1 MANET s Reactive Routing Protocol Routing protocols is a standard that controls how nodes make a decision to route the packets between the source and the destination node. Each node learns about nodes close up and how to reach them. The routing protocols find a route for packet transmission and will transfer the packet from source to destination nodes. The routing protocols are mainly classified in two traditions. 1. Table Driven protocols or proactive protocols 2.On-Demand protocols or reactive protocols. Table-driven routing protocols are trying to maintain dependable routing information from each node to every other node in the network [2]. Each node has maintaining one or more tables that containing routing information about every other node in the network. Such like that, table driven protocols are: Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Protocol (DSDV), Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP), and Cluster Switch Gateway Routing (CGSR) [2]. In other hand On-Demand protocols will establish the route between the nodes that they want to communicate. When a source node demands a route to destination node, it initiates a route discovery process in the network. This process has been completed once a route is found or all possible route permutations have been examined [2]. The route always remains valid until the route is no longer needed. Such like that, On-Demand routing Protocols are Relative Distance Micro diversity Routing (RDMR), Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector Protocol (AODV) [2]. II. ROUTING PROTOCOLS A. Destination-Sequenced Distance Vectoring (DSDV) At First, confirm that you have the correct template for your DSDV is a proactive routing protocol based on the classical distributed Bellman-Ford routing algorithm [2]. In DSDV[3] messages are shared between the mobile nodes (i.e., nodes are in the same communication range).the nodes will always evaluate the routes to all reachable nodes and attempt to maintain consistent up-to date information. The routing table updates will sent from time to time throughout the network thus the table will maintain its consistency but this will produce a lot of traffic in the network. Each node will maintain a route in which all of the possible destinations within the network and the number of hops to each destination are recorded [4]. In routing table each entry in the routing table is ISSN : Vol. 3 No. 10 Oct

2 marked with a sequence number that is assigned by the destination node; the sequence numbering structure will avoid the formation of loops. B. Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) The Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector routing protocol is a reactive routing protocol. AODV protocol is the combination process of Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DSDV protocol [5]. It is a distance vector routing protocol and is capable of both unicast and multicast routing [6]. It will maintain the routes only between the nodes which need to communicate. The routing information will be maintained as routing tables in each node and each entry. A routing table entry expires if it has not been used or reactivated for pre-specified expiration time during the transmission. When a source node wants to send the packet to a destination node then the entries in the routing table will check whether there is a current route to the destination node or not, if there is a route then the packets will transmit to destination node in that path [2,10]. If it doesn t have any valid route, then the route discovery process will be initiated. For route discovery AODV is using Routing Request (RREQ), Routing Reply (RREP) Packets [1]. The RREQ packet containing the source node IP address, source node current sequence number, the destination node sequence number and broadcast ID [1][6]. The advantage of AODV is that it creates no extra traffic for communication along the existing link but requires more time to establish a connection. It is simple and doesn t require much memory or calculation. C. Reverse Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (R-AODV) The Reverse-AODV is reactive routing protocol; no stable routes are stored in nodes. This protocol discovers path or routes on their demand using a reverse route discovery process. During route discovery process source node initiates by broadcasting. In this process source node and destination node plays similar role from the end of sending control messages. Therefore, after receiving RREQ message, destination node create floods reverse request (R-RREQ), to find the source node. When source node receives an R-RREQ message [8, 9], data packet is started without delay of transmission. In this process RREQ message holds message type, source address, destination address, broadcast ID, hop count, sequence number, request time. III. SIMULATION BASED ANALYSIS USING NETWORK SIMULATOR (NS-2) We have performed simulations to evaluate several performance metrics of our schemes. First, we would like to distinguish how obtained optimal path of route discovered by reverse route calculation reduced. In this section we have described about the tools and methodology used in our paper for analysis of ad-hoc routing protocol performance i.e. about simulation tool, Simulation Setup (traffic scenario, Mobility model) performance metrics used and finally the performance of protocols is represented by using MATLAB graph. The simulation parameters are listed in table1. TABLE I. SIMULATION PARAMETERS Parameters Values Channel Wireless Channel Radio-Propagation Model Two Ray-Ground Antenna Type Omni Antenna Interface Queue Type Drop Tail / Pri-Queue Maximum Packet in Queue 50 Network Interface Type Phy/Wireless MAC Type Topographical Area 800 x 800 Sq.m TxPower 4.00W RxPower 3.00W Idle Power 1.0W Transition Power 0.01W Transition Time 0.003s Sleep Power 0.004W Total Simulation Time 110ms Initial Energy of a Node Joules Routing Protocols ERAODV/RAODV/AODV/DSDV Traffic Model FTP Packet Size 1060 Bytes Number of Mobile 5,15,25,35,45,55,65,75,85,95 Mobility Speed 10 m/s 3.1 Simulation Matrices The numbers of packets are sending from source to destination during the transmission. In this study we have calculated the total number of data packets sent by the source within the simulation time. Consumed Energy: The total number of transmitted nodes in the networks against the total consumed energy is considered as a metric. ISSN : Vol. 3 No. 10 Oct

3 Remaining Energy: The remaining energy is obtainable in each node after the transmission in the network. Packet Delivery Fraction [PDF]: This is the ratio of the data packets delivered to the destination location to individuals generated by the sources is known as packet delivery fraction. Routing Overhead: Routing overhead is the process in which the number of routing packets transmitted per data packet delivered to the destination. Normalized Routing Load [NRL]: This will be the ratio between the number of routing packets and the number of received packets. The Normalized Routing load must be low. Each hop-wise transmission of a routing packet is counted as one transmission. Throughput is process of successful message delivery over average rate in the communication channel. The following tables show the analysis parameters of ERAODV, RAODV, AODV and DSDV protocols. TABLE II. ENERGY PRESERVATION ANALYSIS PARAMETERS OF ERAODV No. Of Sent Received Remaining Consumed Packets Packets Energy Energy TABLE III. ENERGY PRESERVATION ANALYSIS PARAMETERS OF ERAODV No. Of PDF NRL Routing Throughput Load ISSN : Vol. 3 No. 10 Oct

4 TABLE IV. ENERGY PRESERVATION ANALYSIS PARAMETERS OF AODV No. Of Sent Received Remaining Consumed Energy Packets Packets Energy TABLE V. ENERGY PRESERVATION ANALYSIS PARAMETERS OF AODV No. Of PDF NRL Routing Throughput Load TABLE VI. ENERGY PRESERVATION ANALYSIS PARAMETERS OF DSDV No. Of Sent Packets Received Packets Remaining Energy Consumed Energy ISSN : Vol. 3 No. 10 Oct

5 TABLE VII. ENERGY PRESERVATION ANALYSIS PARAMETERS OF DSDV No. Of PDF NRL Routing Throughput Load TABLE VIII. ENERGY PRESERVATION ANALYSIS PARAMETERS OF RAODV No. Of Sent Received Remaining Consumed Energy Packets Packets Energy TABLE IX. ENERGY PRESERVATION ANALYSIS PARAMETERS OF RAODV No. Of PDF NRL Routing Load Throughput ISSN : Vol. 3 No. 10 Oct

6 3.2 Performance Analysis and Results The following graphical analysis shows the performance results of ERAODV, RAODV AODV and DSDV protocols. Fig. 1. Number of nodes Vs. Sent Packets In Fig.1, ERAODV protocol can send more number of packets compared to RAODV, AODV, and DSDV protocol. ERAODV protocol will increase the network lifetime, but in-between the performance goes down because more number of packets is dropped due to link failure. Fig. 2. Number of nodes Vs. Consumed Energy In Fig.2, when comparing to DSDV protocol, ERAODV, RAODV, and ADOV consumes less energy for data transmission. DSDV needs more amount of energy for data transmission. ISSN : Vol. 3 No. 10 Oct

7 Fig. 3. Number of nodes Vs. Remaining Energy In Fig.3, when compared to ERAODV, RAODV, AODV protocol DSDV consumes more amount of energy needed for data transmission so the remaining energy will be high in DSDV. Fig. 4. Number of nodes Vs. PDF In Fig.4, ERAODV, RAODV, AODV produces more PDF when comparing to DSDV, RAODV and AODV protocol because ERAODV can send and receive more number of packets. Fig. 5. Number of nodes Vs. NRL In Fig.5, shows that DSDV is producing more amount of traffic when comparing to RAODV, AODV and ERAODV so the Normalized Routing Load will be high in DSDV protocol. ISSN : Vol. 3 No. 10 Oct

8 Fig. 6. Number of nodes Vs. Routing Load In Fig.6, DSDV producing more number of routing packets when the number of nodes increases, compared to DSDV protocol, ERAODV and RAODV, AODV is not producing that number of routing overhead. Fig. 7. Number of nodes Vs. Throughput In Fig.7, ERAODV, RAODV and AODV is providing high throughput when compared to DSDV protocol. The average rate of successful message delivery is high for ERAODV protocol. Fig. 8. Number of nodes Vs. Received Packets In Fig.8, ERAODV, RAODV and AODV protocol can send more number of packets compared to DSDV protocol. ERAODV protocol will increase the network lifetime, but in-between the performance goes down because more number of packets is dropped due to link failure. ISSN : Vol. 3 No. 10 Oct

9 CONCLUSION The various energy-aware parameters are analyzed in NS for ERAODV, RAODV AODV and DSDV protocol by increasing the density of nodes. It is concluded that, ERAODV performs well in Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF) but in some situations due to link breakage the PDF is low. ERAODV can send more number of packets compared to AODV, RAODV and DSDV by increasing the number of nodes. Based on energy consumption DSDV performs low in state compared with AODV, RAODV and ERAODV, Since ERAODV requires less energy for transmission of packets. As the remaining energy of nodes are calculated in ERAODV. It is advantages not to use the nodes with minimum remaining energy in order to avoid stale nodes in the network. REFERENCES [1] Sunil Taneja, Ashwani Kush, A Survey of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 3, August 2010, ISSN: [2] C-K Toh, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks protocols and systems, ISBN: [3] A.H.Abd Rahman, Z.A.Zukarnain, Performance in Comparison of AODV, DSDV and I-DSDV Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, European Journal of Scientific Research Vol.31, No. 4, pp (June 2009). [4] V. Kanakaris, D. Ndzi and D. Azzi, Ad-hoc Networks Energy Consumption: A review of the Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 3 (1) (2010), pp [5] C.Perkins and E.Royer, Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing, Internet Draft, MANET working group, draft-leftmanetaodv-05.txt, March [6] Charles E.Perkins, Ad Hoc Networking, ISBN: [7] Ns-2 network simulator, [8] C. E. Perkins and E. M. Royer, Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing, in Proc.WMCSA, New Orleans, LA, Feb. 1999, pp [9] I. Stojmenovic, M. Seddigh, J. Zunic, Dominating sets and neighbor elimination-based broadcasting algorithms in wireless networks, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2002, pp [10] C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, and S. Das, Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (aodv) routing, in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) draft, July ISSN : Vol. 3 No. 10 Oct

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