Lecture 6 The Data Link Layer. Antonio Cianfrani DIET Department Networking Group netlab.uniroma1.it

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1 Lecture 6 The Data Link Layer Antonio Cianfrani DIET Department Networking Group netlab.uniroma1.it

2 Link Layer: setting the context two physically connected devices: host-router, router-router, host-host, host-switch unit of data: frame

3 Link Layer Functions Framing, link access: encapsulate datagram into frame, adding header, trailer physical addresses used in frame headers to identify source and destination Medium access control: implement channel access if shared medium Reliable delivery between two physically connected devices: errors caused by signal attenuation, noise Error Detection / Error Correction

4 Link Layer Implementation implemented in adapter e.g., PCMCIA card, Ethernet card typically includes: RAM, DSP chips, host bus interface, and link interface Hl Ht HnHt HnHt M M M M application transport network link physical data link protocol phys. link network link physical Hl HnHt frame M adapter card

5 Error Detection EDC = Error Detection and Correction bits (redundancy) D = Data protected by error checking, may include header fields Error detection not 100% reliable! protocol may miss some errors, but rarely larger EDC field yields better detection and correction

6 Parity Checking Single Bit Parity: Detect single bit errors Two Dimensional Bit Parity: Detect and correct single bit errors 0 0

7 Checksumming: Cyclic Redundancy Check view data bits, D, as a binary number choose r+1 bit pattern (generator), G goal: choose r CRC bits, R, such that <D,R> exactly divisible by G (modulo 2) receiver knows G, divides <D,R> by G. If non-zero remainder: error detected! can detect all burst errors less than r+1 bits widely used in practice (ATM, HDCL) R = remainder[ ] D. 2r G

8 Multiple Access Links and Protocols Three types of links : point-to-point (single wire, e.g. PPP, SLIP) broadcast (shared wire or medium; e.g, Ethernet, Wifi, etc.) switched (e.g., switched Ethernet, ATM etc)

9 Random access single shared communication channel two or more simultaneous transmissions by nodes interference only one node can send successfully at a time multiple access protocol (Medium Access Control MAC): distributed algorithm that determines how stations share channel, i.e., determine when station can transmit communication about channel sharing must use channel itself! can be synchronous or asynchronous

10 MAC Protocols: a taxonomy Three broad classes: Channel Partitioning divide channel into smaller pieces (time slots, frequency) allocate piece to node for exclusive use Random Access Try to transmit when packets to send Collisions and re-transmissions Taking turns tightly coordinate shared access to avoid collisions Goal: efficient, fair, simple, decentralized

11 Random Access protocols When node has packet to send transmit at full channel data rate R. no a priori coordination among nodes two or more trasnmitting nodes -> collision, random access MAC protocol specifies: how to detect collisions how to recover from collisions (e.g., via delayed retransmissions) Examples of random access MAC protocols: slotted ALOHA ALOHA CSMA and CSMA/CD

12 Slotted Aloha Time is divided into equal size slots (= pkt trans. time) Packets of fixed length Node with new arriving pkt: transmit at beginning of next slot If collision: retransmit pkt in future slots with probability p, until successful. Success (S), Collision (C), Empty (E) slots

13 Slotted Aloha efficiency What is max fraction slots successful? Suppose N stations have packets to send each transmits in slot with probability p prob. successful transmission S is: by single node: S= p (1-p) (N-1) by any of N nodes: S = N p (1-p) (N-1) choosing optimum p as n -> infinity... = 1/e =.37 as N -> infinity At best: channel use for useful transmissions 37% of time!

14 Pure (unslotted) ALOHA unslotted Aloha: simpler, no synchronization pkt needs transmission: send without awaiting for beginning of slot collision probability increases: pkt sent at t 0 collide with other pkts sent in [t 0-1, t 0 +1] S = 1/2e =.18 as N -> infinity

15 CSMA: Carrier Sense Multiple Access The functioning principle is to listen before transmit: if channel is idle: transmit entire pkt if channel is busy, defer transmission Persistent CSMA: retry immediately with probability p when channel becomes idle (may cause instability) Non-persistent CSMA: retry after random interval human analogy: don t interrupt others!

16 collisions can occur: propagation delay means two nodes may not year hear each other s transmission Collisions depend on the physical distance among nodes (the propagation delay) CSMA collisions spatial layout of nodes along ethernet

17 CSMA/CD (Collision Detection) CSMA/CD: carrier sensing, deferral as in CSMA collisions detected within short time (sensing when transmitting) colliding transmissions aborted, reducing channel wastage collision detection: easy in wired LANs: measure signal strengths, compare transmitted, received signals difficult in wireless LANs: receiver shut off while transmitting human analogy: the polite conversationalist

18 CSMA/CD collision detection

19 Physical Addresses Physical (or LAN or MAC) address: 48 bit string Hexadecimal representation (Example: 1A:23:5B:F8:00:69:C9) Unique (burned in the adapter ROM) MAC address allocation administered by IEEE Manufacturer buys portion of MAC address space (to assure uniqueness)

20 Physical Addresses Each adapter on LAN has unique LAN address

21 MAC Address vs IP address Analogy: - MAC address: like Social Security Number - IP address: like postal address MAC flat address => portability can move LAN card from one LAN to another IP hierarchical address NOT portable depends on network to which one attaches

22 Layer 3 and Layer 2 addresses Starting at A, given IP datagram addressed to B: look up net. address of B, find B on same net. as A link layer send datagram to B inside link-layer frame frame source, dest address A B datagram source, dest address E B s MAC addr A s MAC addr A s IP addr B s IP addr IP payload frame datagram

23 ARP: Address Resolution Protocol Question: how to determine MAC address of B given B s IP address? Each IP node (Host, Router) on LAN has ARP module, table ARP Table: IP/MAC address mappings for some LAN nodes < IP address; MAC address; TTL> TTL (Time To Live): time after which address mapping will be forgotten (typically 20 min)

24 ARP protocol A knows B's IP address, wants to learn physical address of B A broadcast (FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF) ARP query pkt, containing B's IP address all machines on LAN receive ARP query B receives ARP packet, replies to A with its (B's) physical layer address A caches (saves) IP-to-physical address pairs until information becomes old (times out) soft state: information that times out (goes away) unless refreshed

25 Routing to another LAN Path from A (IP: ) to B (IP: ) A R B

26 Routing to another LAN 1) A creates IP packet with source A, destination B 2) After looking at its routing table, A uses ARP to get R s physical layer address for ) A creates Ethernet frame with R's physical address as dest, Ethernet frame contains A-to-B IP datagram 4) A s data link layer sends Ethernet frame 5) R s data link layer receives Ethernet frame 6) R removes IP datagram from Ethernet frame, sees its destined to B 7) After looking at its routing table, R uses ARP to get B s physical layer address 8) R creates frame containing A-to-B IP datagram sends to B

27 Ethernet dominant LAN technology: Simpler, cheaper (cheap $20 for 100Mbs!) than other technologies Kept up with speed race: 10, 100, 1000 Mbps Metcalfe s Ethernet sketch

28 Ethernet Frame Structure Sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other network layer protocol packet) in Ethernet frame Preamble: 7 bytes with pattern followed by one byte with pattern used to synchronize receiver, sender clock rates

29 Ethernet Frame Structure Addresses: 6 bytes, frame is received by all adapters on a LAN and dropped if address does not match Type: indicates the higher layer protocol, mostly IP but others may be supported CRC: checked at receiver, if error is detected, the frame is simply dropped

30 Ethernet uses CSMA/CD A: sense channel, if idle then { transmit and monitor the channel; If detect another transmission then { abort and send jam signal; update # collisions; delay as required by exponential backoff algorithm; goto A } else {done with the frame; set collisions to zero} } else {wait until ongoing transmission is over and goto A}

31 Ethernet s CSMA/CD Jam Signal: make sure all other transmitters are aware of collision; Exponential Backoff: To adapt retransmission attempts to estimated current load heavy load: random wait will be longer first collision: choose K from {0,1}; delay is K x 512 bit transmission times after second collision: choose K from {0,1,2,3} after ten or more collisions, choose K from {0,1,2,3,4,,1023}

32 Ethernet efficiency Considering an high number of nodes with many frames to send, : E d prop /d trasm E = time percentage of successful transmissions d prop = maximum propagation delay d trasm = transmission time for the MTU frame

33 Ethernet limitation The proper functioning of Ethernet is guaranteed if a node is able to detect a collision. A collision has to be detected while transmitting a frame Condition: d trasm 2 d prop Given the network topology (the maximum distance among two hosts), it is possible to compute the minimum length of a frame Given the minimum length of a frame, it is possible to compute the maximum distance among two hosts or

34 (old) Ethernet devices Hub Physical Layer device Repeater operating at bit levels: repeat received bits on one interface to all other interfaces Each connected LAN referred to as LAN segment Hubs do not isolate collision domains: node may collide with any node residing at any segment in LAN Bridge Link Layer device Operating on Ethernet frames, examining frame header and selectively forwarding frame based on its destination (MAC Forwarding table) Bridge isolates collision domains since it buffers frames When frame is to be forwarded, bridge uses CSMA/CD to transmit

35 Ethernet Switches Similar to bridge: MAC forwarding table Full duplex links: no collisions Typical topology: individual hosts, star-connected into switch Plug-and-play: no need to be configured

36 The MAC forwarding table A row (entry) for each ARP address of the LAN: <Node LAN Address, Switch Interface, Time Stamp> If no entry for a destination: acts as a hub! A switch learns which hosts can be reached through which interfaces (MAC Learning): when frame received, bridge learns location of sender: incoming interface records incoming interface in the MAC forwarding table MAC Address AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA Interface eth0 frame eth2 PC0 AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA eth0 eth1 PC3 CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC PC2 BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB

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