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1 Chapter 4 Network Layer Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach 6 th edition Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley March 2012 Slides adopted from original ones provided by the textbook authors. Network Layer 4-1

2 Chapter 4: outline 4.1 introduction 4.2 virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 what s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 routing algorithms link state distance vector hierarchical routing 4.6 routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 broadcast and multicast routing Network Layer 4-2

3 Dijsktra s Algorithm 1 Initialization: 2 N' = {u} 3 for all nodes v 4 if v adjacent to u 5 then D(v) = c(u,v) 6 else D(v) = 7 8 Loop 9 find w not in N' such that D(w) is a minimum 10 add w to N' 11 update D(v) for all v adjacent to w and not in N' : 12 D(v) = min( D(v), D(w) + c(w,v) ) 13 /* new cost to v is either old cost to v or known 14 shortest path cost to w plus cost from w to v */ 15 until all nodes in N' Network Layer 4-3

4 Distance vector algorithm Bellman-Ford equation d x (y) = min {c(x,v) + d v (y) } iterative, asynchronous: each local iteration caused by: local link cost change DV update message from neighbor distributed: v each node notifies neighbors only when its DV changes neighbors then notify their neighbors if necessary each node: wait for (change in local link cost or msg from neighbor) recompute estimates if DV to any dest has changed, notify neighbors Network Layer 4-4

5 Hierarchical Routing aggregate routers into regions: autonomous systems (AS) intra-as routing routers in same AS run same routing protocol routers in different AS can run different intra-as routing protocol inter-as routing Gateway router connecting another AS Network Layer 4-5

6 Chapter 4: outline 4.1 introduction 4.2 virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 what s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 routing algorithms link state distance vector hierarchical routing 4.6 routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 broadcast and multicast routing Network Layer 4-6

7 RIP ( Routing Information Protocol) distance vector algorithm, based on # of hops distance vectors: exchanged among neighbors every 30 sec poison reverse used to prevent count-to-infinity application-level process implemented on UDP Network Layer 4-7

8 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) open protocol, based on Link State algorithm advertisements disseminated to entire AS (via flooding) password based authentication ECMP: equal-cost multiple paths hierarchical OSPF in large domains Network Layer 4-8

9 BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) two types of BGP (TCP) sessions ebgp: between neighboring ASs ibgp: inside same AS router may learn about more than 1 route to destination AS, selects route based on: 1. local preference value attribute: policy decision 2. shortest AS-PATH 3. closest NEXT-HOP router: hot potato routing 4. additional criteria Network Layer 4-9

10 Chapter 4: outline 4.1 introduction 4.2 virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 what s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 routing algorithms link state distance vector hierarchical routing 4.6 routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 broadcast and multicast routing Network Layer 4-10

11 Approaches for building mcast trees approaches: source-based tree: one tree per source shortest path trees reverse path forwarding group-shared tree: group uses one tree minimal spanning (Steiner) center-based trees Network Layer 4-11

12 Shortest path tree mcast forwarding tree: tree of shortest path routes from source to all receivers Dijkstra s algorithm s: source LEGEND R1 1 2 R4 router with attached group member R3 R2 3 4 R6 6 R7 5 R5 i router with no attached group member link used for forwarding, i indicates order link added by algorithm Network Layer 4-12

13 Reverse path forwarding s: source R3 R2 R1 R6 R4 R7 R5 LEGEND router with attached group member router with no attached group member datagram will be forwarded datagram will not be forwarded if (mcast datagram received on incoming link on shortest path back to center) then flood datagram onto all outgoing links else ignore datagram Network Layer 4-13

14 Reverse path forwarding: pruning forwarding tree contains subtrees with no mcast group members no need to forward datagrams down subtree prune msgs sent upstream by router with no downstream group members s: source R3 R2 R1 R6 P R4 P R5 R7 LEGEND P router with attached group member router with no attached group member prune message links with multicast forwarding Network Layer 4-14

15 Center-based trees single delivery tree shared by all one router identified as center of tree to join: edge router sends unicast join-msg addressed to center router join-msg processed by intermediate routers and forwarded towards center join-msg either hits existing tree branch for this center, or arrives at center path taken by join-msg becomes new branch of tree for this router Network Layer 4-15

16 Chapter 5 Link Layer Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach 6 th edition Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley March 2012 Slides adopted from original ones provided by the textbook authors. Link Layer 5-16

17 Chapter 5: Link layer our goals: understand principles behind link layer services: error detection, correction sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access link layer addressing local area networks: Ethernet, VLANs instantiation, implementation of various link layer technologies Link Layer 5-17

18 Link layer, LANs: outline 5.1 introduction, services 5.2 error detection, correction 5.3 multiple access protocols 5.4 LANs addressing, ARP Ethernet switches VLANS 5.5 link virtualization: MPLS 5.6 data center networking 5.7 a day in the life of a web request Link Layer 5-18

19 Link layer: introduction terminology: hosts and routers: nodes communication channels that connect adjacent nodes along communication path: links wired links wireless links LANs layer-2 packet: frame, encapsulates datagram global ISP data-link layer has responsibility of transferring datagram from one node to physically adjacent node over a link Link Layer 5-19

22 Link layer services (more) flow control: pacing between adjacent sending and receiving nodes error detection: errors caused by signal attenuation, noise. receiver detects presence of errors: signals sender for retransmission or drops frame error correction: receiver identifies and corrects bit error(s) without resorting to retransmission half-duplex and full-duplex with half duplex, nodes at both ends of link can transmit, but not at same time Link Layer 5-22

23 Where is the link layer implemented? in each host link layer implemented in adaptor (aka network interface card NIC) or on a chip Ethernet card, card; Ethernet chipset implements link, physical layer attaches into host s system buses combination of hardware, software, firmware application transport network link link physical cpu controller physical transmission memory host bus (e.g., PCI) network adapter card Link Layer 5-23

24 Adaptors communicating datagram datagram controller controller sending host frame datagram receiving host sending side: encapsulates datagram in frame adds error checking bits, rdt, flow control, etc. receiving side looks for errors, rdt, flow control, etc extracts datagram, passes to upper layer at receiving side Link Layer 5-24

25 Link layer, LANs: outline 5.1 introduction, services 5.2 error detection, correction 5.3 multiple access protocols 5.4 LANs addressing, ARP Ethernet switches VLANS 5.5 link virtualization: MPLS 5.6 data center networking 5.7 a day in the life of a web request Link Layer 5-25

26 Error detection EDC= Error Detection and Correction bits (redundancy) D = Data protected by error checking, may include header fields Error detection not 100% reliable! protocol may miss some errors, but rarely larger EDC field yields better detection and correction otherwise Link Layer 5-26

27 Parity checking single bit parity: detect single bit errors two-dimensional bit parity: detect and correct single bit errors Even parity: parity bit chosen for even # of 1s Odd parity: parity bit chose for odd # of 1s 0 0 Link Layer 5-27

28 Example Suppose a packet has the bit pattern , and an even parity scheme is used. a. What would the parity bits for a twodimensional parity scheme? Your answer should be such that a min-length filed is used. b. Show a double-bit error that can be detected but not corrected. Link Layer 5-28

29 Internet checksum (review) goal: detect errors (e.g., flipped bits) in transmitted packet (note: used at transport layer only) sender: treat segment contents as sequence of 16-bit integers checksum: addition (1 s complement sum) of segment contents sender puts checksum value into UDP checksum field receiver: compute checksum of received segment check if computed checksum equals checksum field value: NO - error detected YES - no error detected. But maybe errors nonetheless? Link Layer 5-29

30 Cyclic redundancy check more powerful error-detection coding view data bits, D, as a binary number choose r+1 bit pattern (generator), G goal: choose r CRC bits, R, such that <D,R> exactly divisible by G (modulo 2) receiver knows G, divides <D,R> by G. If non-zero remainder: error detected! can detect all burst errors less than r+1 bits widely used in practice (Ethernet, WiFi, ATM) Link Layer 5-30

31 CRC example want: D. 2 r XOR R = ng equivalently: D. 2 r = ng XOR R equivalently: if we divide D. 2 r by G, want remainder R to satisfy: R = remainder[ ] D. 2 r G Link Layer 5-31

32 Example Consider the 5-bit generator, G=10011, and suppose that D has the value What is the value of R? Link Layer 5-32

33 Link layer, LANs: outline 5.1 introduction, services 5.2 error detection, correction 5.3 multiple access protocols 5.4 LANs addressing, ARP Ethernet switches VLANS 5.5 link virtualization: MPLS 5.6 data center networking 5.7 a day in the life of a web request Link Layer 5-33

34 Multiple access links, protocols two types of links : point-to-point PPP for dial-up access point-to-point link between Ethernet switch, host broadcast (shared wire or medium) old-fashioned Ethernet upstream HFC wireless LAN shared wire (e.g., cabled Ethernet) shared RF (e.g., WiFi) shared RF (satellite) humans at a cocktail party (shared air, acoustical) Link Layer 5-34

35 Multiple access protocols single shared broadcast channel two or more simultaneous transmissions by nodes: interference collision if node receives two or more signals at the same time multiple access protocol distributed algorithm that determines how nodes share channel, i.e., determine when node can transmit communication about channel sharing must use channel itself! no out-of-band channel for coordination Link Layer 5-35

36 An ideal multiple access protocol given: broadcast channel of rate R bps desiderata: 1. when one node wants to transmit, it can send at rate R. 2. when M nodes want to transmit, each can send at average rate R/M 3. fully decentralized: no special node to coordinate transmissions no synchronization of clocks, slots 4. simple Link Layer 5-36

37 MAC protocols: taxonomy three broad classes: channel partitioning divide channel into smaller pieces (time slots, frequency, code) allocate piece to node for exclusive use random access channel not divided, allow collisions recover from collisions taking turns nodes take turns, but nodes with more to send can take longer turns Link Layer 5-37

38 Channel partitioning MAC protocols: TDMA TDMA: time division multiple access access to channel in "rounds" each station gets fixed length slot (length = pkt trans time) in each round unused slots go idle example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt, slots 2,5,6 idle 6-slot frame 6-slot frame Link Layer 5-38

39 frequency bands Channel partitioning MAC protocols: FDMA FDMA: frequency division multiple access channel spectrum divided into frequency bands each station assigned fixed frequency band unused transmission time in frequency bands go idle example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt, frequency bands 2,5,6 idle FDM cable Link Layer 5-39

40 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) unique code assigned to each user; i.e., code set partitioning all users share same frequency, but each user has own chipping sequence (i.e., code) to encode data allows multiple users to coexist and transmit simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are orthogonal ) encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence) decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping sequence Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-40

41 Random access protocols when node has packet to send transmit at full channel data rate R. no a priori coordination among nodes two or more transmitting nodes collision, random access MAC protocol specifies: how to detect collisions how to recover from collisions (e.g., via delayed retransmissions) examples of random access MAC protocols: slotted ALOHA ALOHA CSMA, CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA Link Layer 5-41

42 Slotted ALOHA assumptions: all frames same size time divided into equal size slots (time to transmit 1 frame) nodes start to transmit only slot beginning nodes are synchronized if 2 or more nodes transmit in slot, all nodes detect collision operation: when node obtains fresh frame, transmits in next slot if no collision: node can send new frame in next slot if collision: node retransmits frame in each subsequent slot with prob. p until success Link Layer 5-42

43 Slotted ALOHA node node node Pros: C E C S E C E S S single active node can continuously transmit at full rate of channel highly decentralized: only slots in nodes need to be in sync simple Cons: collisions, wasting slots idle slots nodes may be able to detect collision in less than time to transmit packet clock synchronization Link Layer 5-43

44 Slotted ALOHA: efficiency efficiency: long-run fraction of successful slots (many nodes, all with many frames to send) suppose: N nodes with many frames to send, each transmits in slot with probability p prob that given node has success in a slot = p(1- p) N-1 prob that any node has a success = Np(1-p) N-1 max efficiency: find p* that maximizes Np(1-p) N-1 for many nodes, take limit of Np*(1-p*) N-1 as N goes to infinity, gives: max efficiency = 1/e =.37 at best: channel used for useful transmissions 37% of time!! Link Layer 5-44

45 Pure (unslotted) ALOHA unslotted Aloha: simpler, no synchronization when frame first arrives transmit immediately collision probability increases: frame sent at t 0 collides with other frames sent in [t 0-1,t 0 +1] Link Layer 5-45

46 Pure ALOHA efficiency P(success by given node) = P(node transmits). P(no other node transmits in [t 0-1,t 0 ]. P(no other node transmits in [t 0-1,t 0 ] = p. (1-p) N-1. (1-p) N-1 = p. (1-p) 2(N-1) choosing optimum p and then letting n = 1/(2e) =.18 even worse than slotted Aloha! Link Layer 5-46

47 CSMA (carrier sense multiple access) CSMA: listen before transmit: if channel sensed idle: transmit entire frame if channel sensed busy, defer transmission human analogy: don t interrupt others! Link Layer 5-47

48 CSMA collisions spatial layout of nodes collisions can still occur: propagation delay means two nodes may not hear each other s transmission collision: entire packet transmission time wasted distance & propagation delay play role in in determining collision probability Link Layer 5-48

49 CSMA/CD (collision detection) CSMA/CD: carrier sensing, deferral as in CSMA collisions detected within short time colliding transmissions aborted, reducing channel wastage collision detection: easy in wired LANs: measure signal strengths, compare transmitted, received signals difficult in wireless LANs: received signal strength overwhelmed by local transmission strength human analogy: the polite conversationalist Link Layer 5-49

50 CSMA/CD (collision detection) spatial layout of nodes Link Layer 5-50

51 CSMA/CD efficiency T prop = max prop delay between 2 nodes in LAN t trans = time to transmit max-size frame 1 efficiency 1 5 t prop /t trans efficiency goes to 1 as t prop goes to 0 as t trans goes to infinity better performance than ALOHA: and simple, cheap, decentralized! Link Layer 5-51

52 Taking turns MAC protocols channel partitioning MAC protocols: share channel efficiently and fairly at high load inefficient at low load: delay in channel access, 1/N bandwidth allocated even if only 1 active node! random access MAC protocols efficient at low load: single node can fully utilize channel high load: collision overhead taking turns protocols look for best of both worlds! Link Layer 5-52

53 Taking turns MAC protocols polling: master node invites slave nodes to transmit in turn typically used with dumb slave devices concerns: polling overhead latency single point of failure (master) data slaves data poll master Link Layer 5-53

54 Taking turns MAC protocols token passing: control token passed from one node to next sequentially. token message concerns: token overhead latency single point of failure (token) (nothing to send) T T data Link Layer 5-54

55 Cable access network Internet frames,tv channels, control transmitted downstream at different frequencies cable headend CMTS cable modem termination system splitter cable modem ISP upstream Internet frames, TV control, transmitted upstream at different frequencies in time slots multiple 40Mbps downstream (broadcast) channels single CMTS transmits into channels multiple 30 Mbps upstream channels multiple access: all users contend for certain upstream channel time slots (others assigned)

56 Cable access network cable headend CMTS MAP frame for Interval [t1, t2] Downstream channel i Upstream channel j t 1 t 2 Residences with cable modems DOCSIS: data over cable service interface spec Minislots containing minislots request frames Assigned minislots containing cable modem upstream data frames FDM over upstream, downstream frequency channels TDM upstream: some slots assigned, some have contention downstream MAP frame: assigns upstream slots request for upstream slots (and data) transmitted random access (binary backoff) in selected slots Link Layer 5-56

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