2 Provide you with a quick introduction to web application security Increase you awareness and knowledge of security in general Show you that any tester can (and should) do security testing and not just leave it to the pen testers
3 The traditional security areas of concern are: Confidentiality Integrity Availability Accountability. Security is dependent on context different organisations have different needs.
4 Physical doors, walls, locks etc. Network OS, network, firewalls etc. Application software at the application layer Perceived vs. Actual security Security theater FUD Fear Uncertainty & Doubt Absolutism nothing is totally secure
5 Attackers can potentially use many different paths through your application to do harm to your business or organization. Each of these paths represents a risk that may, or may not, be serious enough to warrant attention.
6 The term Threat Agent is used to indicate an individual or group that can manifest a threat. It is fundamental to identify who would want to exploit the assets of a company, and how they might use them against the company. Attack Vector Control Technical Business Threat Agents
7 Attacks are the techniques that attackers use to exploit the vulnerabilities in applications. Attack Vector Control Technical Business Threat Agents
8 A vulnerability is a hole or a weakness in the application, which can be a design flaw or an implementation bug, that allows an attacker to cause harm to the stakeholders of an application. The term "vulnerability" is often used very loosely. Attack Vector Control Technical Business Threat Agents
9 Controls are defensive technologies or modules that are used to detect, deter, or deny attacks. A weakness or design flaw of a control, or the lack of a necessary controls results in a vulnerability that can make the application susceptible to attacks. Attack Vector Control Technical Business Threat Agents
10 A technical impact is the system damage that results from a successful security breach. This is just the effect on the technology, not the business. Attack Vector Control Technical Business Threat Agents
11 A business impact is the impact to a business that results from a successful attack. Generally this is in terms of money, lives, reputation, customers, or speed. The business risk is what justifies investment in fixing security problems. Attack Vector Control Technical Business Threat Agents
12 Attack Vector Control Business Attack Vector Control Technical Business Threat Agents Attack Vector Control Technical Business Control A threat agent detects a weakness in the application and its controls. The agent launches an attack that causes both technical and business impacts.
13 OWASP provide a list of the top ten risks. The names of the risks in the Top 10 stem from the type of attack, the type of weakness, or the type of impact they cause. OWASP chose the name that is best known and will achieve the highest level of awareness. The primary aim of the OWASP Top 10 is to educate.
14 The basic standard risk model is Risk = Likelihood * Impact The OWASP approach used in this document is based on standard methodologies and is customized for application security.
15 Injection flaws, such as SQL, OS, and LDAP injection, occur when un- trusted data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attacker s hostile data can trick the interpreter into executing unintended commands or accessing unauthorized data. Threat Agents Attack Vector Technical Business Exploitability EASY Prevalence COMMON detectability AVERAGE Impact SEVERE
16 LeaveMsg.asp conﬁrmmsg.asp .asp Allows user to enter a message for the bank Only one message per user at a time Saves message into queue (form s target) Conﬁrms message saved Generates HTML for to user
18 Application functions related to authentication and session management are often not implemented correctly, allowing attackers to compromise passwords, keys, session tokens, or exploit other implementation flaws to assume other users identities. Threat Agents Attack Vector Technical Business Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence COMMON detectability AVERAGE Impact SEVERE
20 XSS flaws occur whenever an application takes un- trusted data and sends it to a web browser without proper validation and escaping. XSS allows attackers to execute scripts in the victim s browser which can hijack user sessions, deface web sites, or redirect the user to malicious sites. Threat Agents Attack Vector Technical Business Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence VERY WIDESPREAD detectability EASY Impact MODERATE
21 LeaveMsgPost.asp conﬁrmmsg.asp Allows user to enter a message for the bank Only one message per user at a time Form uses Post Method Saves message into queue (form s target) Conﬁrms message saved XSS Me Cross Site Scripting checker
23 A direct object reference occurs when a developer exposes a reference to an internal implementation object, such as a file, directory, or database key. Without an access control check or other protection, attackers can manipulate these references to access unauthorized data. Threat Agents Attack Vector Technical Business Exploitability EASY Prevalence COMMON detectability EASY Impact MODERATE
24 Example Ecan bus website press/news/transport/ /ECan- public- transport- card- hacked Demo of how you might have hacked the site using the command line and Excel My card number is and I can see my balance at
25 Good security requires having a secure configuration defined and deployed for the application, frameworks, application server, web server, database server, and platform. All these settings should be defined, implemented, and maintained as many are not shipped with secure defaults. Threat Agents Attack Vector Technical Business Exploitability EASY Prevalence COMMON detectability EASY Impact MODERATE
27 Many web applications do not properly protect sensitive data, such as credit cards, SSNs, and authentication credentials, with appropriate encryption or hashing. Attackers may steal or modify such weakly protected data to conduct identity theft, credit card fraud, or other crimes. Threat Agents Attack Vector Technical Business Exploitability DIFFCULT Prevalence UNCOMMON detectability AVERAGE Impact SEVERE
29 Not all users should have access to all functions. Sometimes, function level protection is managed via configuration, and the system is misconfigured or sometimes, developers forget to include the proper checks. Threat Agents Attack Vector Technical Business Exploitability EASY Prevalence UNCOMMON detectability AVERAGE Impact MODERATE
30 A CSRF attack forces a logged- on victim s browser to send a forged HTTP request, including the victim s session cookie and any other automatically included authentication information, to a vulnerable web application. This forces the victim s browser to generate requests application thinks are legitimate. Threat Agents Attack Vector Technical Business Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence WIDESPREAD detectability EASY Impact MODERATE
32 Login.asp User logs in and is given session cookie User opens another page in new browser tab img tab sends request on behalf of user to one of routers CGI pages Router system processes message as if it was a user request.
33 Virtually every application has these issues because most development teams don t focus on ensuring their components/libraries are up to date. In many cases, the developers don t even know all the components they are using, never mind their versions. Component dependencies make things even worse. Threat Agents Attack Vector Technical Business Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence WIDESPREAD detectability DIFFICULT Impact MODERATE
35 Web applications frequently redirect and forward users to other pages and websites, and use un- trusted data to determine the destination pages. Without proper validation, attackers can redirect victims to phishing or malware sites, or use forwards to access unauthorized pages. Threat Agents Attack Vector Technical Business Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence UNCOMMON detectability EASY Impact MODERATE
36 Home.asp Link to site in User is not logined in User is not logined in redirect redirect tto o llogin.asp ogin.asp Login.asp Login.asp User logs in and is User logs in and is given given ssession ession ccookie ookie Home.asp This time logged in Surprise!
37 The OWASP Top 10 is a place to start. It does not define all the possible threats. The Top 10 s roll is to educate and provide an introduction a number of critical threats. Testing for weaknesses does not provide as much assurance as having a secure development lifecycle. Build security in don t bolt it on.
38 Firebug HttpFox US/ﬁrefox/addon/httpfox Tamper Data US/ﬁrefox/addon/tamper- data XSS Me US/ﬁrefox/addon/xss- me HackBar US/ﬁrefox/addon/hackbar
39 Login.asp Access for authorised users admin admin or user password Home.asp Home of piggy bank s Intranet LeaveMsg.asp Leave a message (GET) LeaveMsgPost.asp - Leave a message (POST) ConfirmMsg.asp confirms message .asp generates HTML for DisplayMsg.asp Banks view of waiting messages Base URL
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