Optimization of Complex Systems with OptQuest


 Arthur Daniels
 11 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Optimization of Complex Systems with OptQuest MANUEL LAGUNA Graduate School of Business Administration University of Colorado, Boulder, CO Latest revision: April 8, ABSTRACT Optimization of complex systems has been for many years limited to problems that could be formulated as mathematical programming models of linear, nonlinear and integer types. Problemspecific heuristics that do not require a mathematical formulation of the problem have been also used for optimizing complex systems, however, they generally must be developed in a casebycase basis. Recent research in the area of metaheuristics has placed the ambitious goal of building a generalpurpose optimizer within reach. Specifically, populationbased metaheuristics have made possible the development of generalpurpose optimizers for which the solution process is context independent. Two of the best known populationbased metaheuristics are genetic algorithms and scatter search. In this paper we described the implementation and functionality of OptQuest, a generalpurpose optimizer that was developed using the scatter search methodology. We illustrate the system s features with applications in stochastic, nonlinear and combinatorial optimization.
2 2 Optimization with OptQuest 1. Introduction The bestknown optimization tool is without a doubt linear programming. Linear programming is considered a generalpurpose tool because the only requirement is to represent the optimization model as a linear objective function subject to a set of linear constraints. The stateoftheart linear programming solvers are quite powerful and can successfully solve models with thousands and even millions of variables employing reasonable amounts of computer effort. Evidently, however, not all business and industrial problems can be expressed by means of a linear objective and linear equalities or inequalities. Many complex systems may not even have a convenient mathematical representation, linear or nonlinear. Techniques such as linear programming and its cousins (nonlinear programming and integer programming) generally require a number of simplifying assumptions about the real system to be able to properly frame the problem. Linear programming solvers are design to exploit the structure of a well defined and carefully studied problem. The disadvantage to the user is that in order to formulate the problem as linear program, simplifying assumptions and abstractions may be necessary. This leads to the popular dilemma of whether to find the optimal solution of models that do not necessarily represent the real system or to create a model that is a good abstraction of the real system but for which only very inferior solutions can be obtained. When dealing with the optimization of complex systems, a course of action taking for many years has been to develop specialized heuristic procedures which, in general, do not require a mathematical formulation of the problem. These procedures were appealing from the standpoint of simplicity, but generally lacked the power to provide high quality solutions to complex problems. Metaheuristics provided a way of considerably improving the performance of simple heuristic procedures. The search strategies proposed by metaheuristic methodologies result in iterativeprocedures with the ability to escape local optimal points. Genetic algorithms (GAs) and scatter search, for example, are metaheuristics designed to operate on a set of solutions that is maintained from iteration to iteration. On the other hand, metaheuristics such as simulated annealing and tabu search typically maintain only one solution by applying mechanisms to change this solution from one iteration to the next. Metaheuristics have been developed to solve complex optimization problems in many areas, with combinatorial optimization being one of the most fruitful. Generally, the most efficient procedures achieve their efficiencies by relying on context information. The solution method can be viewed as the result of adapting metaheuristic strategies to specific optimization problems. In these cases, there is no separation between the solution procedure and the model that represents the complex system. Metaheuristics can also be used to create solution procedures that are context independent. The original genetic algorithmic designs were based on this model. The advantage of this design is that the same solver can be used to solve a wide variety of problems. The disadvantage, of course, is that the solutions found by a contextindependent solvers might be inferior to those of specialized procedures given the same amount of computer effort (e.g., total search time). We will refer to solvers that do not use context information as generalpurpose optimizers. One of the main design considerations when developing a generalpurpose optimizer is the solution representation to be employed. The solution representation is used to establish the communication between the optimizer and the solution evaluator (which is in fact the abstraction of the complex system). Classical genetic algorithms, for example, used binary strings to represent solutions. This representation is not particularly convenient in some instances, for example when natural solution representation is a sequence of numbers, as in the case of permutation problems. Once again the tradeoff is between solution representations that are generic and those that are specific. Generalpurpose optimizers can incorporate more than one representation but at least one should allow for maximum flexibility. The most flexible
3 Laguna 3 representations is possibly one in which a solution is represented by an ndimensional vector X, where each x i may be a continuous or integer bounded variable (for i = 1, K, n ). This representation can be used in a wide rage of applications, which include all those problems that can be formulated as mathematical programs. Other applications might not be immediately obvious. For example, consider a situation where one wishes to solve a traveling salesperson problem (TSP) employing a generalpurpose optimizer that represents solutions as X. We first assume that a tourevaluation routine exists that uses the following tour representation: { (), 1 L, ( n )} Π= π π where π(i) is the index of the i th city visited, for i = 1,, n. So, the tour evaluator takes Π as an input and produces TourLength(Π) as an output. Also assume that an ndimensional vector X is created., where the visiting priority for city i is given by the x i variable. Furthermore, assume that the variables are continuous and bounded between 0 and 1. Therefore, as far as the generalpurpose optimizer is concerned, the problem to be solved consists of assigning a value between 0 and 1 to n variables. Since { } X= x 1, L, x n does not represent a solution to the TSP, the mapping X Π must be performed before the length of the tour can be calculated by the tour evaluator. One possible X Π mapping assigns π(i) for i = 1,, n in such a way that x π(i) > x π(j) if i > j. This mapping is equivalent to ordering the x variables according to their value and using this order as the tour Π. The main disadvantage of this process is that it does not result in a onetoone mapping of X into Π. For instance, the solutions X 1 = {0.378, 0.456, 0.123, 0.965} and X 2 = {0.786, 0.836, 0.623, 0.885} represent the same 4city tour Π = {3, 1, 2, 4}. The lack of a onetoone mapping creates inefficiencies when solving this problem with a generalpurpose optimizer, since there is nothing to prevent the search from constructing solutions X that map to tours Π that have already been considered. Obviously since highly efficient exact and heuristic methods are available for the solution of the TSP, the use of a generalpurpose optimizer is not justified. However, it is possible that a sequence may be the natural representation for an optimization problem in a complex system. For example, a sequence may represent the job priority in a production scheduling problem, for which the performance of a given sequence is determined by simulating a job shop. Since the job shop simulation represents a computationally expensive black box evaluator of the objective function, the use of a generalpurpose optimizer is therefore justified. The rest of this paper describes the implementation and functionality of the generalpurpose optimizer known as OptQuest, which uses X as a generic solution representation. This optimizer employs the scatter search framework coupled with tabu search strategies to obtain high quality solutions for optimization problems defined in complex settings. OptQuest was developed by F. Glover, J. P. Kelly and M. Laguna at the University of Colorado. The first version of OptQuest was developed to optimize discrete event simulations modeled with Micro Saint 2.0 (Glover, Kelly and Laguna, 1996). (Micro Saint is a registered trademark of Micro Analysis and Design, Inc.) The descriptions provided in this paper, however, correspond to a new version of OptQuest that operates both as an Addin function to Excel and as an optimizer for the risk analysis and forecasting software Crystal Ball. (Excel is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. and Crystal Ball is a registered trademark of Decisioneering, Inc.) 2. Scatter Search In this section we provide a general description of scatter search as a foundation to discuss the solution algorithm embedded in OptQuest. For a more detailed description of the scatter search methodology see Glover and Laguna (1997). Scatter search is a methodology that operates on a population of solution
4 4 Optimization with OptQuest vectors X. The scatter search process is organized to (1) capture information not contained separately in the original vectors, (2) take advantage of auxiliary heuristic solution methods (to evaluate the combinations produced and to actively generate new vectors), and (3) make dedicated use of strategy instead of randomization to carry out component steps. Figure 1 sketches the scatter search approach in its original form. Extensions are typically created that additionally take advantage of the memorybased designs of tabu search. Two particular features of the scatter search proposal deserve mention. The use of clustering strategies is suggested for selecting subsets of points in Step 2, which allows different blends of intensification and diversification by generating new points within clusters and across clusters. Also, solutions selected in Step 3 as starting points for reapplying heuristic processes are not required to be feasible, since heuristics proposed to accompany scatter search include those capable of starting from an infeasible solution. Fig. 1 Scatter search procedure. 1) Apply heuristic processes to generate a starting set of solution vectors (trial points). Designate a subset of the best vectors to be reference points. (Subsequent iterations of this step, transferring from Step 3 below, incorporate advanced starting solutions and best solutions from previous history as candidates for the reference points.) 2) Form linear combinations of subsets of the current reference points to create new points. The linear combinations are: chosen to produce points both inside and outside the convex region spanned by the reference points. modified by generalized rounding processes to yield integer values for integerconstrained vector components. 3) Extract a collection of the best points generated in Step 2 to be used as starting points for a new application of the heuristic processes of Step 1. Repeat these steps until reaching a specified iteration limit. In sum, scatter search is founded on the following premises. (P1) Useful information about the form or location of optimal solutions is typically contained in a (sufficiently diverse) collection of elite solutions. Useful information may also be contained in bad solutions. However, such solutions are usually much more numerous and varied than good ones, and consequently there is less advantage in trying to make use of them. On the other hand, valuable information can be contained in trajectories from bad solutions to good solutions (or from good solutions to other good solutions), and such trajectorybased information is one of the elements that tabu search seeks to exploit. (P2) When solutions are combined as a strategy for exploiting such information, it is important to provide for combinations that can extrapolate beyond the regions spanned by the solutions considered, and further to incorporate heuristic processes to map combined solutions into new points. (P3) Taking account of multiple solutions simultaneously, as a foundation for creating combinations, enhances the opportunity to exploit information contained in the union of elite solutions.
5 Laguna 5 The outline in Figure 1 reveals significant differences between classical GA implementations and scatter search. While classical GAs heavily rely on randomization and a somewhat limiting operation to create new solutions (e.g., onepoint crossover on binary strings), scatter search employs strategic choices and memory along with (convex and nonconvex) linear combinations of solutions to create new solutions. Scatter search explicitly encourage the use of additional heuristics to process selected reference points in search for improved solutions. This is specially advantageous in settings where heuristics that exploit the problem structure can either be developed or are already available. The adaptation of scatter search for OptQuest does not incorporate heuristics to process reference points. The generalpurpose nature of OptQuest prevents the use of such heuristics unless specific knowledge about the problem context is communicated to the optimizer. For instance, if instead of using a set of continuous variables to represent a visiting priority that maps into a sequence in the TSP illustration of Section 1, a sequence representation can be directly used to link the optimizer with the solution evaluator, then specialized heuristics could be employed to find improved tours. 3. The OptQuest Optimizer The discussion in this section addresses implementation details as well the system s functionality. OptQuest seeks to find an optimal solution to a problem defined on a set X of bounded variables. The scatter search procedure in OptQuest starts by generating an initial population of reference points (i.e., a population of X vectors). The initial population may include an initial point suggested by the user, and it always includes the following midpoint: x i = l i + (u i  l i )/2, for i = 1,, n, where L = {l i : i = 1,, n} is the set of lower bound values and U = {u i : i = 1,, n} is the set of upper bound values for all x i X. Additional points are generated with the goal of creating a diverse population. A population is considered diverse if its elements are significantly different from one another. The system uses a Euclidean distance measure to determine how close a potential new point is from the points already in the population, in order to decide whether the point is included or discarded. Since the system allows for linear constraints to be imposed on a solution X, newly created reference points X are subjected to a feasibility test before they are evaluated (i.e., before the objective function value f(x) is calculated). Note that the evaluation of the objective function may entail the execution of a simulation, as in the case of discrete event simulation models created with Micro Saint or risk analysis simulation models created with Crystal Ball. Although the system allows for equality as well as general inequality constraints, we will represent the set of constraints as AX B. The feasibility test consists of checking (one by one) whether the linear constraints imposed by the user are satisfied. An infeasible point X is made feasible by formulating and solving a linear programming (LP) problem. The LP (or mixedinteger program, when X contains integer variables) has the goal of finding a feasible X * that minimizes the absolute deviation between X and X *. Mathematically, the problem is given by: Minimize d  + d + subject to A X * B X  X * + d  + d + = 0 L X * U where d  and d + are negative and positive deviations from the feasible point X * to the infeasible reference point X. When constraints are not specified, infeasible points are made feasible by simply adjusting
6 6 Optimization with OptQuest variable values to their closest bound. That is, if x i > u i, then xi * = ui, for all i = 1,.., n. Similarly, if x i < l i, then x * = l, for i = 1,.., n. i i The population size is automatically adjusted by the system considering the time that is required to complete one evaluation of f(x) and the time limit the user has allowed the system to search. This is particularly relevant for problems in which the evaluation of f(x) is computationally expensive. For fast objective function evaluations, the population size defaults to a value of 100. Once the population is generated, the procedure iterates in search of improved outcomes. At each iteration two reference points are selected to create four offspring. Let the parentreference points be X 1 and X 2, then the offspring X 3 to X 6 are created as follows: X 3 = X 1 + d X 4 = X 1  d X 5 = X 2 + d X 6 = X 2  d where d = (X 1  X 2 )/3. The selection of X 1 and X 2 is biased by the values f(x 1 ) and f(x 2 ) as well as the search history. In particular, tabu search memory functions are used to keep track of those reference points that have been recently used to create linear combinations. An iteration ends by replacing the worst parent with the best offspring, and giving the surviving parent a tabuactive status for a given number of iterations (i.e., the tabu tenure). During its tabu tenure, a tabuactive reference point is not chosen as parent. This is a very simple form of recencybased memory within the tabu search methodology. More sophisticated uses of memory can be found in Glover and Laguna (1997). 3.1 Restarting Strategy In the course of searching for a global optimum, the population may contain many reference points with similar characteristics. That is, in the process of generating offspring from a mixture of highquality reference points and ordinary reference points member of the current population, the diversity of the population may tend to decrease. A strategy that remedies this situation considers the creation of a new population. The restarting mechanism within OptQuest has the goal of creating a population that is a blend of highquality points found in earlier explorations (referred to as elite points) complemented with points generated in the same way as during the initialization phase. The restarting procedure, therefore, injects diversity through newly generated points and preserves quality through the inclusion of elite points. 3.2 Adaptive Memory and the Age Strategy Some of the points in the initial population may have poor objective function values. Therefore, with a high probability, they may never be chosen to play the role of a parent and would remain in the population until restarting. To additionally diversify the search, the system increases the attractiveness of these unused points over time. This is done by using a form of longterm memory that is different from the conventional frequencybased implementation. In particular, OptQuest introduces the notion of age and defines a measure of attractiveness based on the age and the objective function value of a particular point. The idea is to use search history to make reference points that have not been used as parents attractive, by modifying their objective function values according to their age. At the start of the search process, all the reference points X in a population of size p have an age of zero. At the end of the first iteration, there will be p1 reference points from the
7 Laguna 7 original population and one new offspring. The ages of the p1 reference points are set to one and that of the new offspring is set to zero. The same logic is followed in subsequent iterations, and therefore, the age of every reference point increases by one in each iteration except for the age of the new population member which is initialized to zero. (A variant of the above procedure sets the surviving parent s age also to 0, however, this is not absolutely necessary given that the selection of this reference point is forbidden in the short term during its tabu tenure.) Each reference point in the population has an associated age and an objective function value. These two values are used to define a function of attractiveness that makes an old highquality point the most attractive. Lowquality points become more attractive as their age increases. 3.3 Neural Network Accelerator This strategy is designed to increase the power of the system s search engine. The motivation behind embedding a neural network is to screen out reference points that are likely to have inferior objective function values as compared to the best known objective function value. The neural network is used as a prediction model to help the system accelerate the search by avoiding the need for evaluating f(x) for a newly created reference point X, in situations where the f(x) value can be predicted to be of low quality. Engaging the neural network accelerator is an option to the user. When the neural network is used, the values of X and f(x) are collected for a number of iterations. These data points are then used to train the neural network during the search. The system automatically determines how many data points to collect and how much training is done, based once again on both the time to perform a simulation and the optimization time limit provided by the user. When the complex system is represented by a simulation model, an additional piece of information becomes relevant to improve the prediction power of the neural network. In most simulations, the value of f(x) is calculated after every trial. The f(x) value that becomes the output of the simulation is the one found after a userspecified number of trials. If we define f α (X) as the objective function value found by performing α% of the total number of trials specified by the user, then f α (X) is an estimate of f(x). By this definition f(x) = f 100 (X). In this situations, the neural network accelerator uses not only X but also f α (X) to predict f(x). Therefore, the predicted value of the objective function for X determined by the neural network is given by f $ ( X, fα ( X ) ), where values for α in the range of 10 and 20 have been found quite effective. The neural network is trained on the historical data collected during the search and an error value is calculated during each training round. This error reflects the accuracy of the network as a prediction model. That is, if the network is used to predict f(x) for a newly created X, then the error indicates how good the prediction is expected to be. The error term can be calculated by computing the differences between the known f(x) and the predicted f $ ( X, fα ( X ) ) objective function values. The training continues until the error falls within a specified maximum value. For problems where f(x) can be rapidly evaluated, the use of the neural network accelerator is obviously not recommended. 3.4 Objective Versus Goals So far, it has been assumed that the complex system to be optimized can be treated by OptQuest as a black box which takes X as an input to produce f(x) as an output. It was also assumed that for reference point X to be feasible, the point must be within a given set of bounds and, when applicable, also satisfy a set of linear constraints. It is assumed that the bound values and the coefficient matrix are both known. However, there are situations where the feasibility of X is not known prior to performing the process that determines f(x), i.e., prior to executing the black box system evaluator. In other words, the feasibility
8 8 Optimization with OptQuest test for X cannot be performed in the input side of the black box but instead has to be performed on the output side. This situation is depicted in Figure 2. Fig. 2 Solution evaluation process. X X * f(x * ) Complex System LP Map NN Filter (Evaluator) G(X * ) Penalized Function P(X * ) X * discarded Figure 2 shows the process of evaluating a reference point X. First the mapping X X * is performed ( LP Map ), using either the linear program at the beginning of section 3, a MIP equivalent, or the simple bounding process. Then the neural network is applied, and those solutions that are predicted to be inferior are discarded ( NN Filter ). If a reference point is not discarded, then the solutionevaluator is used to determine the value of the objective function f(x) and of other measures used to determine the feasibility of X. These other measures are denoted by G(X) and are referred to as goals. To illustrate the use of goals, consider an investment problem for which X represents the allocation of funds to n investment instruments. The objective is to maximize the expected return represented by R µ (X). A Monte Carlo simulation is performed to determine the expected return R µ (X) for a given fund allocation X. Restrictions on the fund allocations, which establish relationships among the x i variables, can be clearly handled by the LP Filter. Thus, a restriction of the type the combined investment in instruments 2 and 3 should not exceed the total investment in instrument 7, results in the simple linear constraint x 2 + x 3 x 7. However, a restriction that limits the variability of the returns (as measured by the standard deviation) to be no more than a critical value c, establishes that relationship R σ (X) c. Clearly, this simple bound constraint cannot be enforced in the input of the Complex System Evaluator and therefore is treated as a goal. Instead of discarding a solution that violates a goal (or a set of goals), the system creates the penalized function P(X). The value used to penalize goal infeasibility is not static, because it depends on whether a goal feasible solution is known. The system assumes that the user is interested in finding a goalfeasible solution if one exists. Therefore, goalinfeasible solutions are penalized more heavily when no goalfeasible solution has been found than when one is available. The current version of OptQuest can only handled simple bound goals, i.e., a goal G(X) can be bounded from below, from above, or both. 4. OptQuest Applications This section provides three applications of OptQuest. The first application illustrates the use of the system to solve a stochastic optimization problem. The stochastic nature of the problem is capture by a Crystal Ball model. Hence, the objective function evaluation consists of performing a simulation for a set number of trials. The last two applications consider nonlinear optimization problems for which the objective function can be quickly evaluated. Overall the goal of this section is to illustrate the flexibility and generalpurpose nature of the system.
9 Laguna Project Selection Under Uncertainty This problem may be described as follows. A set of n projects are divided into m categories or subsets N i (for i = 1,..., m). It is desired to select at least l i projects but no more than u i projects from each subset N i, in such a way as to maximize total returns without violating a single budget constraint. The cost c j and the investment return r j are associated with the selection of project j. The problem can be characterized as follows: Maximize n j= 1 rx j j subject to c x b n j= 1 j j li x j ui for i = 1,, m j N x j = { 01, } i The problem formulation corresponds to a 01 knapsack problem with side constraints that enforce the bounds on project selection for each category. We assume that the return values are random variables with an underlying probability distribution function that depends on the project. A Crystal Ball model is created such that for a given selection of projects (i.e., a set of x values), a simulation is run to predict total returns. An OptQuest search uses the Crystal Ball model as the function evaluator and incorporates the set of constraints on the x values. Consider the instance of this problem given in Table 1. Assume that projects X01 to X03 belong to category A, projects X04 to X07 belong to category B, and projects X08 to X10 belong to category C. Also assume that a total budget of 100 is available. Table 1. Project selection problem instance Return Project Cost Mean Std. Deviation X X X X X X X X X X For each category there is a lower bound on the number of projects that should be selected ( At least column in Table 2) and a corresponding upper bound ( At most column in Table 2). The Distribution column on Table 2 shows the probability distribution function associated with the return values of projects in each category.
10 10 Optimization with OptQuest Table 2. Project category information. Category At least No more Distribution A 1 2 Normal B 2 4 Log Normal C 0 2 Exponential The information in Table 2 along with the budget restriction results in the following set of constraints that must be declared in OptQuest: 12*X *X *X03 + 5*X *X *X *X *X *X09 + 9*X10 <= 100 X01 + X02 + X03 >= 1 X01 + X02 <= 2 X04 + X05 + X06 + X07 >= 2 X04 + X05 + X06 + X07 <= 4 X08 + X09 + X10 <= 2 Finally, assume that the decision maker would like to select the projects that maximize expected return, however, she would like for the total return to have a reasonable variability value. Specifically, the decision maker wants a portfolio of projects that maximizes the expected total return subject to the standard deviation of the returns being less than 120. Since the standard deviation calculation is an output to the simulation, this restriction must be handled as a goal. Final settings before the search can begin include the number of trials to be performed during the simulation and the activation or deactivation of the neural network accelerator. Figure 3 shows the Performance Graph that results from an OptQuest run of 10 minutes on Dell OptiPlex GXpro 200 Mhz. with the Windows NT 4.0. Fig. 3 Performance graph. The graph in Figure 3 reveals that the search began from a solution with an expected total return of approximately 700, which happened to be goalfeasible solution. Starting the search from a goalfeasible solution is not a system requirement, goalinfeasible solutions may be part of the search trajectory until the first goalfeasible solution is found. The best solution found (on the 16 th simulation) has a total expected return of 1, Details of this OptQuest run are given in Table 3.
11 Laguna 11 Table 3. Best solutions found. Simulation Mean Std. Dev. X01 X02 X03 X04 X05 X06 X07 X08 X09 X The best solution is to select projects X01, X05, X06 and X09. These selections meet the category bounds specified in Table 2 and result in a total cost of 100. The project selection problem under uncertainty can be formulated using the robust optimization framework (Laguna 1995). Robust optimization relies on the use of scenarios to model uncertainty in key data. In this case, a number of scenarios would be necessary to account for the variability on the return values related to project. Robust optimization models tend to be large (because the number of variables typically depends on the number of scenarios), and specialized techniques are often necessary to solve the related formulations (Mulvey, et al. 1995). The advantage of using a generalpurpose optimizer such as OptQuest is that the uncertainty can be directly modeled via simulation and the optimization model does not increase in size (although, the problem remains combinatorially difficult). 4.2 Nonlinear Optimization OptQuest can be used to find solutions to optimization problems with nonlinear objective functions, linear constraints and bounded continuous and/or integer variables. An instance of such a problem is: Maximize Z = x 1 sin(x 2 ) + x x 4 subject to 2x 1 + x 23.5x 4 = 1 x 2 + x 3 3 x 12x x x x x For this problem, we create an Excel worksheet which allocates a cell for each variable and designates one cell for the objective function calculation. The linear constraints and the bounds are entered into the appropriate OptQuest windows and the neural network accelerator is deactivated. A minute OptQuest search results in the solution given in Table 4. (The solution was actually found during the first few seconds of the search.) Table 4. OptQuest solution. Variable Value Z x 1 1 x x x
12 12 Optimization with OptQuest The solution in Table 4 is identical to the one found by the Excel Solver (using the default settings). However, if the problem is changed to restrict the values of x 1 and x 2 to be integer, then the solutions found by OptQuest and Solver are different (as indicated in Table 5). Table 5. Solution comparison. Variable OptQuest Solver Z x x x x As shown in Table 5, OptQuest is able to find a better solution than the one provided by Solver. Although it may be possible to change the Solver options to be able to match the solution found by OptQuest, this result shows the robustness of the scatter search approach embedded in OptQuest. 4.3 Pipe Network Design The New York City water supply tunnel problem was first addressed by Schaake and Lai (1969), and has since been used to test several optimization approaches to the design of water distribution systems. The problem consists of finding a least cost capacity expansion plan that satisfies the water demand associated with an increase in the population. The pipe network consists of 20 nodes, some of which have less than the required minimum pressure. The objective is then to add parallel pipes to improve the hydraulic performance of the system in order to meet the minimum pressure requirements at all nodes while minimizing total construction costs. The problem has been addressed considering discrete pipe diameters (Dandy, et al. 1996) and continuous pipe diameters (Loganathan, et al. 1995). Once a set of pipes is selected, the pressures at each node are determined by solving a system of nonlinear equations that represent the hydraulics of the system. In this problem, therefore, the objective function (i.e., the total construction cost) is immediately known once the pipes are selected, but the feasibility of the design must be determined after a black box evaluation. In a recent study, Lippai and Heaney (1996) developed an Excel model for this problem. The model consists of a worksheet that performs the hydraulic computations for every proposed solution (i.e., a pipe selection). The authors used a genetic algorithm to obtain the best solution known for this problem considering discrete pipe diameters, which has a total construction cost of $38.13 million. Using the worksheet developed by Lippai and Heaney, we formulated an OptQuest model for this optimization problem. The model consists of 21 integer variables (one for each potential parallel pipe) bounded between 0 and 15. If the lower bound is assigned to a particular pipe, this means that the pipe is not selected. The values between 1 and 15 correspond to discrete pipe diameters. The model also considers 5 goals, one for each node that violates minimum pressure requirements in the existing network. Therefore, feasible network designs correspond to goalfeasible solutions. The OptQuest model consistently finds the best solution known within 10,000 calls to the function evaluator. This compares well with the 18,053 function evaluations that the genetic algorithm employed to find the same solution, as reported by Lippai and Heaney (1996).
13 Laguna Conclusions In this paper we have described the generalpurpose optimizer OptQuest. The system was developed adapting the scatter search methodology with the purpose of building an optimizer that can effectively deal with problems arising in complex settings. OptQuest has been linked to the discrete event simulation package Micro Saint 2.0 and is currently under testing to add optimization capabilities to Crystal Ball, a risk analysis and forecasting software. The OptQuest applications presented here have shown the flexibility of the system. Although, these applications were modeled using a spreadsheet software, the system is also capable of tackling problems beyond those that can be effectively represented in Excel. We have in fact successfully linked OptQuest to black box evaluators that are standalone executable programs. References Dandy, G. C., A. R. Simpson and L. J. Murphy (1996) An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Pipe Network Optimization, Water Resource Research, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp Glover, F., J. P. Kelly and M. Laguna (1996) New Advances and Applications of Combining Simulation and Optimization, Proceedings of the 1996 Winter Simulation Conference, J. M. Charnes, D. J. Morrice, D. T. Brunner, and J. J. Swain (eds.), pp Glover, F. and M. Laguna (1997) Tabu Search, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston. Loganathan, G. V., J. J. Greene and T. J. Ahn (1995) Design Heuristic for Globally Minimum Cost WaterDistribution Systems, Journal of Water Resource Planing and Management., Vol. 121, No. 2, pp Laguna, M. (1995) Methods and Strategies for Robust Combinatorial Optimization, Operations Research Proceedings 1994, U. Derigs, A. Bachem, and A. Drexl (eds.), SpringerVerlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp Lippai, I. and J. P. Heaney (1996) Robust Pipe Network Design Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Colorado. Mulvey, J. M., R. J. Vanderbei, and S. A. Zenios (1995) Robust Optimization of LargeScale Systems, Operations Research, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp Schaake, J. C. and D. Lai (1969) Linear Programming and Dynamic Programming Application to Water Distribution Network Design, Rep. 116, Hydrodynamics Lab., Department of Civil Engineering, MIT.
Regensburger DISKUSSIONSBEITRÄGE zur Wirtschaftswissenschaft
Regensburger DISKUSSIONSBEITRÄGE zur Wirtschaftswissenschaft A Cluster Based Scatter Search Heuristic for the Vehicle Routing Problem University of Regensburg Discussion Papers in Economics No. 415, November
More informationEvolutionary Computation Algorithms for Cryptanalysis: A Study
Evolutionary Computation Algorithms for Cryptanalysis: A Study Poonam Garg Information Technology and Management Dept. Institute of Management Technology Ghaziabad, India pgarg@imt.edu Abstract The cryptanalysis
More informationScatter Search: Methodology and Applications
Scatter Search: Methodology and Applications Manuel Laguna University of Colorado Rafael Martí University of Valencia Based on Scatter Search: Methodology and Implementations in C Laguna, M. and R. Martí
More informationModule 1 Lecture Notes 2. Optimization Problem and Model Formulation
Optimization Methods: Introduction and Basic concepts 1 Module 1 Lecture Notes 2 Optimization Problem and Model Formulation Introduction In the previous lecture we studied the evolution of optimization
More informationOptimization. Using Analytic Solver Platform REVIEW BASED ON MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
Optimization Using Analytic Solver Platform REVIEW BASED ON MANAGEMENT SCIENCE What We ll Cover Today Introduction Frontline Systems Session Ι beta training program goals Overview of Analytic Solver Platform
More informationDiscrete Optimization. Lecture Notes 2
Discrete Optimization. Lecture Notes 2 Disjunctive Constraints Defining variables and formulating linear constraints can be straightforward or more sophisticated, depending on the problem structure. The
More informationCHAPTER 4 GENETIC ALGORITHM
69 CHAPTER 4 GENETIC ALGORITHM 4.1 INTRODUCTION Genetic Algorithms (GAs) were first proposed by John Holland (Holland 1975) whose ideas were applied and expanded on by Goldberg (Goldberg 1989). GAs is
More information3 INTEGER LINEAR PROGRAMMING
3 INTEGER LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM DEFINITION Integer linear programming problem (ILP) of the decision variables x 1,..,x n : (ILP) subject to minimize c x j j n j= 1 a ij x j x j 0 x j integer n j=
More information3 NoWait Job Shops with Variable Processing Times
3 NoWait Job Shops with Variable Processing Times In this chapter we assume that, on top of the classical nowait job shop setting, we are given a set of processing times for each operation. We may select
More informationPrerequisite Material for Course Heuristics and Approximation Algorithms
Prerequisite Material for Course Heuristics and Approximation Algorithms This document contains an overview of the basic concepts that are needed in preparation to participate in the course. In addition,
More informationTime Complexity Analysis of the Genetic Algorithm Clustering Method
Time Complexity Analysis of the Genetic Algorithm Clustering Method Z. M. NOPIAH, M. I. KHAIRIR, S. ABDULLAH, M. N. BAHARIN, and A. ARIFIN Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Universiti
More informationChapter 8 SCATTER SEARCH 1. INTRODUCTION
Chapter 8 SCATTER SEARCH Manuel Laguna 1 and Rafael Martí 2 1 Leeds School of Business, University of Colorado at Boulder, laguna@colorado.edu; 2 Dpto. de Estadística e Investigación Operativa, Universidad
More informationHeuristics in MILP. Group 1 D. Assouline, N. Molyneaux, B. Morén. Supervisors: Michel Bierlaire, Andrea Lodi. Zinal 2017 Winter School
Heuristics in MILP Group 1 D. Assouline, N. Molyneaux, B. Morén Supervisors: Michel Bierlaire, Andrea Lodi Zinal 2017 Winter School 0 / 23 Primal heuristics Original paper: Fischetti, M. and Lodi, A. (2011).
More informationThe Encoding Complexity of Network Coding
The Encoding Complexity of Network Coding Michael Langberg Alexander Sprintson Jehoshua Bruck California Institute of Technology Email: mikel,spalex,bruck @caltech.edu Abstract In the multicast network
More informationModified Order Crossover (OX) Operator
Modified Order Crossover (OX) Operator Ms. Monica Sehrawat 1 N.C. College of Engineering, Israna Panipat, Haryana, INDIA. Mr. Sukhvir Singh 2 N.C. College of Engineering, Israna Panipat, Haryana, INDIA.
More informationA WebBased Evolutionary Algorithm Demonstration using the Traveling Salesman Problem
A WebBased Evolutionary Algorithm Demonstration using the Traveling Salesman Problem Richard E. Mowe Department of Statistics St. Cloud State University mowe@stcloudstate.edu Bryant A. Julstrom Department
More informationAn Introduction to Evolutionary Algorithms
An Introduction to Evolutionary Algorithms Karthik Sindhya, PhD Postdoctoral Researcher Industrial Optimization Group Department of Mathematical Information Technology Karthik.sindhya@jyu.fi http://users.jyu.fi/~kasindhy/
More informationGenetic Algorithm Performance with Different Selection Methods in Solving MultiObjective Network Design Problem
etic Algorithm Performance with Different Selection Methods in Solving MultiObjective Network Design Problem R. O. Oladele Department of Computer Science University of Ilorin P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, NIGERIA
More informationImproving LinKernighanHelsgaun with Crossover on Clustered Instances of the TSP
Improving LinKernighanHelsgaun with Crossover on Clustered Instances of the TSP Doug Hains, Darrell Whitley, and Adele Howe Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO, USA Abstract. Multitrial LinKernighanHelsgaun
More informationMixture Models and the EM Algorithm
Mixture Models and the EM Algorithm Padhraic Smyth, Department of Computer Science University of California, Irvine c 2017 1 Finite Mixture Models Say we have a data set D = {x 1,..., x N } where x i is
More informationComparison of TSP Algorithms
Comparison of TSP Algorithms Project for Models in Facilities Planning and Materials Handling December 1998 Participants: ByungIn Kim JaeIk Shim Min Zhang Executive Summary Our purpose in this term project
More informationA new interisland genetic operator for optimization problems with block properties
A new interisland genetic operator for optimization problems with block properties Wojciech Bożejko 1 and Mieczys law Wodecki 2 1 Institute of Engineering Cybernetics, Wroc law University of Technology
More informationUsing Excel for Graphical Analysis of Data
Using Excel for Graphical Analysis of Data Introduction In several upcoming labs, a primary goal will be to determine the mathematical relationship between two variable physical parameters. Graphs are
More informationAnt Colony Optimization
Ant Colony Optimization CompSci 760 Patricia J Riddle 1 Natural Inspiration The name Ant Colony Optimization was chosen to reflect its original inspiration: the foraging behavior of some ant species. It
More informationA simulated annealing algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with time windows and synchronization constraints
A simulated annealing algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with time windows and synchronization constraints Sohaib Afifi 1, DucCuong Dang 1,2, and Aziz Moukrim 1 1 Université de Technologie de Compiègne
More informationPole Shape Optimization Using a Tabu Search Scheme P. J. Leonard and A. M. Connor
Pole Shape Optimization Using a Tabu Search Scheme P. J. Leonard and A. M. Connor Abstract: The pole shape optimization of an electromagnet typical of an MRI type application is investigated. We compare
More informationA Genetic Algorithm for Graph Matching using Graph Node Characteristics 1 2
Chapter 5 A Genetic Algorithm for Graph Matching using Graph Node Characteristics 1 2 Graph Matching has attracted the exploration of applying new computing paradigms because of the large number of applications
More informationCT79 SOFT COMPUTING ALCCSFEB 2014
Q.1 a. Define Union, Intersection and complement operations of Fuzzy sets. For fuzzy sets A and B Figure Fuzzy sets A & B The union of two fuzzy sets A and B is a fuzzy set C, written as C=AUB or C=A OR
More informationGraphical Analysis of Data using Microsoft Excel [2016 Version]
Graphical Analysis of Data using Microsoft Excel [2016 Version] Introduction In several upcoming labs, a primary goal will be to determine the mathematical relationship between two variable physical parameters.
More informationMATH3016: OPTIMIZATION
MATH3016: OPTIMIZATION Lecturer: Dr Huifu Xu School of Mathematics University of Southampton Highfield SO17 1BJ Southampton Email: h.xu@soton.ac.uk 1 Introduction What is optimization? Optimization is
More informationJ Linear Programming Algorithms
Simplicibus itaque verbis gaudet Mathematica Veritas, cum etiam per se simplex sit Veritatis oratio. [And thus Mathematical Truth prefers simple words, because the language of Truth is itself simple.]
More informationThe Traveling Salesperson Problem with Forbidden Neighborhoods on Regular 3D Grids
The Traveling Salesperson Problem with Forbidden Neighborhoods on Regular 3D Grids Anja Fischer, Philipp Hungerländer 2, and Anna Jellen 2 Tehnische Universität Dortmund, Germany, anja2.fischer@tudortmund.de,
More informationOrigins of Operations Research: World War II
ESD.83 Historical Roots Assignment METHODOLOGICAL LINKS BETWEEN OPERATIONS RESEARCH AND STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION Chaiwoo Lee Jennifer Morris 11/10/2010 Origins of Operations Research: World War II Need
More informationOvercompressing JPEG images with Evolution Algorithms
Author manuscript, published in "EvoIASP2007, Valencia : Spain (2007)" Overcompressing JPEG images with Evolution Algorithms Jacques Lévy Véhel 1, Franklin Mendivil 2 and Evelyne Lutton 1 1 Inria, Complex
More informationThe Branch & Move algorithm: Improving Global Constraints Support by Local Search
Branch and Move 1 The Branch & Move algorithm: Improving Global Constraints Support by Local Search Thierry Benoist Bouygues elab, 1 av. Eugène Freyssinet, 78061 St Quentin en Yvelines Cedex, France tbenoist@bouygues.com
More informationAnalysis and optimization methods of graph based metamodels for data flow simulation
Rochester Institute of Technology RIT Scholar Works Theses Thesis/Dissertation Collections 812010 Analysis and optimization methods of graph based metamodels for data flow simulation Jeffrey Harrison
More informationPrimal Heuristics for BranchandPrice Algorithms
Primal Heuristics for BranchandPrice Algorithms Marco Lübbecke and Christian Puchert Abstract In this paper, we present several primal heuristics which we implemented in the branchandprice solver GCG
More informationCS 440 Theory of Algorithms /
CS 440 Theory of Algorithms / CS 468 Algorithms in Bioinformaticsi Brute Force. Design and Analysis of Algorithms  Chapter 3 30 Brute Force A straightforward approach usually based on problem statement
More informationOptimization with Multiple Objectives
Optimization with Multiple Objectives Eva K. Lee, Ph.D. eva.lee@isye.gatech.edu Industrial & Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Computational Research & Informatics, Radiation Oncology,
More informationMemetic Algorithms in Discrete Optimization
Memetic Algorithms in Discrete Optimization JinKao Hao Appeared in F. Neri, C. Cotta, P. Moscato (Eds.) Handbook of Memetic Algorithms. Studies in Computational Intelligence 379, Chapter 6, pages 7394,
More informationCS5401 FS2015 Exam 1 Key
CS5401 FS2015 Exam 1 Key This is a closedbook, closednotes exam. The only items you are allowed to use are writing implements. Mark each sheet of paper you use with your name and the string cs5401fs2015
More informationAlgorithms for the Precedence Constrained Generalized Travelling Salesperson Problem
MASTER S THESIS Algorithms for the Precedence Constrained Generalized Travelling Salesperson Problem RAAD SALMAN Department of Mathematical Sciences Division of Mathematics CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
More informationAn Efficient Heuristic for Reliability Design Optimization Problems
An Efficient Heuristic for Reliability Design Optimization Problems Mohamed Ouzineb Mustapha Nourelfath Michel Gendreau February 2009 Mohamed Ouzineb 1,2, Mustapha Nourelfath 1,3,*, Michel Gendreau 1,2
More informationPseudoCut Strategies for Global Optimization
International Journal of Applied Metaheuristic Computing, 2(4), 112, OctoberDecember 2011 1 ABSTRACT PseudoCut Strategies for Global Optimization Fred Glover, OptTek Systems, Inc., USA Leon Lasdon,
More informationOutline of Lecture. Scope of Optimization in Practice. Scope of Optimization (cont.)
Scope of Optimization in Practice and Niche of Evolutionary Methodologies Kalyanmoy Deb* Department of Business Technology Helsinki School of Economics Kalyanmoy.deb@hse.fi http://www.iitk.ac.in/kangal/deb.htm
More informationConstruction of MinimumWeight Spanners Mikkel Sigurd Martin Zachariasen
Construction of MinimumWeight Spanners Mikkel Sigurd Martin Zachariasen University of Copenhagen Outline Motivation and Background MinimumWeight Spanner Problem Greedy Spanner Algorithm Exact Algorithm:
More informationMATLAB Based Optimization Techniques and Parallel Computing
MATLAB Based Optimization Techniques and Parallel Computing Bratislava June 4, 2009 2009 The MathWorks, Inc. JörgM. Sautter Application Engineer The MathWorks Agenda Introduction Local and Smooth Optimization
More informationIntroduction. Chapter 15. Optimization Modeling: Applications. Integer Programming. Manufacturing Example. Three Types of ILP Models
Chapter 5 Optimization Modeling: Applications Integer Programming Introduction When one or more variables in an LP problem must assume an integer value we have an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) problem.
More informationTabu Search Method for Solving the Traveling salesman Problem. University of Mosul Received on: 10/12/2007 Accepted on: 4/3/2008
Raf. J. of Comp. & Math s., Vol. 5, No. 2, 2008 Tabu Search Method for Solving the Traveling salesman Problem Isra Natheer Alkallak Ruqaya Zedan Sha ban College of Nursing College of Medicine University
More informationMAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION USING ACCELERATED GENETIC ALGORITHMS
In: Journal of Applied Statistical Science Volume 18, Number 3, pp. 1 7 ISSN: 10675817 c 2011 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION USING ACCELERATED GENETIC ALGORITHMS Füsun Akman
More informationAN EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH TO DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING
International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology Volume 3, Issue 3: Page No. 201205, MayJune 2014 http://www.mnkjournals.com/ijlrst.htm ISSN (Online):22785299 AN EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH
More informationASIAN JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING (BUILDING AND HOUSING) VOL. 9, NO. 3 (2008) PAGES
ASIAN JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING (BUILDING AND HOUSING) VOL. 9, NO. 3 (008) PAGES 58 EFFECT OF BEAM SPACING IN THE HARMONY SEARCH BASED OPTIMUM DESIGN OF GRILLAGES F. Erdal *a and M.P. Saka b a Department
More informationBilinear Programming
Bilinear Programming Artyom G. Nahapetyan Center for Applied Optimization Industrial and Systems Engineering Department University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 326116595 Email address: artyom@ufl.edu
More informationChapter 7. Linear Programming Models: Graphical and Computer Methods
Chapter 7 Linear Programming Models: Graphical and Computer Methods To accompany Quantitative Analysis for Management, Eleventh Edition, by Render, Stair, and Hanna Power Point slides created by Brian
More informationA New Exam Timetabling Algorithm
A New Exam Timetabling Algorithm K.J. Batenburg W.J. Palenstijn Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science (LIACS), Universiteit Leiden P.O. Box 9512, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands {kbatenbu, wpalenst}@math.leidenuniv.nl
More informationIntroduction to Design Optimization: Search Methods
Introduction to Design Optimization: Search Methods 1D Optimization The Search We don t know the curve. Given α, we can calculate f(α). By inspecting some points, we try to find the approximated shape
More informationAn FPTAS for minimizing the product of two nonnegative linear cost functions
Math. Program., Ser. A DOI 10.1007/s1010700902874 SHORT COMMUNICATION An FPTAS for minimizing the product of two nonnegative linear cost functions Vineet Goyal Latife GencKaya R. Ravi Received: 2
More informationOperations Research and Optimization: A Primer
Operations Research and Optimization: A Primer Ron Rardin, PhD NSF Program Director, Operations Research and Service Enterprise Engineering also Professor of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University Introduction
More informationYou ve already read basics of simulation now I will be taking up method of simulation, that is Random Number Generation
Unit 5 SIMULATION THEORY Lesson 39 Learning objective: To learn random number generation. Methods of simulation. Monte Carlo method of simulation You ve already read basics of simulation now I will be
More informationAn evolutionary annealingsimplex algorithm for global optimisation of water resource systems
FIFTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HYDROINFORMATICS 15 July 2002, Cardiff, UK C05  Evolutionary algorithms in hydroinformatics An evolutionary annealingsimplex algorithm for global optimisation of water
More informationGeometric Mean Algorithms Based on Harmonic and Arithmetic Iterations
Geometric Mean Algorithms Based on Harmonic and Arithmetic Iterations Ben Jeuris and Raf Vandebril KU Leuven, Dept. of Computer Science, 3001 Leuven(Heverlee), Belgium {ben.jeuris,raf.vandebril}@cs.kuleuven.be
More informationInteractive 3D Visualization Of Optimization For Water Distribution Systems
City University of New York (CUNY) CUNY Academic Works International Conference on Hydroinformatics 812014 Interactive 3D Visualization Of Optimization For Water Distribution Systems Matthew Barrie Johns
More informationLecture 4. Convexity Robust cost functions Optimizing nonconvex functions. 3B1B Optimization Michaelmas 2017 A. Zisserman
Lecture 4 3B1B Optimization Michaelmas 2017 A. Zisserman Convexity Robust cost functions Optimizing nonconvex functions grid search branch and bound simulated annealing evolutionary optimization The Optimization
More informationGRASP and Path Relinking for the Twodimensional Twostaged Cutting Stock Problem
GRASP and Path Relinking for the Twodimensional Twostaged Cutting Stock Problem Ramón AlvarezValdes 1, Rafael Martí 1, Antonio Parajón 2 and Jose M. Tamarit 1 1 Departamento de Estadística e I.O. Universidad
More informationCOMP 355 Advanced Algorithms Approximation Algorithms: VC and TSP Chapter 11 (KT) Section (CLRS)
COMP 355 Advanced Algorithms Approximation Algorithms: VC and TSP Chapter 11 (KT) Section 35.135.2(CLRS) 1 Coping with NPCompleteness Bruteforce search: This is usually only a viable option for small
More informationGeometric Crossover for Sets, Multisets and Partitions
Geometric Crossover for Sets, Multisets and Partitions Alberto Moraglio and Riccardo Poli Department of Computer Science, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, CO4 3SQ, UK {amoragn, rpoli}@essex.ac.uk
More informationOptimizing Flow Shop Sequencing Through Simulation Optimization Using Evolutionary Methods
Optimizing Flow Shop Sequencing Through Simulation Optimization Using Evolutionary Methods Sucharith Vanguri 1, Travis W. Hill 2, Allen G. Greenwood 1 1 Department of Industrial Engineering 260 McCain
More informationlecture notes September 2, How to sort?
.30 lecture notes September 2, 203 How to sort? Lecturer: Michel Goemans The task of sorting. Setup Suppose we have n objects that we need to sort according to some ordering. These could be integers or
More informationOnemode Additive Clustering of Multiway Data
Onemode Additive Clustering of Multiway Data Dirk Depril and Iven Van Mechelen KULeuven Tiensestraat 103 3000 Leuven, Belgium (email: dirk.depril@psy.kuleuven.ac.be iven.vanmechelen@psy.kuleuven.ac.be)
More informationIntroduction to Approximation Algorithms
Introduction to Approximation Algorithms Dr. Gautam K. Das Departmet of Mathematics Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India gkd@iitg.ernet.in February 19, 2016 Outline of the lecture Background
More informationApplied Lagrange Duality for Constrained Optimization
Applied Lagrange Duality for Constrained Optimization Robert M. Freund February 10, 2004 c 2004 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1 1 Overview The Practical Importance of Duality Review of Convexity
More informationMLR Institute of Technology
Course Name : Engineering Optimization Course Code : 56021 Class : III Year Branch : Aeronautical Engineering Year : 201415 Course Faculty : Mr Vamsi Krishna Chowduru, Assistant Professor Course Objective
More informationAn iteration of Branch and Bound One iteration of Branch and Bound consists of the following four steps: Some definitions. Branch and Bound.
ranch and ound xamples and xtensions jesla@man.dtu.dk epartment of Management ngineering Technical University of enmark ounding ow do we get ourselves a bounding function? Relaxation. Leave out some constraints.
More informationA Genetic Approach for Solving Minimum Routing Cost Spanning Tree Problem
A Genetic Approach for Solving Minimum Routing Cost Spanning Tree Problem Quoc Phan Tan Abstract Minimum Routing Cost Spanning Tree (MRCT) is one of spanning tree optimization problems having several applications
More information10. Network dimensioning
Partly based on slide material by Samuli Aalto and Jorma Virtamo ELECC7210 Modeling and analysis of communication networks 1 Contents Introduction Parameters: topology, routing and traffic Dimensioning
More informationA TOOLSET FOR SUPPORTING CONTINUOUS DECISION MAKING CASE: GRADE CHANGE OPTIMIZATION
A TOOLSET FOR SUPPORTING CONTINUOUS DECISION MAKING CASE: GRADE CHANGE OPTIMIZATION Petteri Pulkkinen 1, Toni Ahonen, Risto Ritala Institute of Measurement and Information Technology, Tampere University
More informationLast topic: Summary; Heuristics and Approximation Algorithms Topics we studied so far:
Last topic: Summary; Heuristics and Approximation Algorithms Topics we studied so far: I Strength of formulations; improving formulations by adding valid inequalities I Relaxations and dual problems; obtaining
More informationIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 10, NO. 6, NOVEMBER Inverting Feedforward Neural Networks Using Linear and Nonlinear Programming
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 10, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 1999 1271 Inverting Feedforward Neural Networks Using Linear and Nonlinear Programming BaoLiang Lu, Member, IEEE, Hajime Kita, and Yoshikazu
More informationStefan WAGNER *, Michael AFFENZELLER * HEURISTICLAB GRID A FLEXIBLE AND EXTENSIBLE ENVIRONMENT 1. INTRODUCTION
heuristic optimization, distributed computation, optimization frameworks Stefan WAGNER *, Michael AFFENZELLER * HEURISTICLAB GRID A FLEXIBLE AND EXTENSIBLE ENVIRONMENT FOR PARALLEL HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION
More informationTopic: Local Search: MaxCut, Facility Location Date: 2/13/2007
CS880: Approximations Algorithms Scribe: Chi Man Liu Lecturer: Shuchi Chawla Topic: Local Search: MaxCut, Facility Location Date: 2/3/2007 In previous lectures we saw how dynamic programming could be
More informationEllipsoid Algorithm :Algorithms in the Real World. Ellipsoid Algorithm. Reduction from general case
Ellipsoid Algorithm 15853:Algorithms in the Real World Linear and Integer Programming II Ellipsoid algorithm Interior point methods First polynomialtime algorithm for linear programming (Khachian 79)
More informationProbability Models.S4 Simulating Random Variables
Operations Research Models and Methods Paul A. Jensen and Jonathan F. Bard Probability Models.S4 Simulating Random Variables In the fashion of the last several sections, we will often create probability
More informationCombining Two Local Searches with Crossover: An Efficient Hybrid Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem
Combining Two Local Searches with Crossover: An Efficient Hybrid Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem Weichen Liu, Thomas Weise, Yuezhong Wu and Qi Qi University of Science and Technology of Chine
More informationGraceful Graphs and Graceful Labelings: Two Mathematical Programming Formulations and Some Other New Results
Graceful Graphs and Graceful Labelings: Two Mathematical Programming Formulations and Some Other New Results Timothy A. Redl Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston,
More informationThree Different Algorithms for Generating Uniformly Distributed Random Points on the NSphere
Three Different Algorithms for Generating Uniformly Distributed Random Points on the NSphere Jan Poland Oct 4, 000 Abstract We present and compare three different approaches to generate random points
More informationA NEW HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR MULTIPLE TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM
TWMS J. App. Eng. Math. V.7, N.1, 2017, pp. 101109 A NEW HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR MULTIPLE TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM F. NURIYEVA 1, G. KIZILATES 2, Abstract. The Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (mtsp)
More informationGA is the most popular population based heuristic algorithm since it was developed by Holland in 1975 [1]. This algorithm runs faster and requires les
Chaotic Crossover Operator on Genetic Algorithm Hüseyin Demirci Computer Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, 54187, Turkey Ahmet Turan Özcerit Computer Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, 54187,
More informationRank Similarity based MADM Method Selection
Rank Similarity based MADM Method Selection Subrata Chakraborty School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science CRC for Infrastructure and Engineering Asset Management Queensland University of Technology
More informationRandom Search Report An objective look at random search performance for 4 problem sets
Random Search Report An objective look at random search performance for 4 problem sets Dudon Wai Georgia Institute of Technology CS 7641: Machine Learning Atlanta, GA dwai3@gatech.edu Abstract: This report
More informationOptimization Methods: Advanced Topics in Optimization  Multiobjective Optimization 1. Module 8 Lecture Notes 2. Multiobjective Optimization
Optimization Methods: Advanced Topics in Optimization  Multiobjective Optimization 1 Module 8 Lecture Notes 2 Multiobjective Optimization Introduction In a real world problem it is very unlikely that
More informationAssignment 3b: The traveling salesman problem
Chalmers University of Technology MVE165 University of Gothenburg MMG631 Mathematical Sciences Linear and integer optimization Optimization with applications Emil Gustavsson Assignment information AnnBrith
More informationRecombination of Similar Parents in EMO Algorithms
H. Ishibuchi and K. Narukawa, Recombination of parents in EMO algorithms, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 341: Evolutionary MultiCriterion Optimization, pp. 265279, Springer, Berlin, March 25. (Proc.
More informationSimplex of Nelder & Mead Algorithm
Simplex of N & M Simplex of Nelder & Mead Algorithm AKA the Amoeba algorithm In the class of direct search methods Unconstrained (although constraints can be added as part of error function) nonlinear
More informationThe Fibonacci hypercube
AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF COMBINATORICS Volume 40 (2008), Pages 187 196 The Fibonacci hypercube Fred J. Rispoli Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Dowling College, Oakdale, NY 11769 U.S.A. Steven
More informationWhat is GOSET? GOSET stands for Genetic Optimization System Engineering Tool
Lecture 5: GOSET 1 What is GOSET? GOSET stands for Genetic Optimization System Engineering Tool GOSET is a MATLAB based genetic algorithm toolbox for solving optimization problems 2 GOSET Features Wide
More informationCOST OPTIMIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT SCHEDULES
COST OPTIMIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT SCHEDULES Uroš Klanšek University of Maribor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Maribor, Slovenia uros.klansek@unimb.si Mirko Pšunder University of Maribor, Faculty
More informationAC : USING A SCRIPTING LANGUAGE FOR DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING
AC 20082623: USING A SCRIPTING LANGUAGE FOR DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING Louis Plebani, Lehigh University American Society for Engineering Education, 2008 Page 13.1325.1 Using a Scripting Language for Dynamic
More informationRadio Network Planning with Combinatorial Optimisation Algorithms
Author manuscript, published in "ACTS Mobile Telecommunications Summit 96, Granada : Spain (1996)" Radio Network Planning with Combinatorial Optimisation Algorithms P. Calégari, F. Guidec, P. Kuonen, EPFL,
More informationlpsymphony  Integer Linear Programming in R
lpsymphony  Integer Linear Programming in R Vladislav Kim October 30, 2017 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 lpsymphony: Quick Start 2 3 Integer Linear Programming 5 31 Equivalent and Dual Formulations 5 32
More informationGAUSSIAN VARIABLE NEIGHBORHOOD SEARCH FOR THE FILE TRANSFER SCHEDULING PROBLEM
Yugoslav Journal of Operations Research 26 (2016), Number 2, 173 188 DOI: 10.2298/YJOR150124006D GAUSSIAN VARIABLE NEIGHBORHOOD SEARCH FOR THE FILE TRANSFER SCHEDULING PROBLEM Zorica DRAŽIĆ Faculty of
More information