# GENETIC ALGORITHM with Hands-On exercise

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1 GENETIC ALGORITHM with Hands-On exercise Adopted From Lecture by Michael Negnevitsky, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science University of Tasmania 1

2 Objective To understand the processes ie. GAs Basic flows - operator, parameters involved (roles, effects etc) To be able to know how to apply Gas in solving optimisation problems. 2

3 Outline Introduction Simulation of Natural Evolution Genetic Algorithms : Mice & Cat Story Example 1 : Burger and Profit Problem Example 2 : Optimization of simple equation Example 3 : Optimization of complex equation Example 4 : The Traveling Salesman Problem Summary 3

4 Introduction: Can Evolution be Intelligent? Intelligence can be defined as the capability of a system to adapt its behavior to everchanging environment. Evolutionary computation simulates evolution on a computer. The result of such a simulation is a series of optimization algorithms, usually based on a simple set of rules. 4

5 Introduction: continue Optimization iteratively improves the quality of solutions until optimal or at least feasible, solution is found. The behavior of an individual organism is an inductive inference about some yet unknown aspects of its environment. If, over successive generations, the organism survives, we can say that this organism is capable of learning to predict changes in its environment 5

6 Introduction: continue The evolutionary approach is based on computational models of natural selection and genetics. We call the evolutionary computation, anumbrellatermthatcombines genetic algorithms, evolutionary strategies and genetic programming. 6

7 Simulation of Natural Evolution Natural Evolution.. Neo-Darwinian paradigm process of reproduction, mutation, competition and selection. The power to reproduce appears to be an essential property of life. The power to mutate is also guaranteed in any living organism that reproduces itself in a continuously changing environment. Processes of competition and selection normally take place in the natural world, where expanding populations of different species are limited by a finite space. 7

8 Continue Evolution can be seen as a process leading to the maintenance of a population s ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. This ability is called evolutionary fitness. Evolutionary fitness can also be viewed as a measure of organism s ability to anticipate changes in its environment. The better an organism's fitness to the environment, the better its chances to survive 8

9 Evolutionary process! Father + mother Example of evolutionary process Mice & Cats Basically it is about the Offspring(s) survival of the fittest 9

10 mice & cats : an evolutionary process Mice Run Faster Zig-zag pattern Utilize the... surrounding To survive: Mice escape from the cat & cats catch mice Survive? Cats Run Faster Understand the pattern Beware of the Surrounding... 10

11 The Mice & Cats algorithm Mice & Cats want to survive. While (mice!= dead cats!= dead) if (speed(mice) > speed(cats) ) mice = survive else cats = survive if (pattern(mice) > pattern(cats) mice = survive else cats = survive if (surrounding(mice) > surrounding(cats) mice = survive else cats = survive * * * endofwhile 11

12 General Evolutionary Process Population Weak Environment Strong & intelligent Die : end of evolution Survive : evolve New generation 12

13 13

14 Genetic Algorithms In the early 1970 s John Holland introduced the concept of genetic algorithms Hisaimwastomakecomputerdowhatnature does. Holland was concerned with algorithms that manipulate strings of binary digits. Each artificial chromosomes consist of a number of genes, and each gene is represented by 0 or

15 GA a definition A genetic algorithm maintains a population of candidate solutions for the problem at hand, and makes it evolve by iteratively applying a set of stochastic operators 15

16 Stochastic operators Selection replicates the most successful solutions found in a population at a rate proportional to their relative quality Recombination decomposes two distinct solutions and then randomly mixes their parts to form novel solutions Mutation randomly perturbs a candidate solution 16

17 Metaphor Genetic Algorithm Optimization problem Nature Environment Feasible solutions Solutions quality (fitness function) Individuals living in that environment Individual s degree of adaptation to its surrounding environment 17

18 Metaphor (cont.) Genetic Algorithm A set of feasible solutions Stochastic operators Iteratively applying a set of stochastic operators on a set of feasible solutions Nature A population of organisms (species) Selection, recombination and mutation in nature s evolutionary process Evolution of populations to suit their environment 18

19 Basic Genetic Algorithm Step1: Represent the problem variable domain as a chromosomes of a fixed length. Choose size of population N, probability of mutation pm and crossover pc Step2: Define fitness function to measure performance of individual chromosomes. Step3: Randomly generate initial population of chromosomes of sized N. Step 4: Calculate the fitness of each individual chromosomes. 19

20 continue Step 5: Select a pair of fit chromosomes for mating. Step 6: Create a pair of offspring chromosomes by applying crossover and mutation. Step 7: Place the created offspring chromosomes in the new population. Step 8: repeat Step 5 until the size of the new population equal to size of initial population, N 20

21 continue Step 9: Replace the initial (parent) chromosomes with the new (offspring) population. Step 10: Go to Step 4 and repeat the process until the termination criterion satisfy. 21

22 Another way of looking at this produce an initial population of individuals evaluate the fitness of all individuals While termination condition not met do select fitter individuals for reproduction recombine between individuals mutate individuals evaluate the fitness of the modified individuals generate a new population End while 22

23 Another way of looking at this A simplified flow chart of GA process 23

24 Question so far 24

25 Example 1: Burger and Profit Problem The goal : To help the owner of a restaurant find the best combination of possible solutions (we will see in next slide) that produce the highest profit. 25

26 The Burger and Profit Problem: understanding the problem Decision To make;which is more profitable??: 3 Domain variable Price : Should the price of the burger be RM1 or RM2? Drink : Should coke or pepsi be served with the burger? Speed of Service : Should the restaurant provide slow, leisurely service by waiter with tuxedos or fast, snappy service by waiters in white polyester uniform? 26

27 The Burger and Profit Problem: understanding the problem There are 3 decision variables each of which can assume one of two possible values. Assuming L is the length of string of possible strategy or combination so L = 3. Assuming K is the possible value for the decision variable so K = 2. The search space for this problem is 2 3 = 8 possible strategies but we consider only 4 possible combinations. 27

28 The burger and profit Problem : Representation/encoding We can represent the problem (decision to make) in binary. ie. Price (0 represents RM1; 1 represents RM2) Drink (0 represents Pepsi; 1 represents Cola) Speed (0 represents Leisurely; 1 represents Fast) Strategy Price Drink Speed Binary 1 RM1 Cola Fast RM1 Pepsi Fast RM2 Cola Leisurely RM1 Cola Leisurely

29 The burger and profit Problem : fitness function Fitness = Profit Generation 0 For Simplicity.. The fitness is evaluated based on the binary value i String X i Fitnes s F(X i ) f ( X ) f ( X i ) i % 25% 50% 8% Total Worst 1 Average 3.00 Best 6 29

30 The burger and profit Problem : Selection/Reproduction Roulette Wheel Approach 110 has possibility of 0.50 to reproduce so in the wheel it has 180 degree sector of being selected. In theory, it will be selected 2 x in next generation. 011 has possibility of 0.25 ie. ¼ chances to reproduce. The same goes to the other string/ individual. BUT since GA is probabilistic, that the string 110 can be chosen 3X or even none in the next gen. The same applies to others Mating Pool Selected for Reproduction Mating Pool Pool F(X i ) Total 17 Worst 2 Average 4.25 Best 6 30

31 The burger and profit Problem : Xover Fixed Point Xover Parent1 Two parents are chosen based on theirs fitness i.e. 011 and 110 are selected. Randomly select a point between 0 and L-1 (L = length of the string (3)). Suppose the point is 2. Offspring Parent2 Offspring2 Xover Point After Xover (Generation 1) String X i Fitness F(X i ) Total 17 Worst 2 Average 4.25 Best 7 31

32 The burger and profit Problem : Result Generation 0 Mating Pool Created After Reproduction After Xover (Generation 1) i String Fitness X i F(X i ) Total 12 Worst 1 Average 3.00 Best 6 f ( X ) f ( X i ) i Mating Pool Pool F(X i ) Xover Point String X i Fitness F(X i )

33 Example 2: Optimization of 15x x^2 The Task : Find the maximum value of the function (15x x ^2) where parameter x varies between 0 and 15. Assume for simplicity that x takes only integer values. 33

34 Answer these questions? How do we represent the problem in chromosomes like structure? What should be the initial value of Num. Of Population N, Xover Probability Pc, Mutation Probability Pm and Num. Of generation gen What is the fitness function? What kind of stochastic operators we want to use? What will be the termination criterion? 34

35 Example 2: Solution Representation Since parameter x is between 0 15 and assumed to be integer value only, the solution can be represented as a string of 0 and 1 of size 4. Integer Binary Code Integer Binary Code Integer Binary Code

36 Example 2: Operator Parameters Number of Population, N, Probability of Mutation Pm, Cross over, Pc and number of generation are subject to be experimented. Rule of thumb: Pc should be big - Pm should be small N should be medium (relative to the problems) Let choose N =6,Pc =0.7andPm =

37 Example 2: The Fitness Function Since we want to find the max of function (15x-x*x), the fitness function will the function ie. f(x) = 15x x*x f(x ) fitness value x 37

38 Example 2: Stochastic Operators Selection / reproduction : Roulette Wheel Crossover : One point Xover based on probability of Xover Mutation : Change gene based on probability of mutation 38

39 Example 2: Termination Criteria In most GAs application termination criterion will be number of generations. In this example, we will choose that criterion. 39

40 DEMO example 2 Execute your Matlab program. Open file GA_1.m Evaluate the File ie. run it 40

41 Summary of exercise 2 The problem is simple and finite, ie we know the answer right away without using GA by looking at all possible solution of parameter x (0 15). This example however, show how GA works in finding the optimum result by iteratively evolve in the environment. 41

42 Example 3: Optimization of two parameters x and y The task : Find the maximum of the peak function of two variables. f ( x, y) = (1 x) e 2 2 ( x ) e 2 x ( y+ 1) 3 3 x y x y 2 2 where parameters x and y vary between -3 and 3 42

43 Answer these questions? How do we represent the problem in chromosomes like structure? What should be the initial value of Num. Of Population N, Xover Probability Pc, Mutation Probability Pm and Num. Of generation gen What is the fitness function? What kind of stochastic operators we want to use? What will be the termination criterion? 43

44 Example 3: Solution Representation Since parameter x and y is between -3 and +3, we can represent it in concatenated binary form of 8 bits for x and 8 bits for y x y 44

45 Continue : representation We need to convert / map the binary value into the desired value of x and y. Example : let say we have this value for x and y = =

46 Continue : representation Mapthevalueof8bitsinteger(0 2^8 1) to the desired value of -3 to / = To obtain the actual value of x and y, multiply their decimal values by and subtract 3 from the result x = 138 * = y = 59 * =

47 47 Example 3: The Fitness Function The fitness function would be the equation ie ) ( ) (1 ), ( 3 3 1) ( 2 y x y x e y x x e x y x f + =

48 Example 3: Stochastic Operators SAME AS BEFORE Selection / reproduction : Roulette Wheel Crossover : One point Xover based on probability of Xover Mutation : Change gene based on probability of mutation 48

49 Example 3: Termination Criteria Num of generation any other suggestion? 49

50 DEMO example 3 Execute your Matlab program. Open file GA_2.m Evaluate the File ie. change the parameter and see the effects.. 50

51 Example 4: Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) The task : Given a finite number of cities, N and the cost of travel (or distance) between each pair of cities, we need to find the cheapest way (or shortest route) for visiting each city exactly once and returning to the start point. 51

52 Continue.. The TSP is represented in numerous transportation and logistics applications such as Arranging routes for school buses to pick up children in a school district Delivering meals to home-bound people Scheduling stacker cranes in a warehouse Planning truck routes to pick up parcel post and many other.. A classic example of the TSP is the scheduling of a machine to drill holes in a circuit board. 52

53 Answer these questions? How do we represent the problem in chromosomes like structure? What should be the initial value of Num. Of Population N, Xover Probability Pc, Mutation Probability Pm and Num. Of generation gen What is the fitness function? What kind of stochastic operators we want to use? What will be the termination criterion? 53

54 Example 4: Solution Representation We need to represent the route of the salesmen in chromosomes like structure how? An easy answer for that would be label the cities with alphabets or number and each possible route will represent the path. Example.. Suppose we have 9 cities, so the chromosomes would be like

55 Continue : the path representation

56 Example 4: Operator Parameters Subject to be experimented same as before Number of Population, N, Probability of Mutation Pm, Cross over, Pc and number of generation are subject to be experimented. Rule of thumb: Pc should big - Pm should small N should in medium size (relative to the problems) 56

57 Example 4: The Fitness Function If we want to find the shortest path, then distance between each pair of cities would be the fitness function the shorter the route the fitter the chromosomes If we want to find the optimal cost, thenfare / expenses between each pair of cities would be the fitness function. 57

58 Example 4: Stochastic Operators SAME AS BEFORE HOWEVER NOTE THAT IT IS NOT THAT EASY FOR MUTATION AND CROSSOVER.. 58

59 CONTINUE : CROSSOVER The crossover in its classical form cannot be directly applied to TSP. A simple exchange of parts between two parents would produce illegal routes containing duplicates and omissions some cities would be visited twice while some others would not be visited at all Example Parent 1 Parent Child 1 Child 2 59

60 CONTINUE : CROSSOVER for TSP Step1 (normal crossover) Parent Parent 2 Child 1 * * * * * * * * * * Child 2 Step2 (evaluate: repeated num is omitted and remaining num replaces *) Parent Parent 2 child child 2 60

61 CONTINUE : Mutation For TSP There are two types of mutation operators for TSP Reciprocal exchange & inversion Reciprocal exchange operator simply swaps two randomly selected cities in the chromosome. Inversion operator selects two randomly point along the chromosome string and reverses the order of the cities between these points 61

62 CONTINUE : Mutation For TSP Reciprocal Exchange Inversion Original original mutated mutated 62

63 Example 4: Termination Criteria Of course Num of generation again Try with some numbers ie. 60, 100, 120 etc see the effect 63

64 DEMO example 3 Execute your Matlab program. Open file GA_TSP.m Evaluate the File ie. change the parameter and see the effects.. 64

65 Summary of GA Developed: USA in the 1970 s by Holland and his students A class of probabilistic optimization algorithms Inspired by the biological evolution process Uses concepts of Natural Selection and Genetic Inheritance (Darwin 1859) Typically applied to: discrete optimization (ex. TSP) Attributed features: good solver for combinatorial problems Special: many variants, e.g., reproduction models, operators formerly: the GA, nowdays: a GA, GAs 65

66 Summary : What you have learned.. The processes involved in GA.. stochastic operators How to represent some problems into chromosomes like structure.. How to do Xover & mutation Understand the effect of N,Pm and Pc and also number of generation as termination criteria Basically how GAs works 66

67 What we have not covered.... To name a few We have not got into details on techniques in the stochastic operators. Schemata theory to prove GA does work to solve NP-problems Some other alternative to represent chromosomes like structure ie. bits of 0 & 1, floating points, integers, rules, symbols etc. 67

68 The End 68

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