# Loops. CSE 114, Computer Science 1 Stony Brook University

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1 Loops CSE 114, Computer Science 1 Stony Brook University 1

2 Motivation Suppose that you need to print a string (e.g., "Welcome to Java!") a user-defined times N: N? System.out.println("Welcome to Java!");... System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); Solution: a loop int count = 0; while (count < N) { System.out.println("Welcome to Java"); count++; 2

3 What is Iteration? Repeating a set of instructions a specified number of times or until a specific result is achieved How do we repeat steps? Imagine 3 instructions A, B, & C: Instruction A Instruction B Instruction C can be jump to A (meaning go back to A) Iteration might result in: Execute A Execute B Execute C Execute A 3 Execute B...

4 Why use Iteration? 4 To make our code more practical and efficient To make our code more flexible and dynamic Example: How would we write code to compute N! (factorial), where N is a number entered by the user? Without iteration (or recursion) this would be impractical We do not know N, when we are about to write the program, so we have to check for each N

5 Without iteration or recursion System.out.print("Enter N: "); int N = Keyboard.nextInt(); int factorial = 1; if((n == 1) (N == 0)) factorial = 1; else if(n == 2) factorial = 2 * 1; else if(n == 3) factorial = 3 * 2 * 1; else if(n == 4) factorial = 4 * 3 * 2 * 1; else if(n == 5) factorial = 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1; System.out.println(factorial); Inefficient coding (repetition)! 5

6 With iteration System.out.print("Enter N: "); int N = Keyboard.readInt(); int factorial = 1; int i = 1; while(i<=n) factorial *= i++; System.out.println(factorial); 6

7 Java and iteration 7 We have 3 basic types of iterative statements: while loops do while loops for loops All 3 can be used to do similar things Which one should you use? a matter of individual preference/convenience There is also another kind of for-loop: for each we will see it later when we talk about arrays

8 while Loop Flow Chart while (loop-continuation-condition) { // loop-body; Statement(s); int count = 0; while (count < 100) { System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; count = 0; Loop Continuation Condition? false (count < 100)? false true Statement(s) (loop body) true System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; 8 (A) (B)

9 Trace while Loop int count = 0; while (count < 2) { Initialize count System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; 9

10 Trace while Loop int count = 0; while (count < 2) { (count < 2) is true System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; 10

11 Trace while Loop int count = 0; while (count < 2) { Print Welcome to Java System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; 11

12 int count = 0; while (count < 2) { Trace while Loop System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; Increase count by 1 count is 1 now 12

13 int count = 0; while (count < 2) { Trace while Loop System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; (count < 2) is still true since count is 1 13

14 Trace while Loop int count = 0; while (count < 2) { Print Welcome to Java System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; 14

15 int count = 0; while (count < 2) { Trace while Loop System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; Increase count by 1 count is 2 now 15

16 int count = 0; while (count < 2) { Trace while Loop System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; (count < 2) is false since count is 2 now 16

17 Trace while Loop int count = 0; while (count < 2) { The loop exits. Execute the next statement after the loop. System.out.println("Welcome to Java!"); count++; 17

18 Caution: no equality for reals Don t use floating-point values for equality checking in a loop control - floating-point values are approximations for some values Example: the following code for computing : double item = 1; double sum = 0; while (item!= 0) { // No guarantee item will be 0 or 0.0 sum += item; item -= 0.1; System.out.println(sum); Variable item starts with 1 and is reduced by 0.1 every time the loop body is executed The loop should terminate when item becomes 0 There is no guarantee that item will be exactly 0, because the floating-point arithmetic is approximated 0.1 is not represented exactly: 0.1 = 1/16 + 1/32 + 1/ / / / It is actually an infinite loop! 18

19 Caution: equality for reals One solution is to use ">= 0": double item = 1; double sum = 0; while (item >= 0) { sum += item; item -= 0.1; System.out.println(sum); 19

20 do-while Loops do { // Loop body; Statement(s); while (loop-continuation-condition); Statement(s) (loop body) true Loop Continuation Condition? false 20

21 Why use do while? For when you have a loop body that must execute at 21 least once. For example: a program menu: Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in); String selection; int counter = 0; do{ System.out.println("Choose a Menu Option:"); System.out.println("P) Print Counter"); System.out.println("Q) Quit"); System.out.print("ENTER: "); selection = in.nextline(); if (selection.touppercase().equals("p")) System.out.println("Counter: " + counter++); while(!selection.touppercase().equals("q")); System.out.println("Goodbye!");

22 22 An Example Session: Choose a Menu Option: P) Print Counter Q) Quit ENTER: P Counter: 0 Choose a Menu Option: P) Print Counter Q) Quit ENTER: A Choose a Menu Option: P) Print Counter Q) Quit ENTER: P Counter: 1 Choose a Menu Option: P) Print Counter Q) Quit ENTER: Q Goodbye!

23 for Loops for (initial-action; loop-continuation-condition; action-after-each-iteration) { // loop body; Statement(s); int i; for (i = 0; i < 100; i++){ System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); Initial-Action i = 0 Loop Continuation Condition? false (i < 100)? false true Statement(s) (loop body) true System.out.println( "Welcome to Java"); Action-After-Each-Iteration i++ 23 (A) (B)

24 for loops and counting for loops are popular for counting loops through the indices of a string through the indices of an array (later) through iterations of an algorithm Good for algorithms that require a known number of iterations counter-controlled loops 24

25 Trace for Loop int i; for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) { System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); Declare i 25

26 Trace for Loop int i; for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) { System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); Execute initializer i is now 0 26

27 Trace for Loop int i; for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) { System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); (i < 2) is true since i is 0 27

28 Trace for Loop int i; for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) { System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); Print Welcome to Java 28

29 Trace for Loop int i; for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) { System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); Execute adjustment statement i now is 1 29

30 Trace for Loop int i; for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) { System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); (i < 2) is still true since i is 1 30

31 Trace for Loop int i; for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) { System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); Print Welcome to Java 31

32 Trace for Loop int i; for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) { System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); Execute adjustment statement i now is 2 32

33 Trace for Loop int i; for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) { System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); (i < 2) is false since i is 2 33

34 Trace for Loop int i; for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) { System.out.println( "Welcome to Java!"); Exit the loop. Execute the next statement after the loop 34

35 for loops The initial-action in a for loop can be a list of zero or more comma-separated expressions. The action-after-each-iteration in a for loop can be a list of zero or more commaseparated statements. for (int i = 0, j = 0; (i + j < 10); i++, j++){ // Do something for (int i = 1; i < 100; System.out.println(i++)); 35

36 Infinite loops If the loop-continuation-condition in a for loop is omitted, it is implicitly true: for ( ; ; ) { // Do something (a) Equivalent while (true) { // Do something (b) 36

37 Caution ; Adding a semicolon at the end of the for clause before the loop body is a common mistake: Logic Error for (int i=0; i<10; i++); { System.out.println("i is " + i); 37

38 Caution ; Adding a semicolon at the end of the while clause before the loop body is also a common mistake: Logic Error int i=0; while (i < 10); { System.out.println("i is " + i); i++; 38

39 Caution int sum = 0; for (int j=1; j<=4; j++){ sum = sum + j; j++; Be careful not to double the update of your counting variable 39

40 Which Loop to Use? while, do-while, and for loops are expressively equivalent while (loop-continuation-condition) { // Loop body (a) Equivalent for ( ; loop-continuation-condition; ) // Loop body (b) for (initial-action; loop-continuation-condition; action-after-each-iteration) { // Loop body; (a) Equivalent initial-action; while (loop-continuation-condition) { // Loop body; action-after-each-iteration; (b) 40

41 Using a flag A flag is a boolean loop control boolean moreworkflag = true; int factorial = 1; while (moreworkflag){ factorial *= N; N--; if (N == 1) moreworkflag = false; How does it work? flag used as loop condition inside the loop, test for ending condition when condition is reached, turn flag off once turned off, loop ends 41

42 Sums int sum = 0; for (int i=1; i<=4; i++) sum = sum + i; sum i

43 Nested Loops for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++){ for (int j = 1; j <= 10; j++){ int product = i*j; System.out.print(product + " "); System.out.print("\n");

44 Local Variables and Blocks A variable declared inside a block is known only inside that block it is local to the block, therefore it is called a local variable when the block finishes executing, local variables disappear references to it outside the block cause a compiler error That includes Init field of for loops: for(int i=0; i < 10; i++){... 44

45 Java Good programming Practice Do not declare variables inside loops it takes time during execution to create and destroy variables, so it is better to do it just once for loops) 45

46 Keywords break and continue 46 You can also use break in a loop to immediately terminate the loop: public static void main(string[] args) { int sum = 0; int number = 0; while (number < 20) { number++; sum += number; if (sum >= 100) // increments until the sum is break; // greater than 100 System.out.println("The number is " + number); System.out.println("The sum is " + sum); The number is 14 The sum is 105

47 Keywords break and continue 47 You can also use continue in a loop to end the current iteration and program control goes to the end of the loop body (and continues the loop): public static void main(string[] args) { int sum = 0; int number = 0; while (number < 20) { // adds integers from 1 to 20 number++; if (number ==10 number == 11) continue; sum += number; // except 10 and 11 to sum System.out.println("The number is " + number); System.out.println("The sum is " + sum); The number is 20 The sum is 189

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