# COMP-202 Unit 2: Java Basics. CONTENTS: Using Expressions and Variables Types Strings Methods

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1 COMP-202 Unit 2: Java Basics CONTENTS: Using Expressions and Variables Types Strings Methods

2 Assignment 1 Assignment 1 posted on WebCt and course website. It is due May 18th st at 23:30 Worth 6% Part programming, part binary/number conversions Start early!

3 Question: What if I have 2 variables x and y and I want to swap the contents of them? In other words, I want to write something so that afterwards x has the old value of y and y has the old value of x. COMP Introduction 3

4 Answer 1 The simplest way to do this is by making a third variable. We could call the variable temp For example to swap x and y: int temp = x; x = y; y = temp; //make sure the right of one line matches //with the left of next line COMP Introduction 4

5 Answer 2 What if I wanted to swap without using a 3 rd variable? x = x+y; y = x y; x = x - y; COMP Introduction 5

6 Answer 2 What if I wanted to swap without using a 3 rd variable? Suppose x starts out with value A and y has value B x = x+y; x now equals A+B y now equals B COMP Introduction 6

7 Answer 2 What if I wanted to swap without using a 3 rd variable? Suppose x starts out with value A and y has value B y = x-y; x now equals A+B y now equals A COMP Introduction 7

8 Answer 2 What if I wanted to swap without using a 3 rd variable? Suppose x starts out with original value A and y has value B x = x-y; x now equals B y now equals A COMP Introduction 8

9 Base- 13 Math In base 13, what is 9*6? To do this, we first calculate 9*6 in base-10 9*6 = 54 Now, remember in base-13, we can count up to 12 in one digit. So each digit is worth 13^0, 13^1, etc. COMP Introduction 9

10 Meaning of Life 42 = 4 *13^1 + 2 * 13^0 COMP Introduction 10

11 Solution: Store the results into a variable If we have a case like this, we can use a variable to store the results of a computation. To make a variable, you have to do 2 things: 1)Decide what kind of thing or type you want to store. -If you want to store an integer, this is called int in Java -If you want to store a number with a fractional part, this is normally called double in Java (also could be float) -If you want to store letters, this is usually done with something called a String in Java. COMP Introduction 11

12 Solution: Store the results into a variable 2)Decide on a name for your variable. Your variable can be named anything you like with a few exceptions: 1)It can only contain letters, numbers, and _ (no ; for example) 2)It must start with a letter 3)There must not be another variable with the same name in scope 4)Variable names are case sensitive so Foo is different than foo 5)There are a few words in Java that are reserved. You can't call your variables these (for example public ) COMP Introduction 12

13 Solution: Store the results into a variable Once you decide on a name and type, you can do what is known as declaring a variable by writing first the type and then the name and then a ; For example: int mean; would declare a variable which will store an integer. It will be called mean in further computations. At the beginning the variable mean has no value and is called uninitialized COMP Introduction 13

14 Solution: Store the results into a variable To store a value into a variable, you write: variablename = expression What this means is assign the value of the variable called variablename to be the value of expression The equals in Java is very different from the = in math. 1)It is not symmetric. a = b is not the same as b = a 2)It is a one time assignment. All that Java does is evaluate the expression and assign its value. 3)The types on the left and right side of the equal have to be the same. For example, you can't store letters into a number. COMP Introduction 14

15 Solution: Store the results into a variable Once you have a variable initialized, you can use it in any other computation: int mean; mean = ( ) / 5; System.out.println(1 mean); System.out.println(2- mean);... COMP Introduction 15

16 What if you don't declare a variable? If you write x = 5; without declaring x, you will get a compiler error. The error will complain that the compiler does not recognize the symbol x. COMP Introduction 16

17 Some basic types int : stores an integer number String : stores letters. For example Hello World double : stores real numbers (fractions) long : stores a long integer (up to 9 quintillion!) float : like double, can store numbers boolean : stores either true or false char : stores one character COMP Introduction 17

18 Mismatching types If you try to store something of type X in something of type Y, the Java compiler will complain. For example, int x; x = Hello What are the types of Hello and x COMP Introduction 18

19 Why does Java care anyway? Why does the Java compiler care that you are trying to store a string in an int? COMP Introduction 19

20 Why does Java care anyway? Answer: The problem is when you write int x; Java is setting aside enough memory to store 1 integer value. If you try to store a String in it, it doesn't know whether it will fit or not! COMP Introduction 20

21 Why does Java care anyway? In addition, every different type has a different conversion to binary. For example, the code will store a number if it represents an int The same code would represent some particular letter if it was a String. COMP Introduction 21

22 Java Program: Hello World public class HelloWorld { public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("Hello World!"); } } The first thing is that every program in java MUST be inside of a class. We'll go into more detail on what this means, but you can think of a class as grouping things together public class NAMEOFFILE { in it. (Note: we'll see later that this isn't always on the first line though!) COMP Introduction 22

23 Java Program: Hello World public class HelloWorld { public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("Hello World!"); } } Inside a class, there are (usually) 1 or more methods. A method is simply a group of instructions to Java that can have both an input and an output. Conceptually, it is like a function in math. In this case, the method is main() COMP Introduction 23

24 Java Program: Hello World public class HelloWorld { public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("Hello World!"); } } Every Java program you ever write has to have a main method. Not every class that you ever write in Java will have a main method. If you don't have a main method, you can compile your class, but you can't run it. COMP Introduction 24

25 Java Program: Hello World public class HelloWorld { public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("Hello World!"); } } Experiment: See what happens if you change public static void main(string[] args) to public static void Main(String[] args) Try 1)javac HelloWorld.java 2)java HelloWorld COMP Introduction 25

26 Java Program: Hello World public class HelloWorld { public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("Hello World!"); } } This method is called main because main is written before (String[] args). We often will call this the main method COMP Introduction 26

27 Multiple methods in a class A class can consist of many methods. Here is a class with many methods. They are called elmer, bugs, Bugs, daffy, and yosemitesam public class LoonieToons { public static void bugs() { } public void Bugs() { } //no link to bugs public int elmer() { } private static double daffy() { } public void yosemitesam(int wile, double coyote){} } COMP Introduction 27

28 Multiple methods in a class Because the class LoonieToons does not have a main method you can not run this class public class LoonieToons { public static void bugs() { } public void Bugs() { } //no link to bugs public int elmer() { } } private static double daffy() { } public void yosemitesam(int wile, double coyote){} COMP Introduction 28

29 The main() method Any program you ever write in Java will always start the the beginning of the main method. Remember that the beginning of a method is always marked by the { that immediately follows the name of the method. COMP Introduction 29

30 Using Methods If you write code in a method other than the main method, there are only 2 ways that your code will be executed: 1)If one of your commands inside the main method is to execute this method. 2)If one of your commands, which is inside a method called by the main method, is to execute this method (and so on if a command was to execute a method which had a command to execute a method which had a command to execute a method...) COMP Introduction 30

31 The name of a method Remember that you can figure out the name of a method by looking at the method header: public static void madness() {...method body/definition } Note that you can only call a method like this when the method madness() is part of the same method. For the time being, we are only using 1 class, so this will always be true unless we use library methods (will talk about later) COMP Introduction 31

32 Question: public class MethodTest { public static void madness() { System.out.println( I'm in madness!); } } public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println( I'm the main method );??????? System.out.println( Good-bye ); } What would you write instead of?????? to call the method madness? What will the program print? COMP Introduction 32

33 Question: public class MethodTest { public static int madness() { System.out.println( I'm in madness! ); } } public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println( I'm the main method ); madness(); System.out.println( Good-bye ); } COMP Introduction 33

34 Question: I'm the main method I'm in madness! Good-bye COMP Introduction 34

35 Watch out! Any variables you create inside one method are NOT related to variables of the same name in another method! Every method you ever write, will have it's own set of variables! COMP Introduction 35

36 Watch out! public static void confusing() { x = 0; ----->this is an error. x is undeclared! } public static void main(string[] args) { int x = 5; int y = 3; confusing(); } COMP Introduction 36

37 Watch out! public static void confusing() { int x = 0; ----->no error, but changes a different x. } public static void main(string[] args) { int x = 5; int y = 3; confusing(); System.out.println(x); } COMP Introduction 37

38 Watch out! public static void confusing() { x = 0; ----->this is an error. x is undeclared! } public static void main(string[] args) { int x = 5; int y = 3; } Note: Even if we don't call the method confusing(), we still get a compiler error. COMP Introduction 38

39 But what if I need my method to use the values of variables? There are 2 ways that you can share variables between methods: 1)You can actually declare a variable outside of any method (but inside a class). This has some confusing results (you need to write static before the variables) and is generally bad style. Don't do this on your assignments! 2)You can pass the values of variable(s) to your method. When you do this, every time your method is called, certain variables will have their values initialized already. COMP Introduction 39

40 But what if I need my method to use the values of variables? values 2)You can pass the of variable(s) to your method. COMP Introduction 40

41 But what if I need my method to use the values of variables? To pass the value of a variable(s) to a method, you have to do 2 things: 1)When you write the method header, specify the types and names that all variables initialized at the start of your method. These names can be whatever you want and don't have to be related to any other names in other methods. 2)When you call your method, you need to give values to the method to correspond with each variable listed in 1) COMP Introduction 41

42 Changing the method header public static void madness(int x) { } This means the method called madness can take 1 value as input. This value has to be of type int and it will be referred to as x inside the method. When we call the method madness(), we now have to give it one value. public static void main(string[] args) { madness(3); ----> calls madness. inside madness, x=3 madness(10-5); -->calls madness. inside madness,x=5 } COMP Introduction 42

43 Changing the method header public static void doublemad(int x, double y) { } This means the method called doublemad takes 2 values as input. The first of these values is of type int and will be called x. The second of these values is of type double and will be called y. doublemad(3,5.0); ----> calls doublemad, x=3, y=5.0 double foo = 100; doublemad(1,foo); ----> calls doublemad, x=1, y=100 doublemad(2, foo-1); --->calls doublemad,x=1, y=99 COMP Introduction 43

44 Changing the method header public static void doublemad(int x, double y) { } What do you think happens if we wrote: doublemad(3);??? doublemad(2,1,10);??? doublemad(1.5, 3 ) ;??? COMP Introduction 44

45 Changing the method header public static void doublemad(int x, double y) { } What do you think happens if we wrote: doublemad(3); too few arguments doublemad(2,1,10); too many arguments doublemad(1.5, 3 ) ; arguments of wrong type COMP Introduction 45

46 Trick question public static void swap(int a, int b) { int temp = a; a = b; b = temp; } public static void main(string[] args) { int x = 3; int y = 2; swap(x,y); System.out.println( x is + x + y is + y); } COMP Introduction 46

47 Trick question Remember that only the VALUE of the variable is given to the method, not the actual variable itself. This means that when we write swap(x,y), we are saying: call the method swap. The value of a and b inside swap should be 3 and 2 (respectively) inside the method swap. Inside the method swap(), we do actually swap the values of a and b. But it has no effect on the main COMP Introduction 47

48 Trick question public static void swap(int x, int y) { int temp = x; --->still is no link between x in swap and main. Remember each method has its own set of variables. x = y; x = temp; } public static void main(string[] args) { int x = 3; int y = 2; swap(x,y); System.out.println( x is + x + y is + y); COMP Introduction 48

49 Getting a result from your method If you want to use a result from a method, you can do what is known as returning a value from the method. You can only get ONE (or zero) result from a method. There are 2 things you have to do: 1)Choose what type you want to get from the method. Once you have chosen that, specify it in the method header. 2)Write return expression inside the method at the point you want to give the result back. Whenever a return statement is reached, the method executes the return statement and LEAVES THE METHOD! COMP Introduction 49

50 Getting a result from your method public static int intreturner() { int x = 100; return x + 10; } If you declare a method to return an int, you HAVE to return an int. If we left off the return statement, the method would not compile. Note that you can have more than one return statement in a method once we add more complicated things like if statements. BUT only the first will be executed. COMP Introduction 50

51 Getting a result from your method public static int intreturner() { return 10; System.out.println( I just returned. ); } The above line is not printed because the method already returned at the above line. In fact, the compiler is smart enough in this case to know you have reached unreachable code and you will get a compiler error! COMP Introduction 51

52 Using the result of a method Once you have written a method to return type t, you can put a call to the method ANYWHERE that something of type t can appear. For example: int x = intreturner(); int y = intreturner() + 1; System.out.println(intReturner()); madness(intreturner()); COMP Introduction 52

53 Making the OUTPUT of your method depend on the INPUT A return statement can really be any expression, as long as the type specified in the method header matches the type in the return statement. This means, we can make a method depend on the input: public static int addone(int x) { return x+1; } int y = 3; System.out.println(addOne(y)); System.out.println(addOne(y) + addone(addone(y))); COMP Introduction 53

54 Reason for using a method There are many reasons to use methods and not just put everything in the main method. In many ways, a method is like a subprogram or a program within your program: 1)It has an input and output 2)Each method has its own set of variables This means that the method is very well self-contained. They help to keep our code well organized. COMP Introduction 54

55 Reason for using a method One big benefit of using methods is that you can repeat computations very easily. If you have a complicated computation with many statements in it, you can call the same method many times from your code without lots of copying and pasting. Another advantage is that... COMP Introduction 55

56 What happens in Vegas a method stays in a method This is good because once we write a method and test it, we never have to change it again COMP Introduction 56

57 Bug fixing Suppose you make a mistake in your computations and you never use methods. Because you did the same computation over and over again, now you have to change every single one of these. If you used a method, you just have to change the 1 place where the mistake happened. COMP Introduction 57

58 Exercise Write a method called celciustofahrenheit Your method should take as input a double representing a Celsius temperature and return a double, which is the original value but in Fahrenheit. Note: F = C * Now write how you would call this method. COMP Introduction 58

59 Important note! public static void CallAFunction(int airline) { System.out.println(airline); } a is just a name I'm calling a variable inside the method. I can replace it with any other valid Java identifier COMP Introduction 59

60 Important note! public static void CallAFunction(int delta) { System.out.println(delta); } a is just a name I'm calling a variable inside the method. I can replace it with any other valid Java identifier COMP Introduction 60

61 Important note! public static void CallAFunction(int aircanada) { System.out.println(aircanada); } a is just a name I'm calling a variable inside the method. I can replace it with any other valid Java identifier COMP Introduction 61

62 Important note! public static void CallAFunction(int united) { System.out.println(united); } a is just a name I'm calling a variable inside the method. I can replace it with any other valid Java identifier COMP Introduction 62

63 More on Variables and Expressions

64 What should I call my classes,variables and methods? Identifiers (what we call our methods or variables or classes) can have: any alphabetical letters (either case) numbers 0-9 (as long as it isn't the first character) _ (underscore) \$ Identifiers are case sensitive, so int b; is not the same as int B; COMP Introduction 64

65 Naming Conventions We have many conventions that we follow to make naming more consistent. Variables and Methods should all be lower-case EXCEPT for the FIRST letter of every word other than the first Method names should start with a verb Class names follow the same convention as variables except the FIRST letter is also capitalized Constants (we'll see later) must be ALL CAPITALS COMP Introduction 65

66 Examples: int ihatecomputers; //good! boolean ILoveComputers; //bad :( float COMPUTERSAREAWESOME; // bad :( double x; // bad-- not descriptive class MyClass; // good! class Myclass; // bad! public static int Computer() ; // bad no verb and cap C public static int turnoncomputer(); // good COMP Introduction 66

67 Types In Java, all variables and all values have a type A type is a category of values that a variable belongs to and determines: How to interpret and use the value it contains What are the possible values it can contain How much memory should be reserved COMP Introduction 67

68 Types In a computer, everything is stored as 1s and 0s (or on/off switches) Knowing the type of a variable tells the computer what the encoding is. COMP Introduction 68

69 Recall: int : stores an integer number double: stores a real number. float: also stores a real number (smaller than a double) String : stores words COMP Introduction 69

70 double If you write.0 after an integer constant, it will be stored as a double. int x = 3.0; COMP Introduction 70

71 double doubles can store real numbers with fractional values. They can not store an infinite amount of digits, for example in the number pi. They can only store to a limited precision. ex: double x = ; // can only store //some of the digits COMP Introduction 71

72 double If you write.0 after an integer constant, it will be stored as a double. int x = 3.0; int x = 3; OR double x = 3.0; COMP Introduction 72

73 Types : Example: Storing a float A float normally takes up 32 bits in memory. It is similar to a double except doubles use 64 bits To use a float, write f after the number (e.g. 3.0f) 1 bit is for plus or minus 5 bits are for the exponent (1 of which is for +/-) 10 bits are for the number COMP Introduction 73

74 Types : Example: Storing a float A float normally takes up 32 bits in memory. 1 bit is for plus or minus 8 bits are for the exponent (1 of which is for +/-) 23 bits are for the number sign signexp exponent base COMP Introduction 74

75 Types : Example: Storing a float A float normally takes up 32 bits in memory. 1 bit is for plus or minus 8 bits are for the exponent (1 of which is for +/-) 23 bits are for the number sign signexp exponent base = 2 * 2^(-3) COMP Introduction 75

76 Types : Example: Storing an int An int takes up 32 bits in memory 1 bit is for the sign other 31 bits are for the number sign number COMP Introduction 76

77 Types : Example: Storing an int An int takes up 32 bits in memory 1 bit is for the sign other 31 bits are for the number sign number = 10 COMP Introduction 77

78 Thought experiment Suppose Java gave no error when we write: int x = 6.0f ; 3.0f looks like the following as a float: sign signexp exponent base i.e. 3.0 * 2^1 COMP Introduction 78

79 Thought experiment sign signexp exponent base i.e. 3.0 * 2^1 When Java puts this number into an int, it will be read totally differently! COMP Introduction 79

80 Thought experiment sign number i.e Some languages, such as C, will allow you to do this without giving an error. (What are the pluses and minuses of this?) COMP Introduction 80

81 Types: Primitive vs. Reference There are two types in java: primitive and reference So far we have only seen primitive, except for String Primitive types represent very basic types (int, double, etc) COMP Introduction 81

82 Primitive Types There are exactly 8 primitive types in Java Positive and negative whole numbers: byte, short, int, long Positive and negative numbers with decimal parts ( floating points numbers ): float, double Characters (like a & * 6 /) char And one of them represents boolean values (true or false): boolean COMP Introduction 82

83 Real numbers vs floating point In a computer, we don't have an infinite amount of memory. Thus we can't actually store a number such as PI It is also difficult for a computer to store something like Problem is it stores it as base * 2^(some power) COMP Introduction 83

84 Char variables A character set is an ordered list of characters, and each character corresponds to a unique number A char variable stores a single character from the Unicode character set char gender; gender = 'M'; Unicode is an international character set, containing symbols and characters from many world languages Character values, also called character literals are delimited by apostrophes: 'a' 'X' '7' '\$' ',' '\n' COMP Introduction 84

85 But what about ' What if we want to store an ' inside of a char? char x = '''; // (three single quotes) It will think the 2 nd ' marks the end of the char! Answer: Use an escape sequence. To do this, write a \ before the character. char x = '\''; COMP Introduction 85

86 Boolean Values Boolean values are used to store things that are either true or false For example, we could create the variable. boolean isclassalmostover; COMP Introduction 86

87 Arithmetic Expressions An expression is any combination of operands and [optional] operators. An operand can be a literal value (like 5 or 3.14 or 'a'), a variable, or the value returned by a method call (like nextint()) Arithmetic expressions use the following operators Addition: Subtraction: Multiplication: Division: x + y x * y x / y x y COMP Programming Basics 87

88 Integer Division If both operands to the division operator (/) are integers, the result is an integer (the fractional part is discarded) 9 / 2 = 4 The remainder operator (%) returns the remainder after dividing the second operand by the first 1 0 % 3 = 1 Division by 0 with integers (e.g. 1 / 0) Produces run-time error The program has to avoid it, or it will crash COMP Programming Basics 88

89 Careful! You have to be careful. Things that are true in math are not necessarily true in Java. int x = (1 / 2 ) + ( 1 / 2 ) ; What is x? COMP Programming Basics 89

90 Careful! double x = 1/2; This does not work either. The problem is that both 1 and 2 are ints. When you divide 1 by 2 as ints you get 0. Then it is converted to a double but it is too late COMP Programming Basics 90

91 Better: double x = 1.0/2.0; OR double x =.5; COMP Programming Basics 91

92 Operator Precedence Operators can be combined into complex expressions: result = total + count / max offset; Operators have a well-defined precedence which determines the order in which they are evaluated 1)Expressions inside parentheses. 2)Multiplication (*), division (/), and remainder (%) 3)Addition (+) and subtraction (-) Parentheses and arithmetic operators with the same precedence are evaluated from left to right COMP Programming Basics 92

93 Operator Precedence Examples What is the order of evaluation in the a + b + c + d + e following expressions? a / (b + c) - d % e a + b * c - d / e a / (b * (c + (d - e))) COMP Programming Basics 93

94 Assignment Operator Sides The left-hand and right-hand sides of an assignment statement can contain the same variable: count = count + 1; Then, the overall result is stored into count, overwriting the original value First, 1 is added to the original value of count; the result is stored in a temporary memory location The fact that the assignment operator has lower precedence than arithmetic operators allows us to do this COMP Programming Basics 94

95 Meaning of life (part deux) Another explanation for 9*6 = 42 is order of operations Someone decided to be clever and write 9 as 1+8 and 6 as * = 42 COMP Programming Basics 95

96 Converting from one type to another Sometimes we want to convert from one type to another. For example, you might want to put an int into a double or a double into an int (as best you can). COMP Programming Basics 96

97 Widening conversion Converts something that takes up less memory to something that takes up more. e.g. int -----> double Usually no information lost. COMP Programming Basics 97

98 Narrowing conversion Converts something that takes up more memory to something that takes less more. e.g. double ----> int Usually some information lost. COMP Programming Basics 98

99 Types: Mixed Expressions Sometimes expressions will be complicated and have more than 1 type in them What if you try to do a mathematical operation on two different types. Ex: 3.5 * 2 The first operand is a double. The second operand is an int. COMP Programming Basics 99

100 Types: Mixed Expressions When you have mixed types like this, Java will always try to convert the NARROWER type to the WIDER type For example, if you mix an int and double in an expression, Java will convert the int to a double int x = 3.5 * 2; // error---> trying to put a double into int COMP Programming Basics 100

101 Types: Mixed Expressions What will x equal in the following? double x = 1.0 / 2 ; COMP Programming Basics 101

102 Types: Mixed Expressions What will y equal in the following? double y= 4 / / 3; COMP Programming Basics 102

103 Casting Sometimes you will want Java to force Java to turn an expression from one type to another For example, maybe we want to get the integer part of a number. Then you can CAST a double to an int. COMP Programming Basics 103

104 Casting Write in parenthesis the type you want to convert to, and place that before the expression you want to convert. e.g. int x = (int) 7.5; x is now set to be 7. Note: The conversions always round DOWN COMP Programming Basics 104

105 Casting Casting is very powerful Casting is very dangerous. You can lose information! COMP Programming Basics 105

106 Casting Casting is temporary: it does not change the type of the value in a variable for the rest of the program, only for the operation in which the value is cast e.g. double x = 3.5; int y = (int) x; x is still a double! COMP Programming Basics 106

107 Casting : Integer Division What happens in the following: double x = (double) 1 / 2; Note: The casting operation is performed BEFORE any other operation (unless there are parenthesis saying otherwise) COMP Programming Basics 107

108 Careful again! What happens in the following: double x = (double) (1 / 2); This is a case where you cast, but it is too late. The integer division has already been performed because of the parentheis COMP Programming Basics 108

109 Part 4: String Basics System.out.println( A String is + a sequence of characters + inside quotation marks. );

110 The String Type (1) As we saw earlier, a variable of type char can only store a single character value char c1 = 'a'; char c2 = '%'; To store an ordered sequence of characters, like a whole sentence, we can use a variable of type String COMP Programming Basics 110

111 String Concatenation (+) In Java, + can be used to concatenate strings hello + world results in "helloworld" hello + world results in hello world Notice the space before world number + (5 + 2) results in number 7 COMP Programming Basics 111

112 A String literal cannot be broken across two lines of source code The following code fragment causes an error: "This is a very long literal that spans two lines" The following code fragment is legal: "These are 4 short concatenated " + "literals " + "that are on separate source-code " + "lines" COMP Programming Basics 112

113 String Variables and Values Variables of type String are declared just like variables of other types String message; Actual String literals are delimited by double quotation marks (") String greeting = Hello! ; COMP Programming Basics 113

114 Comparing Strings Strings are reference types. This means that the value in the variable is actually the location in memory that the actual data is stored in (as opposed to just storing the data) What does this mean? Two Strings can actually store the different values (addresses) but the different addresses have the same contents! This will matter when we discuss comparing variables COMP Programming Basics 114

115 Mixed-Type Concatenation Remember: the plus operator (+) is used for both arithmetic addition and for string concatenation The function that the + operator performs depends on the type of the values on which it operates If both operands are of type String, or if one is of type String and the other is numeric, the + operator performs string concatenation (after "promoting" the numeric operand, if any, to type String by generating its textual representation) COMP Programming Basics 115

116 Mixed-Type Concatenation This suggests a useful trick to convert a value whose type is a primitive type to a String: concatenate the empty String "" with the value int i = 42; String s = "" + i; // s contains the String "42" COMP Programming Basics 116

117 Trick questions System.out.println( = ); System.out.println( is the same as 5+3 ); System.out.println( 5+3 = + (5+3)); Note: The + operator is evaluated from left to right COMP Programming Basics 117

118 += assignment Programmers got lazy and sick of constantly writing statements like x = x +5; So as a shortcut, you can write x += 5 ; to mean the same thing COMP Programming Basics 118

119 +=, -=, *=, /= assignment You can also do this with -,*, and / COMP Programming Basics 119

120 ++ operator They then got even lazier... The ++ operator can be used to add one to an int. int x = 5; x++; //adds one to x COMP Programming Basics 120

121 ++ operator You can also write it before the variable int x = 5; ++x; //adds one to x COMP Programming Basics 121

122 ++ operator The difference is the order of operations. x++ increments AFTER getting the value, ++x increments BEFORE getting the value int x = 5, y=5; System.out.println(x++); // prints 5, makes x=6 System.out.println(++y); //prints 6, makes y=6 COMP Programming Basics 122

123 -- operator Same as ++ except it decreases the value of the variable. int x = 5; x--; COMP Programming Basics 123

124 Recommendation To avoid any confusion here, it is strongly recommend that you only use increment statements by themselves. Do not do things like the following! double wtf = (double) (x x); It will just be confusing COMP Programming Basics 124

125 Constants (1) A constant is an identifier that is similar to a variable except that it holds one value for its entire existence In Java, we use the final modifier to declare a constant final double PI = 3.14; The compiler will issue an error if you try to assign a value to a constant more than once in the program final double PI = 3.14; // Some more statements... PI = 2.718; // Error: cannot assign a value to a // final variable more than once COMP Programming Basics 125

126 Next Class If statements Boolean (true/false) expressions Loops COMP Programming Basics 126

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