Declaration and Memory


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1 Declaration and Memory With the declaration int width; the compiler will set aside a 4byte (32bit) block of memory (see right) The compiler has a symbol table, which will have an entry such as Identifier Type Block Address width int 8 Note: No initialization is involved; there is only an association of a name with an address. width Integers vs. Reals Integers (byte, short, int, long): 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, Reals (double, float) include values with a decimal point; e.g., π e etc. 33 1
2 Reals (format, storage, range) Format Formatted according to the IEEE754 standard for floating point arithmetic Includes a fractional part and a power (the details needn t concern us here) Storage float 4 bytes double 8 bytes Range float ±10 38 with 7 significant digits double ± with 15 significant digits 34 Real Examples double x; double interestrate = 1.5; float z = 1.1f; double abc = 3.4E5; Float literal (default is double) Same as
3 What happens if Special Cases Division by zero Integers: throws an arithmetic exception Reals: assigns a fictitious value, NaN ( not a number ) Out of range result Integers: range is treated as circular Reals: assigns a fictitious value, Infinity 36 The Type boolean Stores the result of a condition Has only two possible values, true or false true and false are reserved words Boolean variables are not integers 37 3
4 The Character Type char A char is a letter, digit, or symbol Stores the code, not the typeface The codes for English use ASCII 1 char is thus an (unsigned) integer type Numeric coding of characters uses the Unicode character set Unicode has 64K codes (next three slides) 1 ASCII codes are the first 256 entries in the Unicode character set. Try Wikipedia for more details. 38 Figure A
5 Figure A.2 40 Figure A
6 Character literals are recognized by single quotes surrounding a character, e.g., 'A' Special characters, such a single quote itself, are represented as literals using escape sequences Character Literals 42 Primitive and Nonprimitive Types The eight types just introduced are short, byte, int, long, float, double, boolean, and char These are Java s primitive types They are internally supported Java also supports nonprimitive types (class, interface, array) The most common nonprimitive type is the String class (which supports literals) String literals: collection of characters enclosed in double quotes (e.g., "hello world") 43 6
7 Summary of Java s Primitive Types see next slide 44 N U M B E R PRIMITIVE TYPES I N T E G E R Type Size (bytes) Approximate Range min max S.D. S byte ? I G short 232, ,767? N E int ? D long ? UNSIGNED char ,535? R E SINGLE float A L DOUBLE double BOOLEAN boolean 1 true/false N/A
8 Topics Anatomy of a program The declaration statement The assignment statement 46 Assignment Statement The statement (from Area.java) width = 8; is of the general form name = value; Predeclared and inscope Type can hold RHS Content will be overwritten Literal Name, or Expression Note: RHS = righthand side, LHS = lefthand side 47 8
9 Examples int quantity; quantity = 25; int quantity = 25; int stock = quantity; int quantity = 25; char grade = B ; boolean isfound = false; double intrate = 1.25; int stock = 100; int order = 15; int total = order + stock; Declaration Assignment Declaration and assignment combined Name of variable on RHS Expression on RHS 48 Addition is Left to Right Note that int total = stock + order + 1; is the same as int total = (stock + order) + 1; Note: Parentheses force the enclosed operation to be performed first (which makes no difference in this case) 49 9
10 Summary of the int Arithmetic Operators see next slide 50 Precedence Operator Kind Syntax Operation 5 + infix x + y add y to x  infix x  y subtract y from x Lowest priority Highest priority * infix x * y multiply x by y / infix x / y divide x by y % infix x % y remainder of x / y + prefix +x identity  prefix x negate x ++ prefix ++x x = x + 1; result = x  prefix x x = x  1; result = x ++ postfix x++ result = x; x = x postfix x result = x; x = x
11 Division (/) Notes (1) For integer operands, the result is an integer rounded toward zero, so 5 / / 41 For real operands, the result is a real 5.0 / / Notes (2) Remainder (%) is the remainder after division I.e., a % b yields a (a / b) * b) 5 % % % 32 Note: the sign is always the same as the divisor 53 11
12 Notes (3) Auto increment (++), auto decrement () Prefix: Increment/decrement before using in an expression Postfix: Increment/decrement after using in an expression Example: If x is 5, z = ++x leads to z being 6 If x is 5, z = x++ leads to z being 5 In both cases above, x becomes
13 = / 52 * 3 % 4 56 = / 52 * 3 %
14 = / 52 * 3 % 4 = * 3 % 4 58 = / 52 * 3 % 4 = * 3 %
15 = / 52 * 3 % 4 = * 3 % 4 = % 4 60 = / 52 * 3 % 4 = * 3 % 4 = %
16 = / 52 * 3 % 4 = * 3 % 4 = % 4 = = / 52 * 3 % 4 = * 3 % 4 = % 4 =
17 = / 52 * 3 % 4 = * 3 % 4 = % 4 = = = / 52 * 3 % 4 = * 3 % 4 = % 4 = = 52 =
18 Note For the full scoop on Java operators, consult Oracle s Java Tutorials: 66 Mixing Types and Casting Promotion (aka widening conversion) Converts a lower type to a higher type (e.g., from int to float) Done automatically, when needed May lead to loss of precision, but the magnitude is preserved Demotion (aka narrowing conversion) Converts a higher type to a lower type (e.g., from double to long) Not done automatically Done explicitly using a cast Promotion and demotion illustrated (next slide) 67 18
19 double float Demotion long int Promotion byte short char 68 Promotion Demotion Examples float x = 1.5f; double xsquared = x * x; double x = 1.5; float xsquared = (float)(x * x); The result is a float, but it is automatically promoted to a double when assigned to xsquared. The initial result is a double, but it is cast down (i.e., demoted) to a float when assigned to xsquared
20 Notes The cast operation has a precedence that is higher than * but less than ++ The = operator has the lowest precedence of all operators There are shorthand operators to combine assignment with an operator: x op= y is shorthand for x = x op y E.g., x += 1 is like x = x Example int ivar = 15; long lvar = 2; float fvar = 7.6f  ivar / lvar; double dvar = 1L / lvar + fvar / lvar; int result = 100 * dvar; What is the value of result? Do in class: Put the statements into a Java program, fix if need be, and output the value of result
21 Thank You 72 21
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