# بسم اهلل الرمحن الرحيم

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1 بسم اهلل الرمحن الرحيم Fundamentals of Programming C Session # 10 By: Saeed Haratian Fall 2015

2 Outlines Examples Using the for Statement switch Multiple-Selection Statement do while Repetition Statement break and continue Statements Confusing Equality and Assignment Operators

3 Examples Using the for Statement Sum all the even integers from 2 to 100

4 Examples Using the for Statement Consider the following problem statement: A person invests \$ in a savings account yielding 5% interest. Assuming that all interest is left on deposit in the account, calculate and print the amount of money in the account at the end of each year for 10 years. Use the following formula for determining these amounts: a = p(1 + r) n where p is the original amount invested (i.e., the principal) r is the annual interest rate n is the number of years a is the amount on deposit at the end of the n th year. This problem involves a loop that performs the indicated calculation for each of the 10 years the money remains on deposit.

5 Examples Using the for Statement

6 Examples Using the for Statement

7 Examples Using the for Statement The for statement executes the body of the loop 10 times, varying a control variable from 1 to 10 in increments of 1. Although C does not include an exponentiation operator, we can use the Standard Library function pow for this purpose. The function pow(x, y) calculates the value of x raised to the y th power. It takes two arguments of type double and returns a double value. The header <math.h> (line 4) should be included whenever a math function such as pow is used. Actually, this program would malfunction without the inclusion of math.h, as the linker would be unable to find the pow function.

8 Examples Using the for Statement The conversion specifier %21.2f is used to print the value of the variable amount in the program. The 21 in the conversion specifier denotes the field width in which the value will be printed. If the number of characters displayed is less than the field width, then the value will automatically be right justified in the field. This is particularly useful for aligning floating-point values with the same precision (so that their decimal points align vertically). To left justify a value in a field, place a - (minus sign) between the % and the field width. The minus sign may also be used to left justify integers (such as in %-6d) and character strings (such as in %-8s).

9 switch Statement Occasionally, an algorithm will contain a series of decisions in which a variable or expression is tested separately for each of the constant integral values it may assume, and different actions are taken. This is called multiple selection. C provides the switch multiple-selection statement to handle such decision making. The switch statement consists of a series of case labels, an optional default case and statements to execute for each case. Figure 4.7 uses switch to count the number of each different letter grade students earned on an exam.

10 switch Statement

11 switch Statement

12 switch Statement

13 switch Statement

14 switch Statement

15 switch Statement In the program, the user enters letter grades for a class. The parenthesized assignment (grade = getchar()) executes first. The getchar function (from <stdio.h>) reads one character from the keyboard and stores that character in the integer variable grade. Characters are normally stored in variables of type char. However, an important feature of C is that characters can be stored in any integer data type because they re usually represented as onebyte integers in the computer. A list of the ASCII characters and their decimal values is presented in Appendix B. Characters can be read with scanf by using the specifier %c.

16 switch Statement We use EOF (which normally has the value -1) as the sentinel value. The user types a system-dependent keystroke combination to mean end of file i.e., I have no more data to enter. EOF is a symbolic integer constant defined in the <stdio.h> header. If the value assigned to grade is equal to EOF, the program terminates. Chose to represent characters in this program as ints because EOF has an integer value (normally -1). On Linux/UNIX/Mac OS X systems, the EOF indicator is entered by typing <Ctrl> d on a line by itself. On other systems, such as Microsoft Windows, the EOF indicator can be entered by typing <Ctrl> z

17 switch Statement Keyword switch is followed by the variable name grade in parentheses. This is called the controlling expression. The value of this expression is compared with each of the case labels. Assume the user has entered the letter C as a grade. C is automatically compared to each case in the switch. If a match occurs (case 'C':), the statements for that case are executed. In the case of the letter C, ccount is incremented by 1, and the switch statement is exited immediately with the break statement. The break statement causes program control to continue with the first statement after the switch statement.

18 switch Statement The break statement is used because the cases in a switch statement would otherwise run together. If break is not used anywhere in a switch statement, then each time a match occurs in the statement, the statements for all the remaining cases will be executed. If no match occurs, the default case is executed, and an error message is printed. Each case can have one or more actions. The switch statement is different from all other control statements in that braces are not required around multiple actions in a case of a switch.

19 switch Statement

20

21

22 switch Statement In the switch statement of Fig. 4.7, the lines cause the program to skip newline, tab and blank characters. Reading characters one at a time can cause some problems. To have the program read the characters, they must be sent to the computer by pressing the Enter key. This causes the newline character to be placed in the input after the character we wish to process. Often, this newline character must be specially processed to make the program work correctly.

23 switch Statement Listing several case labels together (such as case 'D': case 'd': in Fig. 4.7) simply means that the same set of actions is to occur for either of these cases. When using the switch statement, remember that each individual case can test only a constant integral expression i.e., any combination of character constants and integer constants that evaluates to a constant integer value. A character constant is represented as the specific character in single quotes, such as 'A'. Characters must be enclosed within single quotes to be recognized as character constants characters in double quotes are recognized as strings. Integer constants are simply integer values.

24 do while Repetition Statement The do while repetition statement is similar to the while statement. In the while statement, the loop-continuation condition is tested at the beginning of the loop before the body of the loop is performed. The do while statement tests the loop-continuation condition after the loop body is performed. Therefore, the loop body will be executed at least once. When a do while terminates, execution continues with the statement after the while clause. It s not necessary to use braces in the do while statement if there is only one statement in the body. However, the braces are usually included to avoid confusion between the while and do while statements.

25 do while Statement

26 do while Statement

27 break and continue The break and continue statements are used to alter the flow of control. The break statement, when executed in a while, for, do while or switch statement, causes an immediate exit from that statement. Common uses of the break statement are to escape early from a loop or to skip the remainder of a switch statement. Figure 4.11 demonstrates the break statement in a for repetition statement. When the if statement detects that x has become 5, break is executed. This terminates the for statement, and the program continues with the printf after the for.

28 break and continue

29 break and continue

30 break and continue The continue statement, when executed in a while, for or do while statement, skips the remaining statements in the body of that control statement and performs the next iteration of the loop. In while and do while statements, the loop-continuation test is evaluated immediately after the continue statement is executed. In the for statement, the increment expression is executed, then the loop-continuation test is evaluated. Earlier, we said that the while statement could be used in most cases to represent the for statement. The one exception occurs when the increment expression in the while statement follows the continue statement. Figure 4.12 uses the continue statement in a for statement to skip the printf statement and begin the next iteration of the loop.

31 break and continue

32 break and continue

33

34 Confusing Equality and Assignment There is one type of error that C programmers, no matter how experienced, tend to make frequently. That error is accidentally swapping the operators == (equality) and = (assignment). What makes these swaps so damaging is the fact that they do not ordinarily cause compilation errors. Rather, statements with these errors ordinarily compile correctly, allowing programs to run to completion while likely generating incorrect results through runtime logic errors.

35 Confusing Equality and Assignment Two aspects of C cause these problems. One is that any expression in C that produces a value can be used in the decision portion of any control statement. If the value is 0, it s treated as false, and if the value is nonzero, it s treated as true. The second is that assignments in C produce a value, namely the value that is assigned to the variable on the left side of the assignment operator.

36 Confusing Equality and Assignment For example, suppose we intend to write but we accidentally write The first if statement properly awards a bonus to the person whose paycode is equal to 4. The second if statement the one with the error evaluates the assignment expression in the if condition.

37 Confusing Equality and Assignment Programmers normally write conditions such as x == 7 with the variable name on the left and the constant on the right. By reversing these terms so that the constant is on the left and the variable name is on the right, as in 7 == x, the programmer who accidentally replaces the == operator with = is protected by the compiler. The compiler will treat this as a syntax error, because only a variable name can be placed on the left-hand side of an assignment expression. At least this will prevent the potential devastation of a runtime logic error.

38 Confusing Equality and Assignment The other side of the coin can be equally unpleasant. Suppose you want to assign a value to a variable with a simple statement like but instead write Here, too, this is not a syntax error. Rather the compiler simply evaluates the conditional expression.

39 Confusing Equality and Assignment If x is equal to 1, the condition is true and the expression returns the value 1. If x is not equal to 1, the condition is false and the expression returns the value 0. Regardless of what value is returned, there is no assignment operator, so the value is simply lost, and the value of x remains unaltered, probably causing an execution-time logic error. Unfortunately, we do not have a handy trick available to help you with this problem! Many compilers, however, will issue a warning on such a statement.

40 Any Questions?

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