# Overview of C, Part 2. CSE 130: Introduction to Programming in C Stony Brook University

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1 Overview of C, Part 2 CSE 130: Introduction to Programming in C Stony Brook University

2 Integer Arithmetic in C Addition, subtraction, and multiplication work as you would expect Division (/) returns the whole part of the division (the quotient) 12 / 3 is 4 15 / 2 is 7 Modulus (%) returns the remainder 12 % 3 is 0 15 % 2 is 1

3 Short hand Operators Some operators are shortcuts for others Ex. +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, ++, and -- x += 5; is the same as x = x + 5; y++; is the same as y = y + 1;

4 The Increment (++) and Decrement (--) Operators When used by themselves, y++ and ++y have identical results In an expression, they have different results The relative order of the operator matters: y++: use y s current value, then increment it ++y: increment y, then use the new value The same is true for decrement (--)

5 Operator Precedence Precedence rules specify the order in which operators are evaluated Remember PMDAS: Parentheses, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction Associativity determines left-right order

6 Precedence Examples 3-8 / 4 / has the highest precedence, so we compute 8 / 4 first, then subtract the result from 3 Equivalent expression: 3 - (8 / 4) What is the value of 3 * / 2?

7 Precedence Examples and - have equal precedence, so this expression is evaluated left to right: (((((5-3) + 4) + 2) - 1) + 7) The innermost parentheses are evaluated first

8 Parentheses Parentheses can be used to force a different order of evaluation: 12-5 * 2 produces 2 (12-5) * 2 produces 14

9 Expression Examples What do the following expressions evaluate to? * 3 (1 + 2) * 3 13 % 5 23 % 4 * 6

10 More Expression Examples 27.0 / / 6 27 / 6 Given: int x = 5; int y = x++ * 6; int y = ++x * 6;

11 printf() and scanf() revisited Each of these functions takes a list of arguments (input values): a control string an optional list of other arguments (data) The control string determines how the other arguments are displayed

12 Control Strings A control string may contain one or more conversion specifications (formats) conversion specifications are replaced (or substituted) by the arguments that follow the control string, in order They begin with a % and end with a conversion character For example, the statement printf( %s, abc ); will replace %s with abc in the final output

13 printf() Conversion Characters Conversion character c d e f g s How the corresponding argument is printed as a character as a decimal integer as a floating-point number in scientific notation as a floating-point number in the e-format or f-format, whichever is shorter as a string

14 Three Equivalent Statements printf( abc ); printf( %s, abc ); printf( %c%c%c, a, b, c );

15 Fields A field is the area where an argument is printed The field width is the number of characters that make up the field Field width can be specified as an integer between the % and the conversion character For example, printf( %c%3c%5c, a, b, c ); will print a b c

16 Control Strings for scanf() scanf() is used to collect user input from the keyboard It is called with a control string and a list of addresses The control string conversion specifiers describe how the input stream characters should be interpreted The addresses correspond to the memory locations where variables are stored

17 Parsing Data scanf() will skip whitespace (tabs, blanks, and newlines) when reading in numbers Whitespace is NOT skipped when scanf() is reading in characters

18 scanf() Conversion Characters Conversion character How input stream characters are converted c as a character d as a decimal integer f as a floating-point number (float) lf or LF as a floating-point number (double) s as a string

19 #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { char c1, c2, c3; int i; float x; double y; printf( \n%s\n%s, Input three characters,, an int, a float, and a double: ); } scanf( %c%c%c%d%f%lf, &c1, &c2, &c3, &i, &x, &y); printf( \nhere is the data that you typed in:\n ); printf( %3c%3c%3c%5d%17e%17e\n\n, c1, c2, c3, i, x, y); return 0;

20 Return Values printf() and scanf() each return an integer value when they complete printf() returns the number of characters printed, or a negative value if an error occurred scanf() returns the number of successful conversions or the system-defined end-of-value.

21 Flow of Control

22 Control Flow Normally, C programs are executed sequentially We can alter this process using conditionals (which provide alternative actions) and loops (which repeat groups of statements)

23 Conditions Conditional statements execute a test to determine which path to follow This test consists of an expression that is evaluated Normally, this expression compares two or more values

24 True and False Values Any expression with a non-zero value is considered to be true Ex. 1, , -23 An expression is only false if its value is 0 Common programming error: using = (assignment) instead of == (equality) Ex. if (x = 5)

25 Relational Operators Operator Meaning Example < Less than age < 30 > Greater than height > 6.2 <= Less than or equal to taxable <= >= Greater than/equal to temp >= 98.6 == Equal to grade == 100!= Not equal to number!= 250

26 The if Statement General form: if ( condition ) statement (or block of statements) to be executed if condition is true Ex. if (length < 2) printf( Too short!\n );

27 The if-else Statement Select one of two possible execution paths, based on the result of a comparison General format: if ( expression ) statement block 1 else statement block 2

28 Compound Statements if and else only execute a single following statement We can get around this by enclosing multiple statements in curly braces The resulting block is called a compound statement Style suggestion: always use curly braces around the body of an if or else clause

29 if (key == F ) { contemp = (5.0/9.0) * (intemp ); printf( Converted to Celsius\n ); } else { contemp = (9.0/5.0) * intemp ; printf( Converted to Fahrenheit.\n ); }

30 Iterative Programming Many programs perform the same task many times Operations are repeated on different data Ex.Adding a list of numbers Ex. Displaying a menu of options Repetitive tasks are specified using loops

31 Loop Elements All loop constructs share four basic elements: 1.Initialization 2.Testing the loop condition 3.The loop body (the task to be repeated) 4.The loop update The order of these elements may vary

32 Initialization This section of code is used to set starting values For example, setting a total to 0 initially This can be done as part of the loop, or separately before the loop code begins

33 Loop Tests Test expressions are used to determine whether the loop should execute (again) Tests compare one value/variable with another If the test evaluates to TRUE, then the loop will execute another time

34 Loop Update This step changes the value(s) of the loop variable(s) before the loop repeats Ex. moving to the next item to process This can be done explicitly as part of the loop, or it can be done inside the loop body

35 while Loops while loops can execute an arbitrary number of times Order of execution: 1. Initialization 2. Loop condition test 3. Loop body 4. Loop update

36 General Form initialization while ( loop condition test ) { loop body loop update }

37 while Loop Example int countdown = 5; while (countdown >= 0) { printf( %d..., countdown); countdown--; }

38 Loop Output

39 Another Example int root = 0; while (root < 10) { root += 1; printf( %d * %d =, root, root); printf( %d\n, root * root); }

40 root output 0 1 * 1 = * 2 = * 3 = * 4 = * 5 = * 6 = * 7 = * 8 = * 9 = * 10 = 100

41 for Loops for loops execute a fixed number of times Order of execution: 1.Initialization 2.Loop condition test 3.Loop body 4.Loop update

42 General Form for ( initialization ; loop condition test ; loop update ) { loop body }

43 for Loop Example int i; for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) { printf( %d, i); }

44 Loop Output

45 Another Example int nextnumber, i, sum = 0; for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) { printf( \nenter a number: ); scanf( %d, nextnumber); sum += nextnumber; }

46 i nextnumber sum

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