Lecture 23 Overview. Last Lecture. This Lecture. Next Lecture ADSL, ATM. Wireless Technologies (1) Source: chapters 6.2, 15

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1 Lecture 23 Overview Last Lecture ADSL, ATM This Lecture Wireless Technologies (1) Wireless LAN, CSMA/CA, Bluetooth Source: chapters 6.2, 15 Next Lecture Wireless Technologies (2) Source: chapter 16,

2 Covered by IEEE variations Original (1997) Wireless LAN 1-2Mbps 900 MHz or 2.4 GHz a (1999) 54Mbps in 5GHz range b (Wi-Fi) (1999) 11Mbps in 2.4GHz range g (2003) 54Mbps in 2.4GHz range n (2009) multiple-input multiple-output antennas (MIMO), 54Mbit/s to 600Mbit/s. 2

3 IEEE Architectures Basic Service Set (BSS) Stationary or mobile wireless s An optional access point (AP) Configurations ad-hoc architecture: without an AP, can not send data to other BBSs (WiFi-Direct) Infrastructure: with an AP (most commonly used) laptop laptop AP Ad hoc Infrastructure 3

4 IEEE Physical Layer Spread spectrum: spreads the signal s spectral energy over a wide range of frequencies (i.e., larger bandwidth) Less prone to interference More secure as a intruder trying to listen at a particular frequency gets only a small part of the signal. Two spread spectrum technologies Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) 4

5 FHSS Developed in the early 1940s Operate on a set of frequencies that all lie in the broadcast range Transmit using one frequency for a fixed period of time and then switches to the next frequency Using a pseudo-random number generator to generate the frequency sequence so that both the transmitter and the receiver have the same sequence 5

6 DSSS DSSS expands a single data bit into n bits The transmitter starts with a string of data bits For each bit, generate a pseudorandom bit string, called a chipping sequence, containing n bits. Combine each data bit and the chipping sequence to create a chip code and transmit the chip code. 1Mbps data rate 4Mbps transmission rate 6

7 Hidden Station Problem Different s may have different transmission range. Range of B Range of C laptop B laptop A Solution: handshaking RTS/CTS laptop C AP Request To Send (RTS)/Clear To Send (CTS) B A C laptop AP laptop A laptop RTS laptop laptop laptop laptop Distribution2System CTS Distribution2System AP CTS Server Distribution2SystemAP Server Server 7

8 Exposed Station Problem The reverse of the hidden problem Range of A Range of B Range of C laptop B laptop A laptop C laptop D laptop laptop laptop Handshaking can not help B A C AP AP D AP AP laptop RTS laptop RTS laptop laptop laptop laptop laptop statio Data CTS AP AP Distribution2System Distribution2System Distribution2System Distribution2System Server Server Data Server Server RTS RTS CTS AP Server statio Se Se 8

9 IEEE MAC Sublayer Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) Why cannot Wireless LANs use CSMA/CD? To detect collision, a must be able to transmit and listen at the same time. Collision may not be detected because of the hidden problem The distance between s can be large. Signal fading could prevent a at one end from detecting a collision at the other end. 9

10 CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) Try to avoid collisions instead of detecting collisions. Collisions can still occur. Use the binary exponential backoff algorithm. Three strategies to reduce collisions Interframe space Contention window Acknowledgment 10

11 CSMA/CA (cont.) Continuously sense Found idle IFS Binary exponential busy Contention window Send frame Time-out Time Interframe Space (IFS) A period of time waited after an idle channel is found Another may have already started transmitting, but the signal has not reach this destination. Prioritize s or frame types, e.g., a that is assigned a shorter IFS has a higher priority. 11

12 CSMA/CA (cont.) Contention window An amount of time divided into slots A that is ready to send choose a random number of slots as its wait time. Binary exponential back-off: double the window size each time the cannot detect an idle channel after the IFS time. Acknowledgement Frame may still get collided. Guarantee the receiver has received the frame 12

13 CSMA/CA (cont.) Wait for frame to transmit Medium No idle? Yes Wait IFS Still No idle? Yes Transmit frame Wait until current transmission ends Wait IFS Still idle? Yes Exponential backoff while medium idle No Transmit frame 13

14 Bluetooth A technology in which a microchip containing a radio transceiver is embedded in electronic devices and allows the devices to communicate without wires or cables Communication between wireless mouse or keyboard with the computer Share information between different mobile phones Bluetooth LAN An ad hoc network that formed spontaneously by Bluetooth devices Wireless Personal-area Network (PAN) IEEE

15 Piconets (small net) Bluetooth Architecture Up to eight s One called primary, the rest called secondaries 15

16 Scatternet Bluetooth Architecture (cont.) Consist of two or more piconets. A secondary in one piconet can be the primary in another piconet 16

17 Bluetooth Radio Layer Roughly equivalent to the physical layer in the Internet model Low power and transmission range of 10m FHSS Hops 1600 times per second, Uses each frequency for only 625 µs (1/1600 s) 17

18 Bluetooth Baseband Layer Roughly equivalent to the MAC layer in LANs TDD-TDMA (time-division duplex TDMA) Half-duplex communication Time slot is 625 µs Single-secondary communication Primary uses even-numbered slots (0, 2, 4, ) Secondary uses odd-numbered slots (1, 3, 5, ) Primary 625µs 366µs Hop Hop Secondary Hop f 0 f 1 f 2 f 3 Hop 18

19 Bluetooth Baseband Layer (cont.) Multiple-secondary communication Primary uses even-numbered slots (0, 2, 4, ) A secondary sends in the next odd-numbered slot if the packet in the previous slot was addressed to it. Primary 625µs 366µs Hop Hop Secondary 1 Hop Secondary 2 f 0 f 1 f 2 f 3 Hop 19

20 IEEE Summary FHSS DSSS Hidden/Exposed Station Problem CSMA/CA Bluetooth 20

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