Chapter 6 Wireless and Mobile Networks. Chapter 6 outline. Chapter 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks. Elements of a wireless network.

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1 Chapter 6 Wireless and obile Networks Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet, 3 rd edition. Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley, July Chapter 6: Wireless and obile Networks Background: # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phone subscribers! computer nets: laptops, palmtops, DAs, Internet-enabled phone promise anytime untethered Internet access two important (but different) challenges communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6-2 Chapter 6 outline Elements of a wireless 6. Introduction Wireless 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics CDA 6.3 IEEE 802. wireless LANs ( wi-fi ) 6.4 Cellular Internet Access architecture standards (e.g., G) obility 6.5 rinciples: ing and routing to mobile users 6.6 obile I 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular s 6.8 obility and higherlayer protocols 6.9 ummary wireless hosts laptop, DA, I phone run applications may be stationary (non-mobile) or mobile wireless does not always mean mobility 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6-3 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6-4

2 Elements of a wireless Elements of a wireless base station typically connected to wired relay - responsible for sending packets between wired and wireless host(s) in its area e.g., cell towers 802. access points wireless link typically used to connect mobile(s) to base station also used as backbone link multiple access protocol coordinates link access various data rates, transmission distance 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6-5 6: Wireless and obile Networks bps 384 Kbps 56 Kbps Characteristics of selected wireless link standards 5 bps bps 802.{a,g} b Indoor UT/WCDA, CDA2000 Outdoor I-95 CDA, G id range outdoor Long range outdoor 3G 2G Elements of a wireless mode base station connects mobiles into wired handoff: mobile changes base station providing connection into wired 0 30m m 200m 4Km 5Km 20Km 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6-7 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6-8

3 Elements of a wireless Ad hoc mode no base stations nodes can only transmit to other nodes within link coverage nodes organize themselves into a : route among themselves Wireless Link Characteristics Differences from wired link. decreased signal : radio signal attenuates as it propagates through matter (path loss) interference from other sources: standardized wireless frequencies (e.g., 2.4 GHz) shared by other devices (e.g., phone); devices (motors) interfere as well multipath propagation: radio signal reflects off objects ground, arriving ad destination at slightly different times. make communication across (even a point to point) wireless link much more difficult 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6-9 6: Wireless and obile Networks 60 Wireless characteristics ultiple wireless senders and receivers create additional problems (beyond multiple access): A Hidden terminal problem B, A hear each other B, C hear each other A, C can not hear each other means A, C unaware of their interference at B C B A B C A s signal space C s signal ignal fading: B, A hear each other B, C hear each other A, C can not hear each other interferring at B 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6 Code Division ultiple Access (CDA) used in several wireless broadcast s (cellular, satellite, etc) standards unique code assigned to each user; i.e., code set partitioning all users share same frequency, but each user has own chipping sequence (i.e., code) to encode data encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence) decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping sequence allows multiple users to coexist and transmit simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are orthogonal ) 6: Wireless and obile Networks 62

4 CDA Encode/Decode CDA: two-sender interference sender data bits code d = d 0 = slot slot 0 Z i,m = d i. cm Z i,m slot slot 0 received input receiver code slot slot 0 D i = Σ Z. i,m cm m= d = slot d 0 = slot 0 6: Wireless and obile Networks 63 6: Wireless and obile Networks 64 Chapter 6 outline IEEE 802. Wireless LAN 6. Introduction Wireless 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics CDA 6.3 IEEE 802. wireless LANs ( wi-fi ) 6.4 Cellular Internet Access architecture standards (e.g., G) obility 6.5 rinciples: ing and routing to mobile users 6.6 obile I 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular s 6.8 obility and higherlayer protocols 6.9 ummary 802.b GHz unlicensed radio spectrum up to bps direct sequence spread spectrum (D) in physical layer all hosts use same chipping code widely deployed, using base stations 802.a 5-6 GHz range up to 54 bps 802.g GHz range up to 54 bps All use CA/CA for multiple access All have base-station and ad-hoc versions 6: Wireless and obile Networks 65 6: Wireless and obile Networks 66

5 802. LAN architecture 802.: Channels, association B A Internet hub, switch or router A B 2 wireless host communicates with base station base station = access point (A) Basic ervice et (B) (aka cell ) in mode contains: wireless hosts access point (A): base station ad hoc mode: hosts only 6: Wireless and obile Networks b: 2.4GHz-2.485GHz spectrum divided into s at different frequencies A admin chooses frequency for A interference possible: can be same as that chosen by neighboring A! host: must associate with an A scans s, listening for beacon frames containing A s name (ID) and AC selects A to associate with may perform authentication will typically run DHC to get I in A s subnet 6: Wireless and obile Networks 68 IEEE 802.: multiple access avoid collisions: 2 + nodes transmitting at same time 802.: CA - sense before transmitting don t collide with ongoing transmission by other node 802.: no collision detection! difficult to receive (sense collisions) when transmitting can t sense all collisions in any case: hidden terminal, fading goal: avoid collisions: CA/C(ollision)A(voidance) A C B A B C A s signal C s signal IEEE 802. AC rotocol: CA/CA 802. sender if sense idle for DIF then transmit entire frame (no CD) 2 if sense busy then start random backoff time timer counts down while idle transmit when timer expires if no ACK, increase random backoff interval, repeat receiver - if frame received OK return ACK after IF DIF sender data ACK receiver IF space 6: Wireless and obile Networks 69 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6-20

6 Avoiding collisions (more) Collision Avoidance: RT-CT exchange idea: allow sender to reserve rather than random access of data frames: avoid collisions of long data frames sender first transmits small request-to-send (RT) packets to B using CA RTs may still collide with each other (but they re short) B broadcasts clear-to-send (CT) in response to RT CT heard by all nodes A RT(A) RT(A) CT(A) A reservation collision CT(A) B RT(B) sender transmits data frame other stations defer transmissions DATA (A) defer Avoid data frame collisions completely using small reservation packets! time ACK(A) ACK(A) 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6-2 6: Wireless and obile Networks frame: ing 802. frame: ing frame duration 2 3 seq 4 payload CRC H R router Internet A Address : AC of wireless host or A to receive this frame Address 2: AC of wireless host or A transmitting this frame Address 3: AC of router interface to which A is attached R AC addr A AC addr dest. source frame A AC addr H AC addr R AC addr frame 6: Wireless and obile Networks : Wireless and obile Networks 6-24

7 802. frame: more 802.: mobility within same subnet frame duration of reserved transmission time (RT/CT) duration 2 3 seq frame seq # (for reliable ARQ) 4 payload CRC rotocol To From ore ower ore Type ubtype Retry WE Rsvd version A A frag mgt data H remains in same I subnet: I can remain same switch: which A is associated with H? self-learning (Ch. 5): switch will see frame from H and remember which switch port can be used to reach H BB A router hub or switch A 2 H BB 2 frame type (RT, CT, ACK, data) 6: Wireless and obile Networks : Wireless and obile Networks : personal area less than 0 m diameter replacement for cables (mouse, keyboard, headphones) ad hoc: no master/slaves: slaves request permission to send (to master) master grants requests 802.5: evolved from Bluetooth specification GHz radio band up to 72 kbps aster device lave device radius of coverage arked device (inactive) 6: Wireless and obile Networks 6-27

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