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1 -1- [EEE 449] UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA First Semester Examination 2016/2017 Academic Session December 2016 / January 2017 EEE 449/4 COMPUTER NETWORKS [RANGKAIAN KOMPUTER] Duration : 3 hours [Masa : 3 jam] Please check that this examination paper consists of FIFTEEN (15) pages of printed material and ONE (1) page appendix before you begin the examination. English version from page TWO (2) to page EIGHT (8) and Malay version from page NINE (9) to page FIFTEEN (15). Sila pastikan bahawa kertas peperiksaan ini mengandungi LIMA BELAS (15) muka surat bercetak dan Lampiran SATU (1) muka surat bercetak sebelum anda memulakan peperiksaan ini. Versi Bahasa Inggeris daripada muka surat DUA (2) sehingga muka surat LAPAN (8) dan versi Bahasa Melayu daripada muka surat SEMBILAN (9) sehingga muka surat LIMA BELAS (15). Instructions: This question paper consists of SIX (6) questions. Answer FIVE questions. All questions carry the same marks. [Arahan: Kertas soalan ini mengandungi ENAM (6) soalan. Jawab LIMA soalan. Semua soalan membawa jumlah markah yang sama] Answer to any question must start on a new page [Mulakan jawapan anda untuk setiap soalan pada muka surat yang baharu]. In the event of any discrepancies, the English version shall be used. [Sekiranya terdapat sebarang percanggahan pada soalan peperiksaan, versi Bahasa Inggeris hendaklah diguna pakai]. 2/-

3 -3- [EEE 449] 2. (a) A frame of size 5 million bits that is being sent on a link with 10 routers each having a queuing time of 2 µs, and a processing time of 1 µs. The length of the link is 2,000 km. The speed of light inside the link is 2 x 10 8 m/s. The link has bandwidth of 5 Mbps. (i) Calculate the total delay (latency). (ii) Between the propagation time and transmission time, which component of the total delay is dominant? Which one is negligible between them? (iii) Create a scenario which reverses the answers in part (ii). (30 marks) The input stream to a 4B/5B block encoder is as the following; Answer the following questions: (i) Determine the output stream. (ii) Determine the length of the longest consecutive sequence of 0s in the input stream. (iii) Determine the length of the longest consecutive sequence of 0s in the output stream. (iv) Comment on the advantage of the data pattern in the output stream. You are required to design a simple communication system, where data should be transmitted via a noisy channel. The binary data from a source are modulated witha specific modulation scheme. The modulated data are transmitted via a channel with 2-MHz bandwidth. The noisy channel Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in decibel is 20dB. Based on the information given; (i) Determine the appropriate possible combinations of the bit rate and signal level that satisfies the requirement above. (30 marks) (ii) If the minimum transmission rate for the application is 10, determine the lowest possible transmission rate (from part (i) above) and determine the appropriate modulation scheme to be used. Draw the appropriate constellation diagram (please indicate the associated binary data for every symbol). 4/-

4 -4- [EEE 449] 3. (a) Assume that a source voice channel occupies a bandwidth of 4 khz. Suppose that several voice channels need to be multiplexed into a high bandwidth link using FDM with guard bands of 1 KHz. [Hint: choose your appropriate modulator frequencies, where the multiplexed bandwidth is in the range of khz] (i) Draw the appropriate frequency domain multiplexing and de-multiplexing diagram for 3 source voice channels with modulator frequency of. (ii) Calculate the multiplexed bandwidth with guard band and without guard band. Figure 3 below shows the synchronous TDM with a data stream for each input with bit rate of 1 Mbps and one data stream for the output. It is assumed that the unit of data is 1 bit. Find the following; (i) The input bit duration. (ii) The output bit duration (iii) The output frame duration (iv) The output frame duration if the data unit is changed to 2 bit. (40 marks) Figure 3 Synchronous TDM 5/-

5 -5- [EEE 449] Figure 3 below shows another different de-multiplexer in a synchronous TDM system (not part of the de-multiplexer for part b). If the input is 16 bits long (no framing bit), and each time slot occupies 4-bit data in the multiplexed bit stream. (i) What is the bit stream at each of the output of de-multiplexer? (ii) What is the bit stream at each of the input of the multiplexer? Figure 3 Time Division Multiplex 4. A simple computer communication system is designed with a host source, router and host destination. Alice (host) needs to send a datagram to Bob (destination), where the communication passes through a router. The system is designed to follow the first protocol layering. (a) Draw the schematic diagram of the computer network system and at each node label the IP addresses and the link layer addresses. (10 marks) (d) Draw the activities at Alice s site based on protocol layering. Explain the scenario at the data link layer, network layer and physical layer. (30 marks) Draw the activities at Router s side based on protocol layering. Explain the scenario at the data link layer, network layer and physical layer. (30 marks) Draw the activities at Bob s site based on protocol layering. Explain the scenario at the data link layer, network layer and physical layer. (30 marks) 6/-

6 -6- [EEE 449] 5. (a) The Stop and Wait protocol as in Figure 5(a), uses both flow and error control. In this protocol, the sender sends one frame at a time and waits for the acknowledgment (ACK) before sending the next one. Figure 5(a): FSM for the stop and wait protocol By referring Figure 5(a), describe what happens in each of the following cases: (i) The sender is at ready state and an error free ACK arrives. (15 marks) (ii) The sender is at the blocking state and a time out occurs. (15 marks) (iii) The sender is at the ready state and a time out occurs. (15 marks) Data link on design and procedures for communication between two adjacent nodes: node-to-node communication. In the Stop and Wait protocol, there are both flow and error controls, but communication is a frame at a time. Generally, data are transferred between the sending node and the receiving node using this protocol with the following scenario; o The first frame is sent and acknowledged. o The second frame is sent and acknowledged, but the acknowledgment is lost. o The frame is resent, and acknowledged. 7/-

7 -7- [EEE 449] (i) Sketch a flow diagram to demonstrate packet, frame and ACK that flow between the sending node and receiving node. Indicate the duplication problem in the created diagram. (25 marks) (ii) Suggest a solution to the frame duplication problem in part (i). Sketch aflow diagram to demonstrate packet, frame and ACK that flow between the sending node and receiving node. (30 marks) 6. (a) Suppose you are to design a LAN for a company that has 150 employees, each given a desktop computer attached to the LAN. What should be the data rate of the LAN if the typical use of the LAN is described below? (i) Each employee needs to retrieve a file of average size of 10 megabytes in a second An employee may do this on average 10 times during the eight hour working time. (10 marks) (ii) Each employee needs to access the Internet at 250 kbps. This can happen for 10 employees simultaneously. (15 marks) (iii) Each employee may receive 10 s per hour with an average size of 100 Kilobytes. Half of employees may receive s simultaneously. (15 marks) To minimize the chance of collision and, therefore, increase the performance, the CSMA method was developed. Identify the strategies in CSMA/CA that are used to avoid collision. 8/-

8 -8- [EEE 449] A cable fault has caused the wired Local Area Network in Figure 6 to stop functioning. Three laptops then switched to a wireless local area network as in Figure 6. Figure 6 (i) (ii) Describe the problem that can happen when both laptops A and C attempt to send data to laptop B simultaneously using the CSMA/CD protocol. Propose a new set of actions to be taken by A, B,and C so that the problem can be resolved. 9/- -oooooooo-

9 -9- [EEE 449] VERSI BAHASA MALAYSIA 1. (a) Dengan menggunakan perkataan anda sendiri, terangkan dengan ringkas perkara berikut; (i) Bezakan antara penghantaran jalur asas dan jalur lebar (laluan jalur) penghantaran. (ii) Bezakan antara kadar data dan kadar isyarat. (iii) Bezakan antara elemen isyarat dan elemen data. (iv) Bezakan antara pelemahan dan herotan dalam kemerosotan saluran. Terangkan yang berikut dengan menunjukkan gambar rajah; (i) Prinsip pertama untuk lapisan protokol. (ii) Prinsip kedua untuk lapisan protokol. Satu hos berkomunikasi dengan hos yang lain dengan menggunakan protokol TCP /IP suite dalam LIMA lapisan. (i) Apakah unit data yang dihantar atau diterima di setiap lapisan? (ii) Apakah jenis-jenis alamat atau pengecam digunakan pada lapisan-lapisan aplikasi, rangkaian dan pautan data? (d) Protokol lapisan boleh didapati dalam banyak aspek kehidupan kita seperti semasa dalam perjalanan dari asrama anda ke rumah anda semasa rehat separuh penggal. Bayangkan anda membuat perjalanan pergi balik untuk menghabiskan masa di rumah anda. Dengan mengandaikan anda menggunakan pengangkutan awam pulang ke rumah dari bandar berdekatan, yang memerlukan beberapa proses yang terlibat. Anda juga perlu melalui beberapa proses apabila anda tiba di kampung halaman anda dan sampai ke rumah anda. Proses yang sama juga diperlukan apabila anda membuat perjalanan pulang ke universiti. Tunjukkan protokol lapisan untuk perjalanan pergi balik menggunakan sekurangkurangnya tiga lapisan untuk menerangkan perjalanan. (40 markah) 10/-

11 -11- [EEE 449] 3. (a) Anggapkan bahawa satu saluran sumber suara mempunyai jalur lebar 4 KHz. Katakan bahawa beberapa saluran suara perlu dimultiplekskan ke dalam pautan jalur lebar yang tinggi menggunakan FDM dengan jalur pengawal 1 KHz. [Petunjuk: pilih frekuensi modulator anda yang sesuai, di mana jalur lebar terhasil daripada proses multiplek adalah dalam lingkungan KHz] (i) Lukiskan dalam domain frekuensi proses pemultipleksan dan depemultipleksan gambar rajah yang sesuai untuk saluran suara 3 sumber dengan frekuensi modulator daripada. (ii) Kira jalur lebar saluran multipleks dengan jalur pengawal dan tanpa jalur pengawal. Rajah 3 di bawah menunjukkan TDM segerak dengan aliran data bagi setiap masukan dengan kadar bit 1 Mbps dan satu aliran data untuk keluaran. Adalah diandaikan bahawa unit data adalah 1 bit. Carikan yang berikut; (i) Tempoh masukan bit. (ii) Tempoh keluaran bit. (iii) Tempoh kerangka keluaran. (iv) Tempoh kerangka keluaran sekiranya unit data ditukar kepada 2 bit. (40 markah) Rajah 3.1 TDM segerak Rajah 3 12/-

14 -14- [EEE 449] (i) (ii) Lakarkan satu gambar rajah untuk menunjukkan paket, kerangka dan ACK yang mengalir di antara nod penghantar nod dan penerima. Tunjukkan masalah pertindihan dalam rajah yang dibina. (25 Markah) Cadangkan satu penyelesaian kepada masalah pertindihan bingkai di atas dalam bahagian (i). Lakarkan gambarajah aliran untuk menunjukkan paket, kerangka dan ACK yang mengalir di antara nod penghantar nod dan penerima. (30 Markah) 6. (a) Anda dikehendaki untuk merekabentuk LAN untuk sebuah syarikat yang mempunyai 150 pekerja, setiap orang diberi komputer yang dihubungkan melalui LAN. Apa yang data yang sepatutnya daripada LAN jika penggunaan tipikal LAN ditunjukkan seperti senario di bawah? (i) Setiap pekerja perlu mendapatkan semula satu fail bersaiz purata 10 megabait dalam satu saat. Pekerja boleh melakukan ini pada purata 10 kali sepanjang masa bekerja lapan jam. (10 markah) (ii) Setiap pekerja perlu mengakses Internet pada 250 Kbps. Ini boleh berlaku atas 10 orang pekerja pada masa yang serentak. (15 markah) (iii) Setiap pekerja boleh menerima 10 e-mel setiap jam dengan saiz purata 100 Kilobait. Separuh daripada pekerja boleh menerima e-mel pada masa yang serentak. (15 markah) Untuk mengurangkan peluang perlanggaran dan, meningkatkan prestasi, kaedah CSMA itu telah dibangunkan. Kenalpasti apakah strategi dalam CSMA / CA yang digunakan untuk mengelakkan perlanggaran. 15/-

15 -15- [EEE 449] Kerosakan suatu kabel telah menyebabkan Rangkaian Kawasan Setempat berwayar dalam Rajah 6 telah berhenti fungsinya. Tiga komputer riba kemudian beralih ke rangkaian kawasan setempat tanpa wayar seperti dalam Rajah 6. Rajah 6 (i) (ii) Huraikan masalah yang boleh berlaku apabila kedua-dua komputer riba A dan C cuba untuk menghantar data ke komputer riba B serentak menggunakan protokol CSMA / CD. Cadangkan satu set baru tindakan yang boleh diambil oleh A, B, dan C supaya masalah ini dapat diselesaikan. 16/- -oooooooo- Appendix / Lampiran

16 -16- [EEE 449] Description/ Penerangan Formula 1 Propagation time: 2 Transmission time: 3 Nyquist capacity 4 Shannon capacity 5 Decibel 6 1/1 17/-

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