# Vehicle Routing Heuristic Methods

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1 DM87 SCHEDULING, TIMETABLING AND ROUTING Outline 1. Construction Heuristics for VRPTW Lecture 19 Vehicle Routing Heuristic Methods 2. Local Search 3. Metaheuristics Marco Chiarandini 4. Other Variants of VRP DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 2 Outline Construction Heuristics for VRPTW 1. Construction Heuristics for VRPTW 2. Local Search 3. Metaheuristics 4. Other Variants of VRP Extensions of those for CVRP [Solomon (1987)] Savings heuristics (Clarke and Wright) Time-oriented nearest neighbors Insertion heuristics Time-oriented sweep heuristic DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 3 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 4

2 Insertion Heuristics Step 1: Compute for each unrouted costumer u the best feasible position in the route: Time-Oriented Nearest-Neighbor Add the unrouted node closest to the depot or the last node added without violating feasibility Metric for closest : c i = δ 1 d i + δ 2 T i + δ 3 v i d i geographical distance T i time distance v i urgency to serve c 1 (i(u), u, (u)) = min {c 1(i p 1, u, i p )} p=1,...,m (c 1 is a composition of increased time and increase route length due to the insertion of u) (use push forward rule to check feasibility efficiently) Step 2: Compute for each unrouted customer u which can be feasibly inserted: c 2 (i(u ), u, (u )) = max {λd 0u c 1 (i(u), u, (u))} u (max the benefit of servicing a node on a partial route rather than on a direct route) Step 3: Insert the customer u from Step 2 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 5 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 6 Outline Local Search for CVRP and VRPTW 1. Construction Heuristics for VRPTW 2. Local Search 3. Metaheuristics 4. Other Variants of VRP Neighborhoods structures: Intra-route: 2-opt, 3-opt, Lin-Kernighan (not very well suited) 2H-opt, Or-opt Inter-routes: λ-interchange, relocate, exchange, cross, 2-opt, eection chains, GENI Solution representation and data structures They depend on the neighborhood. It can be advantageous to change them from one stage to another of the heuristic DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 7 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 8

3 Intra-route Neighborhoods Intra-route Neighborhoods 2-opt 3-opt {i, i + 1}{, + 1} {i, }{i + 1, + 1} {i, i + 1}{, + 1}{k, k + 1}... k+1 k k+1 k k+1 k i i+1 i i+1 i i+1 i i+1 i i+1 O(n 2 ) possible exchanges One path is reversed O(n 3 ) possible exchanges Paths can be reversed DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 9 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 10 Intra-route Neighborhoods Or-opt [Or (1976)] {i 1 1, i 1 }{i 2, i 2 + 1}{, + 1} {i 1 1, i 2 + 1}{, i 1 }{i 2, + 1} Time windows: Feasibility check In TSP verifying k-optimality requires O(n k ) time In TSPTW feasibility has to be tested then O(n k+1 ) time i 1 i 2 i 1 i 2 (Savelsbergh 1985) shows how to verify constraints in constant time Search strategy + Global variables i 1 1 i +1 2 i 1 1 i +1 2 O(n k ) for k-optimality in TSPTW sequences of one, two, three consecutive vertices relocated O(n 2 ) possible exchanges No paths reversed DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 11 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 12

4 Search Strategy Lexicographic search, for 2-exchange: i = 1, 2,..., n 2 (outer loop) = i + 2, i + 3,..., n (inner loop) Global variables (auxiliary data structure) Maintain auxiliary data such that it is possible to: handle single move in constant time update their values in constant time Ex.: in case of time windows: 1 1 {1,2}{3,4} >{1,3}{2,4} 1 {1,2}{4,5} >{1,4}{2,5} total travel time of a path earliest departure time of a path Previous path is expanded by the edge { 1, } latest arrival time of a path DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 13 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 14 Inter-route Neighborhoods Inter-route Neighborhoods [Savelsbergh, ORSA (1992)] [Savelsbergh, ORSA (1992)] DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 15 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 16

5 Inter-route Neighborhoods [Savelsbergh, ORSA (1992)] Inter-route Neighborhoods GENI: generalized insertion [Gendreau, Hertz, Laporte, Oper. Res. (1992)] select the insertion restricted to the neighborhood of the vertex to be added (not necessarily between consecutive vertices) perform the best 3- or 4-opt restricted to reconnecting arc links that are close to one another. DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 17 General recommendation: use a combination of 2-opt + or-opt [Potvin, Rousseau, (1995)] However, Designing a local search algorithm is an engineering process in which learnings from other courses in CS might become important. It is important to make such algorithms as much efficient as possible. Many choices are to be taken (search strategy, order, auxiliary data structures, etc.) and they may interact with instance features. Often a trade-off between examination cost and solution quality must be decided. The assessment is conducted through: analytical analysis (computational complexity) experimental analysis DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 20

6 Outline Tabu Search for VRPTW [Potvin (1996)] Initial solution: Solomon s insertion heuristic 1. Construction Heuristics for VRPTW 2. Local Search 3. Metaheuristics 4. Other Variants of VRP Neighborhood: or-opt and 2-opt* (in VNS fashion or neighborhood union) speed up in or-opt: i is moved between and + q if i is one of the h nearest neighbors Step : best improvement Tabu criterion: forbidden to reinsert edges which were recently removed Tabu length: fixed Aspiration criterion: tabu move is overridden if an overall best is reached End criterion: number of iterations without improvements DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 21 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 22 Taburoute [Gendreau, Hertz, Laporte, 1994] Neighborhood: remove one vertex from one route and insert with GENI in another that contains one of its p nearest neighbors Re-optimization of routes at different stages Tabu criterion: forbidden to reinsert vertex in route Tabu length: random from [5, 10] Evaluation function: possible to examine infeasible routes + diversification component: penalty term measuring overcapacity (every 10 iteration multiplied or divided by 2) penalty term measuring overduration frequency of movement of a vertex currently considered False restart: Step 1: (Initialization) Generate n/2 initial solutions and perform tabu search on W W = V \ {0} ( W 0.9 W ) up to 50 idle iterations. Step 2: (Improvement) Starting with the best solution observed in Step 1 perform tabu search on W W = V \ {0} ( W 0.9 W ) up to 50n idle iterations. Step 3: (Intensification) Starting with the best solution observed in Step 2, perform tabu search up to 50 idle iterations. Here W is the set of the V /2 vertices that have been most often moved in Steps 1 and 2. Overall strategy: false restart (initially several solutions, limited search for each of them, selection of the best) DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 24

7 Adaptive Memory Procedure Granular Tabu Search [Toth and Vigo, 1995] 1. Keep an adaptive memory as a pool of good solutions [Rochart and Taillard, 1995] 2. Some element (single tour) of these solutions are combined together to form new solution (more weight is given to best solutions) 3. Partial solutions are completed by an insertion procedure. 4. Tabu search is applied at the tour level Long edges are unlikely to be in the optimal solution Remove those edges that exceed a granularity threshold ν ν = β c β sparsification parameter c average length for a solution from a construction heuristic adust β after a number of idle iterations DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 25 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 26 Ant Colony System [Gambardella et al. 1999] VRP-TW: in case of vehicle and distance minimization two ant colonies are working in parallel on the two obective functions (colonies exchange pheromone information) Constraints: A constructed solution must satisfy i) each customer visited once ii) capacity not exceeded iii) Time windows not violated Pheromone trails: associated with connections (desirability of order) Heuristic information: savings + time considerations Solution construction: p k i = τ α i ηβ i l N τ α k l il ηβ il N k i Pheromone update: if no feasible, open a new route or decide routes to merge if customers left out use an insertion procedure Global Local τ i τ i + ρ τ bs i τ i (1 ɛ)τ i + ɛτ bs o (i, ) T bs (i, ) T bs

8 Outline Vehicle Routing with Backhauls (VRPB) 1. Construction Heuristics for VRPTW 2. Local Search 3. Metaheuristics 4. Other Variants of VRP Further Input from CVRP: a partition of customers: L = {1,..., n} Lineahaul customers (deliveries) B = {n + 1,..., n + m} Backhaul customers (collections) precedence constraint: in a route, customers from L must be served before customers from B Task: Find a collection of K simple circuits with minimum costs, such that: each customer vertex is visited by exactly one circuit; and the sum of the demands of the vertices visited by a circuit does not exceed the vehicle capacity Q. in any circuit all the linehaul customers precede the backhaul customers, if any. DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 29 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 30 Vehicle Routing with Pickup and Delivery (VRPPD) Further Input from CVRP: each customer i is associated with quantities d i and p i to be delivered and picked up, resp. for each customer i, O i denotes the vertex that is the origin of the delivery demand and D i denotes the vertex that is the destination of the pickup demand Task: Find a collection of K simple circuits with minimum costs, such that: each customer vertex is visited by exactly one circuit; and the current load of the vehicle along the circuit must be non-negative and may never exceed Q for each customer i, the customer O i when different from the depot, must be served in the same circuit and before customer i for each customer i, the customer D i when different from the depot, must be served in the same circuit and after customer i DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 31 Further Input from CVRP: Multiple Depots VRP multiple depots to which customers can be assigned a fleet of vehicles at each depot Task: Find a collection of K simple circuits for each depot with minimum costs, such that: each customer vertex is visited by exactly one circuit; and the current load of the vehicle along the circuit must be non-negative and may never exceed Q vehicles start and return to the depots they belong Vertex set V = {1, 2,..., n} and V 0 = {n + 1,..., n + m} Route i defined by R i = {l, 1,..., l} DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 32

9 Further Input from CVRP: planning period of M days Periodic VRP Task: Find a collection of K simple circuits with minimum costs, such that: each customer vertex is visited by exactly one circuit; and the current load of the vehicle along the circuit must be non-negative and may never exceed Q A vehicle may not return to the depot in the same day it departs. Over the M-day period, each customer must be visited l times, where 1 l M. Three phase approach: 1. Generate feasible alternatives for each customer. Example, M = 3 days {d1, d2, d3} then the possible combinations are: 0 000; 1 001; 2 010; 3 011; 4 100; 5 101; 6 110; Customer Diary Demand Number of Visits Number of Combinations Possible Combinations ,2, ,4, ,4, ,2, Select one of the alternatives for each customer, so that the daily constraints are satisfied. Thus, select the customers to be visited in each day. 3. Solve the vehicle routing problem for each day. DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 33 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 34 Split Delivery VRP Inventory VRP Constraint Relaxation: it is allowed to serve the same customer by different vehicles. (necessary if d i > Q) Task: Find a collection of K simple circuits with minimum costs, such that: the current load of the vehicle along the circuit must be non-negative and may never exceed Q Note: a SDVRP can be transformed into a VRP by splitting each customer order into a number of smaller indivisible orders [Burrows 1988]. Input: a facility, a set of customers and a planning horizon T r i product consumption rate of customer i (volume per day) C i maximum local inventory of the product for customer i a fleet of M homogeneous vehicles with capacity Q Task: Find a collection of K daily circuits to run over the planing horizon with minimum costs and such that: no customer goes in stock-out during the planning horizon the current load of the vehicle along the circuit must be non-negative and may never exceed Q DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 35 DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 36

10 Other VRPs VRP with Satellite Facilities (VRPSF) Possible use of satellite facilities to replenish vehicles during a route. Open VRP (OVRP) The vehicles do not need to return at the depot, hence routes are not circuits but paths Dial-a-ride VRP (DARP) It generalizes the VRPTW and VRP with Pick-up and Delivery by incorporating time windows and maximum ride time constraints It has a human perspective Vehicle capacity is normally constraining in the DARP whereas it is often redundant in PDVRP applications (collection and delivery of letters and small parcels) DM87 Scheduling, Timetabling and Routing 37

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