# Arithmetic. 2.2.l Basic Arithmetic Operations. 2.2 Arithmetic 37

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1 2.2 Arithmetic 37 This is particularly important when programs are written by more than one person. It may be obvious to you that cv stands for can volume and not current velocity, but will it be obvious to the person who needs to update your code years later? For that matter, will you remember yourself what cv means when you look at the code three months from now? Do Not Use Magic Numbers A magic number is a numeric constant that appears in your code without explanation. For example, totalvolume bottles * 2 Why 2? Are bottles twice as voluminous as cans? No, the reason is that every bottle contains 2 liters. Use a named constant to make the code self-documenting: BOTTLE_VOLUME 2.0 totalvolume = bottles * BOTTLE_VOLUME There is another reason for using named constants. Suppose circumstances change, and the bottle volume is now 1.5 liters. If you used a named constant, you make a single change, and you are done. Otherwise, you have to look at every value of 2 in your program and ponder whether it meant a bottle volume or We prefer programs that are easy to understand overthosethatappear to work by magic. something else. In a program that is more than a few pages long, that is incredibly tedious and error-prone. Even the most reasonable cosmic constant is going to change one day. You think there are 365 days per year? Your customers on Mars are going to be pretty unhappy about your silly prejudice. Make a constant DAYS_PER YEAR 365 Arithmetic In the following sections, you will learn how to carry out arithmetic calculations in Python. 2.2.l Basic Arithmetic Operations Python supports the same four basic arithmetic operations as a calculator-addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division-but it uses different symbols for multiplication and division. You must write a * b to denote multiplication. Unlike in mathematics, you cannot write a b, a b, or a x b. Similarly, division is always indicated with a 1, never a+ or a fraction bar. a+b For example, becomes (a + b) I 2. The symbols + - * 1 for the arithmetic operations are called operators. The combination of variables, literals, operators, and parentheses is called an expression. For example, (a + b) I 2 is an expression.

2 38 Chapter 2 Programming with Numbers and Strings Mixing integers and floating-point values in an arithmetic expression yields a floating-point value. Parentheses are used just as in algebra: to indicate in which order the parts of the expression should be computed. For example, in the expression (a + b) I 2, the sum a + b is computed first, and then the sum is divided by 2. In contrast, in the expression a + b I 2 only b is divided by 2, and then the sum of a and b 1 2 is formed. As in regular algebraic notation, multiplication and division have a higher precedence than addition and subtraction. For example, in the expression a + b I 2, the I is carried out first, even though the+ operation occurs further to the left. Again, as in algebra, operators with the same precedence are executed left-to-right. For example, is 8-3 or 5. If you mix integer and floating-point values in an arithmetic expression, the result is a floating-point value. For example, is the floating-point value Powers Python uses the exponential operator** to denote the power operation. For example, the Python equivalent of the mathematical expression a 2 is a ** 2. Note that there can be no space between the two asterisks. As in mathematics, the exponential operator has a higher order of precedence than the other arithmetic operators. For example, 10 " 2 ** 3 is = 80. Unlike the other arithmetic operators, power operators are evaluated from right to left. Thus, the Python expression 10 ** 2 ** 3 is equivalent to 10( 23 ) = 10 8 =,000,000. In algebra, you use fractions and exponents to arrange expressions in a compact two-dimensional form. In Python, you have to write all expressions in a linear arrangement. For example, the mathematical expression bx(1+-r )n becomes b * (1 + r I ) ** n Figure 3 shows how to analyze such an expression. b * (1 + r I ) ** n '---y---j r '---v-----' r 1+- ( :_)n bx(1 +-r )n Figure 3 Analyzing an Expression

3 2.2 Arithmetic Floor Division and Remainder When you divide two integers with the I operator, you get a floating-point value. For example, 7 I 4 yields H owever, we can also perform floor division using the 11 operator. For positive integers, floor division computes the quotient and discards the fractional part. The floor division 7 I I 4 evaluates to 1 because 7 divided by 4 is 1.75 with a fractional part of 0.75 (which is discarded). If you are interested in the remainder of a floor division, use the% operator. The value of the expression 7 % 4.,. ~ "1' -.-. "0 } ;~ i, ~o..,. r- ~..., ~i~~' '. ;,, Floor division and the % operator yield the dollar and cent values of a piggybank full of pennies. is 3, the remainder of the floor division of 7 by 4. The% symbol has no analog in algebra. It was chosen because it looks similar to 1, and the remainder operation is related to division. The operator is called m odulus. (Some people call it modulo or mod.) It has no relationship with the percent operation that you find on some calculators. Here is a typical use for the I I and% operations. Suppose you have an amount of pennies in a piggybank: pennies = 1729 You want to determine the value in dollars and cents. You obtain the dollars through a floor division by : do 11 ars = pennies I I # Sets dollars to 17 The floor division discards the remainder. To obtain the remainder, use the% operator: cents pennies % # Sets cents to 29 See Table 3 for additional examples. Floor division and modulus are also defined for negative integers and floatingpoint numbers. However, those definitions are rather technical, and we do not cover them in this book. Table 3 Floor Division and Remainder Expression ere n _. 1729) n% 10 n II 10 n% n " 2 -n I I 10 Value Comment For any positive integer n, n " 10 is the last digit of n. This is n without the last digit. The last two digits of n. n % 2 is 0 if n is even, 1 if n is odd (provided n is not negative) -173 is the largest integer s We will not use floor division for negative numbers in this book.

4 40 Chapter 2 Programming with Numbers and St rings Calling Functions A function can return a value that can be used as if it were a literal value. You learned in Chapter 1 that a function is a collection of programming instructions that carry out a particular task. We have been using the print function to display information, but there are many other functions available in Python. In this section, you will learn more about functions that work with numbers. Most functions return a value. That is, when the function completes its task, it passes a value back to the point where the function was called. One example is the abs function that returns the absolute value-the value without a sign- of its numerical argument. For example, the call abs(-173) returns the value 173. The value returned by a function can be stored in a variable: distance = abs(x) In fact, the returned value can be used anywhere that a value of the same type can be used: print("the distance from t he origin is", abs(x)) The abs function requires data to perform its task, namely the number from which to compute the absolute value. As you learned earlier, data that you provide to a function arc the arguments of the call. For example, in the call abs(-10) the value -10 is the argument passed to the abs function. When calling a function, you must provide the correct number of arguments. The abs function takes exactly one argument. If you call or abs(-10, 2) abs() your program will generate an error message. Some functions have optional arguments that you only provide in certain situations. An example is the round function. When called with one argument, such as round(7.625) the function returns the nearest integer; in this case, 8. When called with two arguments, the second argument specifies the desired number of fractional digits. Syntax 2. 2 Calling Functions This argu~ttettt is passed to the futtetlott. \ distance = abs (x) ach of theu futtetlott ~ ealls retunls a value. <- tax = round(price * Argu~ttetrts ea" be expresslotts. ~ rate, 2) I 1'hls Is a11 optiomj argu!mirt of ftle round f1mctiotl. best= Mln(price1, price2, price3, price4)

5 2.2 Arithmetic 41 Table 4 Built-in Mathematical Functions abs(x) round(x) round(x, n) max(x 1,x 2, Function,Xn) min(x 1, x 2,, Xn) The absolute value of x. Returns The floating-point value x rounded to a whole number or to n decimal places. The largest value from among the arguments. The smallest value from among the arguments. For example, round(7.625, 2) is There are two common styles for illustrating optional arguments. One style, which we usc in this book, shows different function calls with and without the optional arguments. round(x) I Returns x rounded to a whole number. round(x, n) # Returns x rounded ton decimal places. The second style, which is used in Python's standard documentation, uses square brackets to denote the optional arguments. round(x[, n]) # Returns x rounded to a whole number or ron decimal places. Finally, some functions, such as the max and min functions, take an arbitrary number of arguments. For example, the call cheapest min(7.25, 10.95, 5.95, 6.05) sets the variable cheapest to the minimum of the function's arguments; in this case, the number Table 4 shows the functions that we introduced in this section Mathematical Functions The Python language itself is relatively simple, but Python contains a standard library that can be used to create powerful programs. A librar y is a collection of code that has been written and translated by someone else, ready for you to use in your program. A standard library is a library that is considered part of the language and must be included with any Python system. Python's standard library is organized into m odules. Related functions and data types arc grouped into the same module. Functions defined in a module must be explicitly loaded into your program before they can be used. Python's math module includes a number of mathematical functions. To usc any function from this module, you must first import the function. For example, to use the sqrt function, which computes the square root of its argument, first include the statement from math import sqrt at the top of your program file. Then you can simply call the function as y = sqrt(x)

6 42 Chapter 2 Programming with Numbers and St rings Table 5 Selected Functions in the mat h Module Function sqrt(x) trunc(x) cos(x) sin(x) tan(x) Returns The square root of x. (x ~ 0) Truncates floating-point value x to an integer. The cosine of x in radians. The sine of x in radians. The tangent of x in radians. exp(x) degrees(x) radians(x) log(x) log(x, base) Convert x radians to degrees (i.e., returns x 1801 rr) Convert x degrees to radians (i.e., returns x rrl180) The natural logarithm of x {to base e) or the logarithm of x to the given base. Table 5 shows additional functions defined in the math module. While most functions are defined in a module, a small number of functions (such as print and the functions introduced in the preceding section) can be used without importing any module. These functions are called b uilt-in functions because they are defined as part of the language itself and can be used directly in your programs. Table 6 Arithmetic Expression Examples Mathematical Expression x+y 2 ( l+~)n Ja2 + b2 Python Expression (x + y) I 2 X * y I 2 (1 + r I ) ** n sqrt(a ** 2 + b ** 2) pi Comments The parentheses are required; x + y 1 2 computesx + 1 Parentheses are not required; operators with the same precedence are evaluated left to right. The parentheses are required. You must import the sqrt function from the math module. pi is a constant declared in the math module. 8. A bank account earns interest once per year. In Python, how do you compute the interest earned in the first year? Assume variables percent and balance both contain floating-point values. 9. In Python, how do you compute the side length of a square whose area is stored in the variable area?

7 2.2 Arithmetic 43 1 o. The volume of a sphere is given by 4 V = - nr 3 3 If the radius is given by a variable radius that contains a floating-point value, write a Python expression for the volume. 11. What is the value of 1729 I I 10 and 1729 % 10? 12. If n is a positive number, what is (n I I 10) % 10? Practice It Now you can try these exercises at the end of the chapter: R2.3, R2.5, P2.4, P2.5. Roundoff Errors Roundoff errors are a fact of life when calculating with floating-point numbers. You probably have encountered that phenomenon yourself with manual calculations. If you calculate 1/3 to two decimal places, you get Multiplying again by 3, you obtain 0.99, not In the processor hardware, numbers are represented in the binary number system, using only digits 0 and 1. As with decimal numbers, you can get roundoff errors when binary digits are lost. They just may crop up at different places than you might expect. Here is an example: price 4.35 quantity total price * quantity I Should be * 4.35 ~ 435 print(total) I Prints In the binary system, there is no exact representation for 4.35, just as there is no exact representation for 1/3 in the decimal system. The representation used by the computer is just a little less than 4.35, so times that value is just a little less than 435. You can deal with roundoff errors by rounding to the nearest integer or by displaying a fixed number of digits after the decimal separator (see Section 2.5.3). Unbalanced Parentheses Consider the expression ((a + b) * t I 2 * (1 - t) What is wrong with it? Count the parentheses. There are three ( and two ). The parentheses are unbalanced. This kind of typing error is very common with complicated expressions. Now consider this expression. (a + b) * t) I (2 * (1 - t) This expression has three ( and three ), but it still is not correct. In the middle of the expression, (a + b) * t) I (2 * (1 - t) t there is only one ( but two ), which is an error. At any point in an expression, the count of ( must be greater than or equal to the count of), and at the end of the expression the two counts must be the same. Here is a simple trick to make the counting easier without using pencil and paper. It is difficult for the brain to keep two counts

8 44 Chapter 2 Programming with Numbers and Strings simultaneously. Keep only one count when scanning the expression. Start with 1 at the first opening parenthesis, add I whenever you see an opening parenthesis, and subtract one whenever you see a closing parenthesis. Say the numbers aloud as you scan the expression. If the count ever drops below zero, or is not zero at the end, the parentheses arc unbalanced. For example, when scanning the previous expression, you would mutter (a + b) * t) I (2 * (1 - t) and you would find the error. 't',, Program~ing Tip 2.3. I I ld::l Use Spaces in Expressions It is easier to read xl; (-b + sqrt(b ** 2-4 * a * c)) I (2 * a) than xl;(-b+sqrt(b**2-4*a*c))/(2*a) Simply put spaces around all operators ( + - * I %, and so on). However, don't put a space after a unary minus: a- used to negate a single quantity, such as -b. That way, it can be easily distinguished from a binary minus, as in a - b. It is customary not to put a space after a function name. That is, write sqrt(x) and not sqrt (x). Other Ways to Import Modules Python provides several different ways to import functions from a module into your program. You can import multiple functions from the same module like this: from math import sqrt, sin, cos You can also import the entire contents of a module into your program: from math import * Alternatively, you can import the module with the statement import math With this form of the i mport statement, you need to add the module name and a period before each function call, like this: y ; math.sqrt(x) Some programmers prefer this style because it makes it very explicit to which module a particular function belongs. Combining Assignment and Arithmetic In Python, you can combine arithmetic and assignment. For example, the instruction total +; cans is a shortcut for total ; total + cans Similarly, total *= 2

9 2.3 Problem Solving: First Do It By Hand 45 is another way of writing total ~ total * 2 Many programmers find this a convenient shortcut especially when incrementing or decrementing by 1: count ~ 1 If you like it, go ahead and use it in your own code. For simplicity, we won't use it in this book. Line joining If you have an expression that is too long to fit on a single line, you can continue it on another line provided the line break occurs inside parentheses. For example, xl ((-b + sqrt(b ** 2-4 * a * c)) I (2 * a)) II Ok However, if you omit the outermost parentheses, you get an error: xl (-b + sqrt(b ** 2-4 * a * c)) I (2 * a) I Error The first line is a complete statement, which the Python interpreter processes. The next line, I (2 * a), makes no sense by itself. There is a second form of joining long lines. If the last character of a line is a backs lash, the line is joined with the one following it: xl (-b + sqrt(b ** 2-4 * a * c)) \ I (2 * a) II Ok You must be very careful not to put any spaces or tabs after the backslash. In this book, we only use the first form of line joining. Problem Solving:_ first DoJt By Hand In the preceding section, you learned how to express computations in Python. When you are asked to write a program for solving a problem, you may naturally think about the Python syntax for the computations. However, before you start programming, you should first take a very important step: carry out the computations by hand. If you can't compute a solution yourself, it's unlikely that you'll be able to write a program that automates the computation. To illustrate the use of hand calculations, consider the following problem: A row of black and white tiles needs to be placed along a wall. For aesthetic reasons, the architect has specified that the first and last tile shall be black. Your task is to compute the number of tiles needed and the gap at each end, given the space available and the width of each tile. tap

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