# Week 2: Console I/O and Operators Arithmetic Operators. Integer Division. Arithmetic Operators. Gaddis: Chapter 3 (2.14,3.1-6,3.9-10,5.

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1 Week 2: Console I/O and Operators Gaddis: Chapter 3 (2.14,3.1-6,3.9-10,5.1) CS 1428 Fall 2014 Jill Seaman Arithmetic Operators An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations An operand is a value used in an operation. C++ has unary, binary, and ternary operators: unary (1 operand) -5 binary (2 operands) 13-7 ternary (3 operands) exp1? exp2 : exp3 2 Unary operators: Binary operators: Arithmetic Operators SYMBOL OPERATION EXAMPLES + unary plus +10, +y - negation -5, -x SYMBOL OPERATION EXAMPLE + addition x + y - subtraction index - 1 * multiplication hours * rate / division total / count % modulus count % 3 3 Integer Division If both operands are integers, / (division) operator always performs integer division. The fractional part is lost cout << 13 / 5; // displays 2 cout << 91 / 7; // displays 13 If either operand is floating point, the result is floating point. cout << 13 / 5.0; // displays 2.6 cout << 91.0 / 7; // displays

2 Modulus % (modulus) operator computes the remainder resulting from integer division cout << 13 % 5; // displays 3 cout << 91 % 7; // displays 0 % requires integers for both operands cout << 13 % 5.0; cout << 91.0 % 7; // error // error The cin Object cin: short for console input a stream object: represents the contents of the screen that are entered (typed) by the user using the keyboard. requires iostream library to be included >>: the stream extraction operator use it to read data from cin (entered via the keyboard) cin >> height; when this instruction is executed, it waits for the user to type, it reads the characters until space or enter (newline) is typed, then it stores the value in the variable. right-hand operand MUST be a variable. 6 Console Input Output a prompt (using cout) to tell the user what type of data to enter BEFORE using cin: int diameter; cout << What is the diameter of the circle? ; cin >> diameter; You can input multiple values in one statement: int x, y; cout << Enter two integers: << endl; cin >> x >> y; the user may enter them on one line (separated by a space) or on separate lines. 7 Example program using cin #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int length, width, area; cout << "This program calculates the area of a "; cout << "rectangle.\n"; cout << "Enter the length and width of the rectangle "; cout << "separated by a space.\n"; cin >> length >> width; area = length * width; cout << "The area of the rectangle is " << area << endl; return 0; } output screen: This program calculates the area of a rectangle. Enter the length and width of the rectangle separated by a space The area of the rectangle is 200

3 3.2 Mathematical Expressions An expression is a program component that evaluates to a value. An expression can be a literal, a variable, or a combination of these using operators and parentheses. Examples: 4 num x * x * x 16 * x + 3 Each expression has a type, which is the data type of the result value. x * y / z 'A' -15e10 2 * (l + w) 9 Where can expressions occur? The rhs (right-hand-side) of an assignment statement: x = y * 10 / 3; y = 8; num = num + 1; aletter = 'W'; x = y; The rhs of a stream insertion operator (<<) (cout): More places we don t know about yet... cout << The pay is << hours * rate << endl; cout << num; cout << 25 / y; 10 Operator Precedence (order of operations) Which operation gets done first? answer = 1 + x + z; result = x + 5 * y; Precedence Rules specify which happens first, in this order: - (negation) * / % + - If the expression has multiple operators from the same level, they associate left to right or right to left: - (negation) Right to left * / % Left to right + - Left to right 11 Parentheses You can use parentheses to override the precedence or associativity rules: Some examples: a + b / 4 (a + b) / 4 (4 * 17) + (3 1) a (b - c) * 4 10 / * % * 5 /

4 Exponents There is no operator for exponentiation in C++ There IS a library function called pow y = pow(x, 3.0); // x to the third power The expression pow(x,3.0) is a call to the pow function with arguments x and 3.0. Arguments can have type double and the result is a double. If x is 2.0, then 8.0 will be stored in y. The value stored in x is not changed. #include <cmath> is required to use pow Type Conversion The computer (ALU) cannot perform operations between operands of different types. If the operands of an expression have different types, the compiler will convert one to be the type of the other This is called an implicit type conversion, or a type coercion. Usually, the operand with the lower ranking type is converted to the type of the higher one. Order of types: double float long int 14 char Type Conversion Rules 3.5 Type Casting Binary ops: convert the operand with the lower ranking type to the type of the other operand. int years; float interestrate, result;... result = years * interestrate; // years is converted to float before being multiplied Assignment ops: rhs is converted to the type of the variable on the lhs. int x, y = 4; float z = 2.7; x = 4 * z; //4 is converted to float, //then 10.8 is converted to int (10) cout << x << endl; OUTPUT: Type casting is an explicit (or manual) type conversion. mainly used to force floating-point division y = static_cast<int>(x); // converts x to int int hits, atbats; float battingavg;... cin >> hits >> atbats; battingavg = static_cast<float>(hits)/atbats; why not:? battingavg = static_cast<int>(hits/atbats); 16

5 3.4 Overflow/Underflow When the value assigned to a variable is too large or small for its type. integers tend to wrap around, without warning: short testvar = 32767; cout << testvar << endl; testvar = testvar + 1; cout << testvar << endl; floating point value overflow/underflow: may or may not get a warning result may be 0 or random value // 32767, max value //-32768, min value Multiple Assignment You can assign the same value to several variables in one statement: a = b = c = 12; is equivalent to: a = 12; b = 12; c = 12; Combined Assignment 5.1 Increment and Decrement Assignment statements often have this form: number = number + 1; //add 1 to number total = total + x; //add x to total y = y / 2; //divide y by 2 int number = 10; number = number + 1; cout << number << endl; C/C++ offers shorthand for these: number += 1; // short for number = number+1; total -= x; // short for total = total-x; y /= 2; // short for y = y / 2; 19 C++ provides unary operators to increment and decrement. Increment operator: ++ Decrement operator: -- can be used before (prefix) or after (postfix) a variable Examples: int num = 10; num++; //equivalent to: num = num + 1; num--; // equivalent to: num = num - 1; ++num; //equivalent to: num = num + 1; --num; // equivalent to: num = num - 1; 20

6 Prefix vs Postfix ++ and -- operators can be used in expressions In prefix mode (++val, --val) the operator increments or decrements, then returns the value of the variable In postfix mode (val++, val--) the operator returns the value of the variable, then increments or decrements int num, val = 12; cout << val++; // cout << val; val = val+1; cout << ++val; // val = val + 1; cout << val; num = --val; // val = val - 1; num = val; num = val--; // num = val; val = val -1; 3.9 More Math Library Functions These require cmath header file These take double as input, return a double Commonly used functions: pow y = pow(x,d); returns x raised to the power d abs y = abs(x); returns absolute value of x sqrt y = sqrt(x); returns square root of x sin y = sin(x); returns the sine of x (in radians) etc. It s confusing, don t do this Hand Tracing a Program You be the computer. Track the values of the variables as the program executes. step through and execute each statement, one-by-one record the contents of variables after each statement execution, using a hand trace chart (table) int main() { double num1, num2, num3, avg; cout << Enter first number ; cin >> num1; cout << Enter second number ; cin >> num2; cout << Enter third number ; cin >> num3; avg = num1 + num2 + num3 / 3; cout << The average is << avg << endl; } num1 num2 num3 avg???????? 10??? 10??? 10 20?? 10 20?? ?

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