# EE 109 Unit 19. IEEE 754 Floating Point Representation Floating Point Arithmetic

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1 1 EE 109 Unit 19 IEEE 754 Floating Point Representation Floating Point Arithmetic

2 2 Floating Point Used to represent very small numbers (fractions) and very large numbers Avogadro s Number: * Planck s Constant: * Note: 32 or 64-bit integers can t represent this range Floating Point representation is used in HLL s like C by declaring variables as float or double

3 3 Fixed Point Unsigned and 2 s complement fall under a category of representations called Fixed Point The radix point is assumed to be in a fixed location for all numbers [Note: we could represent fractions by implicitly assuming the binary point is at the left A variable just stores bits you can assume the binary point is anywhere you like] Integers: (binary point to right of LSB) For 32-bits, unsigned range is 0 to ~4 billion Fractions: (binary point to left of MSB) Bit storage Fixed point Rep. Range [0 to 1) Main point: By fixing the radix point, we limit the range of numbers that can be represented Floating point allows the radix point to be in a different location for each value

4 4 Floating Point Representation Similar to scientific notation used with decimal numbers ±D.DDD * 10 ±exp Floating Point representation uses the following form ±b.bbbb * 2 ±exp 3 Fields: sign, exponent, fraction (also called mantissa or significand) Overall Sign of # S Exp. fraction

5 5 Normalized FP Numbers Decimal Example *10 15 is not correct scientific notation Must have exactly one significant digit before decimal point: +7.54*10 14 In binary the only significant digit is 1 Thus normalized FP format is: ±1.bbbbbb * 2 ±exp FP numbers will always be normalized before being stored in memory or a reg. The 1. is actually not stored but assumed since we always will store normalized numbers If HW calculates a result of *2 5 it must normalize to *2 2 before storing

6 6 IEEE Floating Point Formats Single Precision (32-bit format) 1 Sign bit (0=pos/1=neg) 8 Exponent bits Excess-127 representation More on next slides 23 fraction (significand or mantissa) bits Equiv. Decimal Range: 7 digits x 10 ±38 Double Precision (64-bit format) 1 Sign bit (0=pos/1=neg) 11 Exponent bits Excess-1023 representation More on next slides 52 fraction (significand or mantissa) bits Equiv. Decimal Range: 16 digits x 10 ± S Exp. Fraction S Exp. Fraction

7 7 Exponent Representation Exponent needs its own sign (+/-) Rather than using 2 s comp. system we use Excess-N representation Single-Precision uses Excess-127 Double-Precision uses Excess-1023 This representation allows FP numbers to be easily compared Let E = stored exponent code and E = true exponent value For single-precision: E = E => E = 1, E = = For double-precision: E = E => E = -2, E = = s comp. E' (stored Exp.) Excess Comparison of 2 s comp. & Excess-N Q: Why don t we use Excess-N more to represent negative # s

8 8 Exponent Representation FP formats reserved the exponent values of all 1 s and all 0 s for special purposes Thus, for singleprecision the range of exponents is -126 to E (range of 8-bits shown) E (=E -127) and special values Reserved E -127= E -127= E -127= E -127= E -127= Reserved

9 9 IEEE Exponent Special Values E Fraction Meaning All 0 s All 0 s 0 All 0 s Not all 0 s (any bit = 1 ) Denormalized (0.fraction x ) All 1 s All 0 s Infinity All 1 s Not all 0 s (any bit = 1 ) NaN (Not A Number) - 0/0, 0*,SQRT(-x)

10 10 Single-Precision Examples =3 = = * * = = 126 = *

11 11 Floating Point vs. Fixed Point Single Precision (32-bits) Equivalent Decimal Range: 7 significant decimal digits * 10 ±38 Compare that to 32-bit signed integer where we can represent ±2 billion. How does a 32-bit float allow us to represent such a greater range? FP allows for range but sacrifices precision (can t represent all numbers in its range) Double Precision (64-bits) Equivalent Decimal Range: 16 significant decimal digits * 10 ±308

12 12 IEEE Shortened Format 12-bit format defined just for this class (doesn t really exist) 1 Sign Bit 5 Exponent bits (using Excess-15) Same reserved codes 6 Fraction (significand) bits 1 5-bits 6-bits S E F Sign Bit 0=pos. 1=neg. Exponent Excess-15 E = E+15 E = E - 15 Fraction 1.bbbbbb

13 13 Examples = * 2 5 = * 2 0 = = = = * = = = = 13-15= * * = =16 = *

14 14 Rounding Methods = *2 7 => Can t keep all fraction bits 4 Methods of Rounding (you are only responsible for the first 2) Round to Nearest Round towards 0 (Chopping) Round toward + (Round Up) Round toward - (Round Down) Normal rounding you learned in grade school. Round to the nearest representable number. If exactly halfway between, round to representable value w/ 0 in LSB. Round the representable value closest to but not greater in magnitude than the precise value. Equivalent to just dropping the extra bits. Round to the closest representable value greater than the number Round to the closest representable value less than the number

15 15 Number Line View Of Rounding Methods Green lines are numbers that fall between two representable values (dots) and thus need to be rounded Round to Nearest Round to Zero Round to +Infinity Round to - Infinity - 0 +

16 16 Rounding Implementation There may be a large number of bits after the fraction To implement any of the methods we can keep only a subset of the extra bits after the fraction [hardware is finite] Guard bits: bits immediately after LSB of fraction (in this class we will usually keep only 1 guard bit) Round bit: bit to the right of the guard bits Sticky bit: Logical OR of all other bits after G & R bits x x 2 4 GRS We can perform rounding to a 6-bit fraction using just these 3 bits. Logical OR (output is 1 if any input is 1, 0 otherwise

17 17 Rounding to Nearest Method Same idea as rounding in decimal.51 and up, round up,.49 and down, round down,.50 exactly we round up in decimal In this method we treat it differently If precise value is exactly half way between 2 representable values, round towards the number with 0 in the LSB

18 18 Round to Nearest Method Round to the closest representable value If precise value is exactly half way between 2 representable value, round towards the number with 0 in the LSB x x 2 4 GRS Round Up x x x 2 4 Precise value will be rounded to one of the representable value it lies between. In this case, round up because precise value is closer to the next higher respresentable values

19 19 Rounding to Nearest Method 3 Cases in binary FP: G = 1 & (R,S 0,0) => round fraction up (add 1 to fraction) may require a re-normalization G = 1 & (R,S = 0,0) => round to the closest fraction value with a 0 in the LSB may require a re-normalization G = 0 => leave fraction alone (add 0 to fraction)

20 20 Round to Nearest x 2 4 GRS GRS GRS x x 2 4 G = 1 & R,S 0,0 G = 1 & R,S 0,0 G = 0 Round up (fraction + 1) Round up (fraction + 1) Leave fraction x x x x 2 5 Requires renormalization

21 21 Round to Nearest In all these cases, the numbers are halfway between the 2 possible round values Thus, we round to the value w/ 0 in the LSB x 2 4 GRS GRS GRS x x 2 4 G = 1 and R,S = 0 G = 1 and R,S = 0 G = 1 and R,S = 0 Rounding options are: or In this case, round down Rounding options are: or In this case, round up x x x 2 4 Rounding options are: or In this case, round up x 2 5 Requires renormalization

22 22 Round to 0 (Chopping) Simply drop the G,R,S bits and take fraction as is GRS GRS GRS x x x 2 4 drop G,R,S bits drop G,R,S bits drop G,R,S bits

23 23 Important Warning For Programmers FP addition/subtraction is NOT associative Because of rounding / inability to precisely represent fractions, (a+b)+c a+(b+c) (small + LARGE) LARGE small + (LARGE LARGE) Why? Because of rounding and special values like Inf. ( ) ( ) Another Example: * *2 127

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