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3 computed from each node be P i. The total power is from all nodes for the duration is P i At time t 2, for a duration n, compute power received from the same sources. Let the power computed for each node be P j from one packet received. The total power computed is given by P j Compute x= P j - P i If x is positive increase ART from reference value by x/p imax If x is negative decrease ART from reference value by x/p imax provided the computed value does not go below minimum set threshold value gives the best throughput. The proposed routing algorithm (Yellow graph) has an initial settling period after which the throughput is comparable with ART=2 second. The throughput almost remains the same for the other three scenarios of ART values 3,4 and 6. Figure 2-4 gives the cached replies, routing traffic received and routing traffic sent. As the ART increases the output obtained are on expected lines. Explanation: We follow an equal opportunity approach. The distance between a source and destination can be computed using the transmitter power output, transmitter antenna gain, receiver sensitivity, receiver antenna gain and free space loss. At two instances t i +n and t 2 +n we compute the power from each of the source nodes transmitting data to the receiver node. If most of the sources are close to each other, the probability of routes going stale is lower and hence we can increase the ART. Since we are measuring power at two instance of time, it is possible to predict whether the sources are moving towards the receiver node or away from it. The ART is changed accordingly based on the number of sources moving towards the destination or away from it. MATERIALS AND METHODS We implemented our hypotheses using OPNET. Opnet is a popular network simulator and avoids the need for wireless test bed. Various types of wireless nodes, routers and routing protocols are built into the simulator for fast setup and simulation. Opnet provides methods to create nodes, routers and trajectories for nodes. Twenty nodes with random mobility and speeds were implemented in a sq.m network. Each node has a transmit power of watts. Each node randomly transmits raw unformatted data to every other node in the network. Simulation in each scenario was carried out for 600 second. Simulations were carried out with ART =2 second, 4 second, 6 second and our proposed method. The obtained results are shown in Fig Fig. 1: The throughput obtained for various ART values and the proposed VO-AODV algorithm RESULTS AND DISCUSSION From Fig. 1 it is seen that for a high mobility scenario Active route timeout of 2 second (Blue graph) Fig. 2: Total Cached replies sent 680

4 Fig. 3: Routing traffic received Fig. 4: Routing traffic sent However it is to be noted that for ART values of 3 and 4 seconds the obtained parameters are same. However this needs to be investigated for other mobility scenarios. CONCLUSION J. Computer Sci., 7 (5): , 2011 In this study we proposed a novel routing algorithm which is an extension of the Ad hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol. The proposed method identifies how the network topology changes 681 based on a node and its next one hop nodes. Computation of power of each node within one hop distance of the destination node is computed periodically and used to identify whether nodes are converging or diverging. Based on the convergence or divergence of nodes we proposed an algorithm to modify the Active Route Timeout. Results obtained from the proposed method did not decrease the throughput compared to the standard value of ART with considerable decrease in network overheads. REFERENCES Alandzi, V. and A. Quintero, Proximity aware routing in Ad Hoc Networks. J. Comput. Sci., 3: DOI: /jcssp Elfaki, M.A., H. Ibrahim, A. Mamat and M. Othman, Collaborative caching architecture for continuous query in mobile database. Am. J. Econ. Busi. Admin., 3: DOI: /ajebasp Kalaavathi, B. and K. Duraiswamy, Ant colony based node disjoint hybrid multi-path routing for mobile ad hoc network. J. Comput. Sci., 4: DOI: /jcssp Natsheh, E. and K. Buragga, Density based routing algorithm for spare/dense topologies in wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci., 3: DOI: /ajeassp Peri, G., M. Gerla and T.-W. Chen, Fisheye state routing: A routing scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks. Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications, (ICC 00), IEEE Xplore, USA., pp: DOI: /ICC Perkins, C.E. and P. Bhagwat, Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers. Proceedings of the conference on Communications architectures, protocols and applications, (SIGCOMM 94), ACM New York, NY, USA., pp: DOI: / Rani, A. and M. Dave, Performance evaluation of modified aodv for load balancing. J. Comput. Sci., 3: DOI: /jcssp Richard, C., C. Perkins and C. Westphal, Defining an Optimal Active Route Timeout for the AODV Routing. Nokia Research Center.

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