Introduction. Computer Networks: Introduction 1

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1 Introduction Computer Networks: Introduction 1

2 Network Definitions and Classification Preliminary definitions and network terminology Sample application paradigms Classifying networks by transmission technology Classifying networks by size (or scale) Classifying networks by topology Computer Networks: Introduction 2

3 Preliminary Definitions computer network :: [Tanenbaum] a collection of autonomous computers interconnected by a single technology. [LG&W] communications network ::a set of equipment and facilities that provide a service. [PD] {low level definition} A network can consist of two or more computers directly connected by some physical medium such as coaxial cable or an optical fiber. Wireless connectivity needs to be included in this definition. Computer Networks: Introduction 3

4 Network Building Blocks Nodes and Hosts: computers, routers, switches Links: coaxial cable, optical fiber, wireless communication point-to-point (a) multiple access (b) P&D slide Computer Networks: Introduction 4

5 Preliminary Definitions In a distributed system the collection of independent computers appears to its users as a single coherent system. Namely, the distinctions lie in the transparency in assigning tasks to computers. Computer Networks: Introduction 5

6 Switched Networks Figure 1.3 P&D slide Computer Networks: Introduction 6

7 internet Figure 1.4 Interconnection of networks P&D slide Computer Networks: Introduction 7

8 Network P&D recursive definition:: i. two or more nodes connected by a link. or ii. two or more networks connected by a node {an internet}. Computer Networks: Introduction 8

9 Computer Networks: Introduction Host B Host C Host L Host D Host E Host G Host J Host A Host H Host F Host M W T X Y Z nodes AP W1 W2 W3 W4

10 Sample Application Paradigms Computer Networks: Introduction 10

11 Client-Server Applications Figure 1.1 A network with two clients and one server. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 11

12 Client-Server Model Figure 1-2. The client-server model involves requests and replies. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 12

13 Peer-to-Peer Applications Figure 1.3 In a peer-to-peer system there are no fixed clients and servers. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 13

14 Mobile Network Users Figure 1-5. Combinations of wireless networks and mobile computing. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 14

15 Classifying Networks by Transmission Technology broadcast :: a single communications channel shared by all machines (addresses) on the network. Broadcast can be either a logical or a physical concept (e.g. Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer ). multicast :: communications to a specified group. This requires a group address (e.g. multimedia multicast). point-to-point :: connections are made via links between pairs of nodes. Computer Networks: Introduction 15

16 Network Classification by Size Figure 1-6. Classification of interconnected processors by scale. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 16

17 Network Classification by Size LANs {Local Area Networks} Wired LANs: typically physically broadcast at the MAC layer (e.g., Ethernet, Token Ring) Wireless LANs MANs {Metropolitan Area Networks} campus networks connecting LANs logically or physically. often have a backbone (e.g., FDDI and ATM) Computer Networks: Introduction 17

18 Wired LANs transceivers Ethernet bus Ethernet hub Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Figure 1.17 Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 18

19 Wireless LANs Figure (a) Wireless networking with a base station. (b) Ad hoc networking. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 19

20 Metropolitan Area Networks Figure 1-8. A metropolitan area network based on cable TV. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 20

21 MAN 2 a 3 c 1* 4 A b d Metropolitan network A consists of access subnetworks a, b, c, d. Hierarchical Network Topology A α National network consists of regional subnetworks α, β, γ. Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies β γ Metropolitan network A is part of regional subnetwork α. Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Figure 1.8 Communication Networks Computer Networks: Introduction 21

22 Network Classification by Size WANs {Wide Area Networks} also referred to as point-to-point networks. ARPANET Internet usually hierarchical with a backbone. Enterprise Networks, Autonomous Systems (ASs) VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). Computer Networks: Introduction 22

23 AMES UTAH BOULDER GWC CASE McCLELLAN RADC AMES USC ILL LINC CARN UCSB MIT MITRE STAN SCD ETAC UCLA RAND TINKER BBN HARV NBS Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies ARPAnet circa 1972 a point-to-point network Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Figure 1.16 Computer Networks: Introduction 23

24 Wide Area Networks (WANs) Figure 1-10.A stream of packets from sender to receiver. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 24

25 net 1 G net 3 G G G = gateway G net 5 net 2 G net 4 G Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies internet - a network of networks Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Figure 1.18 Computer Networks: Introduction 25

26 Network Classification by Topology Bus flow of data Bidirectional flow assumes baseband cable Repeater Computer Networks: Introduction 26

27 Network Classification by Topology Ring Repeater Repeater Note - a ring implies unidirectional flow Computer Networks: Introduction 27

28 Network Classification by Topology Tree Headend Computer Networks: Introduction 28

29 Network Classification by Topology Star hub, switch or repeater Computer Networks: Introduction 29

30 Network Classification by Topology Star W1 W2 AP W3 W4 Wireless Infrastructure Computer Networks: Introduction 30

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