1. The Internet 2. Principles 3. Ethernet 4. WiFi 5. Routing 6. Internetworking 7. Transport 8. Models 9. WiMAX & LTE 10. QoS 11. Physical Layer 12.

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1 Lecture Slides

2 1. The Internet 2. Principles 3. Ethernet 4. WiFi 5. Routing 6. Internetworking 7. Transport 8. Models 9. WiMAX & LTE 10. QoS 11. Physical Layer 12. Additional Topics

3 1.1. Basic Operations Hosts, Routers, Links Packet Switching Addressing Routing Error Detection Retransmission or Erroneous Packets Congestion Control Flow Control 1.2. DNS, HTTP & WWW DNS HTTP & WWW Figures: 1.1. Hosts, routers, and links A router.

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6 2.1. Sharing 2.2. Metrics Link Rate Link Bandwidth and Capacity Throughput Delay Delay Jitter M/M/1 Queue Little s Result Fairness 2.3. Scalability Location-Based Addresses Two-Level Routing Best Effort Service End-to-End Principles and Stateless Routers Hierarchical Routing Figures: 2.1. A Hierarchy of Networks 2.2. Limitations of Throughput 2.3. Location-Based Addressing 2.4. Internet Layers 2.4. Application and Technology Independence Layers 2.5. Application Topology Client/Server P2P Cloud Computing Content Distribution Multicast/Anycast Push/Pull Discovery

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11 3.1. Typical Installation 3.2. History of Ethernet Aloha Network Cable Ethernet Hub Ethernet Switched Ethernet 3.3. Addresses 3.4. Frame 3.5. Physical Layer 3.6. Switched Ethernet Example Learning Spanning Tree Protocol 3.7. Aloha Time-Slotted Version Figures: 3.1. Typical Ethernet Installation 3.2. Aloha Network Timing 3.3. Cable Ethernet 3.4. Hub-Based Ethernet 3.5. Switched Ethernet 3.6. Ethernet Frame 3.8. Non-Slotted Aloha 3.9. Hub-Ethernet Maximum Collision Detection Time Appendix: Probability Probability Additivity for Exclusive Events Independent Events Slotted Aloha Non-Slotted Aloha Waiting for Success Hub Ethernet 3.7. Switched Ethernet Network 3.8. Spanning Tree Protocol Messages 3.9. (1 1/n) n Maximum Collision Detection Time Addition and Product of Probabilities Packets that Collide

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24 4.1. Basic Operations 4.2. Medium Access Control MAC Protocol Enhancements for Medium Access MAC Addresses 4.3. Physical Layer 4.4. Efficiency Analysis of MAC Protocol Single Device Multiple Devices 4.5. Appendix: Markov Chains Figures: T.4.1. Constants for MAC 4.1. Steps in WiFi MAC 4.2. Generic MAC Frame Format T.4.2. Different Types 4.3. Channel Usage for Single User 4.4. Markov Chain Model of WiFi MAC 4.5. Irreducible and Reducible Markov Chains

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32 5.1. Domains and Two-Level Routing Scalability Transit and Peering 5.2. Inter-Domain routing Path Vector Algorithm Possible Oscillations Multi-Exit Discriminators 5.3. Intra-Domain Shortest Path Routing Dijkstra s Algorithm and Link State Bellman-Ford and Distance Vector Figures: 5.1. Peering and Transit Agreements 5.2. Typical Agreements 5.3. Path-Vector Algorithm 5.4. Inter-Domain routing 5.5. Failure to Converge 5.6. Multi-Exit Discriminators 5.7. Link State Routing Algorithm T.5.1. Routing Table 5.4. Anycast, Multicast Anycast Multicast Forward Error Correction Network Coding 5.5. Ad Hoc Networks AODV OLSR Ant Routing Geographic Routing Backpressure Routing 5.8. Dijkstra s Algorithm 5.9. Distance-Vector Algorithm Bad News Travel Slowly Shortest Paths to a Set of Nodes Steiner Tree and Shortest Paths Forward Error Correction Network Coding Network Coding in WiFi

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42 Distance-Vector Algorithm

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49 6.1. Objectives 6.2. Basic Components Addresses and Subnets Gateway DNS Server ARP Configuration 6.3. Examples Same Subnet Different Subnets Finding IP Addresses Fragmentation 6.4. DHCP 6.5. NAT Figures: 6.1. Interconnected Networks 6.2. Ethernet Networks Seen by Router 6.3. Interconnected Ethernet Networks 6.4. Sending on the Same Subnet 6.5. Sending on a Different Subnet 6.6. Network Address Translation

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56 7.1. Transport Services 7.2. Transport Header 7.3. TCP States 7.4. Error Control Stop-and Wait Go Back N Selective Acknowledgments Timers 7.5. Congestion Control 7.5.1AIMD Refinements Adjusting the Rate TCP Window Size Terminology 7.6. Flow Control Figures: 7.1. Transport Layers and Ports 7.2. Header of UDP 7.3. Header of TCP 7.4. Phases and States of TCP 7.5. Go Back N Protocol 7.6. Comparing GBN and Selective ACKs 7.7. Exponential Averaging 7.8. AIMD 7.9. TCP with and without Fast Recovery TCP Window Size

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67 8.1. The Role of Layers 8.2. Congestion Control Fairness and Throughput Distributed Congestion Control 8.3. Dynamic Routing and Congestion Control 8.4, Justification for Primal-Dual Algorithm Figures: 8.1. Flows in Simple Network 8.2. Rates Maximizing the Utility 8.3. Gradient Algorithm for Dual 8.4. Network with Two Flows 8.5. Solution and Gradients 8.6. Optimal Lagrange Multipliers

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74 9.1. Technology Evolution 9.2. Key Aspects of WiMAX OFDMA QoS Classes Schedulers Handovers Miscellaneous Features 9.3. Key Aspects of LTE LTE Architecture Physical Layer QoS Support Figures: 9.1. Technology Evolution 9.2. WiMAX Frame T9.1. WiMAX QoS Classes 9.3. WiMAX Schedulers 9.4. EPS Architecture 9.5. FDD Frame 9.6. Resource Grid

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82 10.1. Overview Traffic Shaping Leaky Buckets Delay Bounds Scheduling GPS WFQ Regulated Flows and WFQ End-to-End QoS End-to-End Admission Control Net Neutrality Figures: T10.1. Application Requirements Leaky Bucket Buffer with Shaped Traffic Generalized Processor Sharing Regulated Traffic and WFQ

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88 11.1. How to Transport Bits Link Characteristics Wired and Wireless Links Modulation Schemes OFDM Optical Links Operation of Fiber OOK Modulation WDM Optical Switching Passive Optical Network Figures: Link Characteristics Header of UDP BPSK, QPSK, QAM Frequency Reuse OFDM Subcarriers and Symbols Fibers WDM MEMS Optical Switch Passive Optical Network

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97 12.1. Overlay Networks Applications: CDN and P2P Routing Popular P2P Networks Server-Client Centralized Directory Purely Distributed Sensor Networks Design Issues Distributed Applications Bellman-Ford TCP Power Adjustment Byzantine Agreement Unreliable Channel Adversaries Source Compression Figures: Overlay Network Byzantine Agreement

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