Computer Networks Question Bank

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1 Computer Networks Question Bank 1. Describe in detail OSI Model ANS: OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is reference model for how applications can communicate over a network. A reference model is a conceptual framework for understanding relationships. The purpose of the OSI reference model is to guide vendors and developers so the digital communication products and software programs they create will interoperate, and to facilitate clear comparisons among communications tools. Most vendors involved in telecommunications make an attempt to describe their products and services in relation to the OSI model. And although useful for guiding discussion and evaluation, OSI is rarely actually implemented, as few network products or standard tools keep all related functions together in well-defined layers as related to the model. The TCP/IP protocols, which define the Internet, do not map cleanly to the OSI model. Developed by representatives of major computer and telecommunication companies beginning in 1983, OSI was originally intended to be a detailed specification of actual interfaces. Instead, the committee decided to establish a common reference model for which others could then develop detailed interfaces, which in turn could become standards. OSI was officially adopted as an international standard by the International Organization of Standards (ISO). OSI layers The main concept of OSI is that the process of communication between two endpoints in a telecommunication network can be divided into seven distinct groups of related functions, or layers. Each communicating user or program is at a computer that can provide those seven layers of function. So in a given message between users, there will be a flow of data down through the layers in the source computer, across the network and then up through the layers in the receiving computer. The seven layers of function are provided by a combination of applications, operating systems, network card device drivers and networking hardware that enable a system to put a signal on a network cable or out over Wi-Fi or other wireless protocol). The seven Open Systems Interconnection layers are: Layer 7: The application layer. This is the layer at which communication partners are identified (Is there someone to talk to?), network capacity is assessed (Will the network let me talk to them right now?), and that creates a thing to send or opens the thing received. (This layer is not the application itself, it is the set of services an application should be able to make use of directly, although some applications may perform application layer functions.) Layer 6: The presentation layer. This layer is usually part of an operating system (OS) and converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another (for example, from clear text to encrypted text at one end and back to clear text at the other).

2 Layer 5: The session layer. This layer sets up, coordinates and terminates conversations. Services include authentication and reconnection after an interruption. On the Internet, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provide these services for most applications. Layer 4: The transport layer. This layer manages packetization of data, then the delivery of the packets, including checking for errors in the data once it arrives. On the Internet, TCP and UDP provide these services for most applications as well. Layer 3: The network layer. This layer handles the addressing and routing of the data (sending it in the right direction to the right destination on outgoing transmissions and receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level). IP is the network layer for the Internet. Layer 2: The data-link layer. This layer sets up links across the physical network, putting packets into network frames. This layer has two sub-layers, the Logical Link Control Layer and the Media Access Control Layer. Ethernet is the main data link layer in use. Layer 1: The physical layer. This layer conveys the bit stream through the network at the electrical, optical or radio level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier network. 2. Explain in detail what are IPv4 Address classes ANS: Internet Protocol hierarchy contains several classes of IP Addresses to be used efficiently in various situations as per the requirement of hosts per network. Broadly, the IPv4 Addressing system is divided into five classes of IP Addresses. All the five classes are identified by the first octet of IP Address. Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is responsible for assigning IP addresses. The first octet referred here is the left most of all. The octets numbered as follows depicting dotted decimal notation of IP Address: The number of networks and the number of hosts per class can be derived by this formula:

3 When calculating hosts' IP addresses, 2 IP addresses are decreased because they cannot be assigned to hosts, i.e. the first IP of a network is network number and the last IP is reserved for Broadcast IP. Class A Address The first bit of the first octet is always set to 0 (zero). Thus the first octet ranges from 1 127, i.e. Class A addresses only include IP starting from 1.x.x.x to 126.x.x.x only. The IP range 127.x.x.x is reserved for loopback IP addresses. The default subnet mask for Class A IP address is which implies that Class A addressing can have 126 networks (2 7-2) and hosts (2 24-2). Class A IP address format is thus: 0NNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH Class B Address An IP address which belongs to class B has the first two bits in the first octet set to 10, i.e. Class B IP Addresses range from x.x to x.x. The default subnet mask for Class B is x.x. Class B has (2 14 ) Network addresses and (2 16-2) Host addresses. Class B IP address format is: 10NNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH Class C Address The first octet of Class C IP address has its first 3 bits set to 110, that is: Class C IP addresses range from x to x. The default subnet mask for Class C is x. Class C gives (2 21 ) Network addresses and 254 (2 8-2) Host addresses. Class C IP address format is: 110NNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH Class D Address Very first four bits of the first octet in Class D IP addresses are set to 1110, giving a range of:

4 Class D has IP address rage from to Class D is reserved for Multicasting. In multicasting data is not destined for a particular host, that is why there is no need to extract host address from the IP address, and Class D does not have any subnet mask. Class E Address This IP Class is reserved for experimental purposes only for R&D or Study. IP addresses in this class ranges from to Like Class D, this class too is not equipped with any subnet mask. 3. What are different topologies used in Network ANS: BUS Topology Bus topology is a network type in which every computer and network device is connected to single cable. When it has exactly two endpoints, then it is called Linear Bus topology. Features of Bus Topology 1. It transmits data only in one direction. 2. Every device is connected to a single cable Advantages of Bus Topology 1. It is cost effective. 2. Cable required is least compared to other network topology. 3. Used in small networks. 4. It is easy to understand. 5. Easy to expand joining two cables together. Disadvantages of Bus Topology 1. Cables fails then whole network fails. 2. If network traffic is heavy or nodes are more the performance of the network decreases. 3. Cable has a limited length. 4. It is slower than the ring topology. RING Topology

5 It is called ring topology because it forms a ring as each computer is connected to another computer, with the last one connected to the first. Exactly two neighbours for each device. Features of Ring Topology 1. A number of repeaters are used for Ring topology with large number of nodes, because if someone wants to send some data to the last node in the ring topology with 100 nodes, then the data will have to pass through 99 nodes to reach the 100th node. Hence to prevent data loss repeaters are used in the network. 2. The transmission is unidirectional, but it can be made bidirectional by having 2 connections between each Network Node, it is called Dual Ring Topology. 3. In Dual Ring Topology, two ring networks are formed, and data flow is in opposite direction in them. Also, if one ring fails, the second ring can act as a backup, to keep the network up. 4. Data is transferred in a sequential manner that is bit by bit. Data transmitted, has to pass through each node of the network, till the destination node. Advantages of Ring Topology 1. Transmitting network is not affected by high traffic or by adding more nodes, as only the nodes having tokens can transmit data. 2. Cheap to install and expand Disadvantages of Ring Topology

6 1. Troubleshooting is difficult in ring topology. 2. Adding or deleting the computers disturbs the network activity. 3. Failure of one computer disturbs the whole network. STAR Topology In this type of topology all the computers are connected to a single hub through a cable. This hub is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the central node. F e a t u r e s o f S t a r Topology 1. Every node has its own dedicated connection to the hub. 2. Hub acts as a repeater for data flow. 3. Can be used with twisted pair, Optical Fibre or coaxial cable. Advantages of Star Topology 1. Fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic. 2. Hub can be upgraded easily. 3. Easy to troubleshoot. 4. Easy to setup and modify. 5. Only that node is affected which has failed, rest of the nodes can work smoothly. Disadvantages of Star Topology 1. Cost of installation is high. 2. Expensive to use. 3. If the hub fails then the whole network is stopped because all the nodes depend on the hub. 4. Performance is based on the hub that is it depends on its capacity

7 MESH Topology It is a point-to-point connection to other nodes or devices. All the network nodes are connected to each other. Mesh has n(n-1)/2 physical channels to link n devices. There are two techniques to transmit data over the Mesh topology, they are : 1. Routing 2. Flooding Routing In routing, the nodes have a routing logic, as per the network requirements. Like routing logic to direct the data to reach the destination using the shortest distance. Or, routing logic which has information about the broken links, and it avoids those node etc. We can even have routing logic, to re-configure the failed nodes. Flooding In flooding, the same data is transmitted to all the network nodes, hence no routing logic is required. The network is robust, and the its very unlikely to lose the data. But it leads to unwanted load over the network. Types of Mesh Topology 1. Partial Mesh Topology : In this topology some of the systems are connected in the same fashion as mesh topology but some devices are only connected to two or three devices. 2. Full Mesh Topology : Each and every nodes or devices are connected to each other. Features of Mesh Topology 1. Fully connected. 2. Robust. 3. Not flexible. Advantages of Mesh Topology

8 1. Each connection can carry its own data load. 2. It is robust. 3. Fault is diagnosed easily. 4. Provides security and privacy. Disadvantages of Mesh Topology 1. Installation and configuration is difficult. 2. Cabling cost is more. 3. Bulk wiring is required. TREE Topology It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. It is also called hierarchical topology. It should at least have three levels to the hierarchy. Features of Tree Topology 1. Ideal if workstations are located in groups. 2. Used in Wide Area Network. Advantages of Tree Topology 1. Extension of bus and star topologies. 2. Expansion of nodes is possible and easy. 3. Easily managed and maintained. 4. Error detection is easily done. Disadvantages of Tree Topology 1. Heavily cabled. 2. Costly. 3. If more nodes are added maintenance is difficult.

9 4. Central hub fails, network fails. HYBRID Topology It is two different types of topologies which is a mixture of two or more topologies. For example if in an office in one department ring topology is used and in another star topology is used, connecting these topologies will result in Hybrid Topology (ring topology and star topology). Features of Hybrid Topology 1. It is a combination of two or topologies 2. Inherits the advantages and disadvantages of the topologies included Advantages of Hybrid Topology 1. Reliable as Error detecting and trouble shooting is easy. 2. Effective. 3. Scalable as size can be increased easily. 4. Flexible. Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology 1. Complex in design. 2. Costly.

10 4. Describe in details TCP/IP Protocol ANS: TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet). When you are set up with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP. TCP/IP is a two-layer program. The higher layer, Transmission Control Protocol, manages the assembling of a message or file into smaller packets that are transmitted over the Internet and received by a TCP layer that reassembles the packets into the original message. The lower layer, Internet Protocol, handles the address part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination. Each gateway computer on the network checks this address to see where to forward the message. Even though some packets from the same message are routed differently than others, they'll be reassembled at the destination. TCP/IP uses the client/server model of communication in which a computer user (a client) requests and is provided a service (such as sending a Web page) by another computer (a server) in the network. TCP/IP communication is primarily point-to-point, meaning each communication is from one point (or host computer) in the network to another point or host computer. TCP/IP and the higher-level applications that use it are collectively said to be "stateless" because each client request is considered a new request unrelated to any previous one (unlike ordinary phone conversations that require a dedicated connection for the call duration). Being stateless frees network paths so that everyone can use them continuously. (Note that the TCP layer itself is not stateless as far as any one message is concerned. Its connection remains in place until all packets in a message have been received.) Many Internet users are familiar with the even higher layer application protocols that use TCP/IP to get to the Internet. These include the World Wide Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Telnet (Telnet) which lets you logon to remote computers, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). These and other protocols are often packaged together with TCP/IP as a "suite." Personal computer users with an analog phone modem connection to the Internet usually get to the Internet through the Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). These protocols encapsulate the IP packets so that they can be sent over the dial-up phone connection to an access provider's modem. Protocols related to TCP/IP include the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which is used instead of TCP for special purposes. Other protocols are used by network host computers

11 for exchanging router information. These include the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), and the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). 5. Describe LAN ANS: A local-area network (LAN) is a computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most often, a LAN is confined to a single room, building or group of buildings, however, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN). The difference between a LAN and WAN is that the wide-area network spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs) and are often connected through public networks. Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. Each node (individual computer) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes programs, but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. This means that many users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending or engaging in chat sessions. LANs are capable of transmitting data at very fast rates, much faster than data can be transmitted over a telephone line; but the distances are limited and there is also a limit on the number of computers that can be attached to a single LAN. Types of Local-Area Networks (LANs) There are many different types of LANs, with Ethernets being the most common for PCs. Most Apple Macintosh networks are based on Apple's AppleTalk network system, which is built into Macintosh computers. The following characteristics differentiate one LAN from another: Topology: The geometric arrangement of devices on the network. For example, devices can be arranged in a ring or in a straight line. Protocols: The rules and encoding specifications for sending data. The protocols also determine whether the network uses a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture. Media: Devices can be connected by twisted-pair wire, coaxial cables, or fiber optic cables. Some networks do without connecting media altogether, communicating instead via radio waves. 6. Difference between TCP and UDP ANS: TCP and UDP both are used for transferring data or packets on the internet. They are the protocols to send the data. Both perform the same job but the way is different. TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol. The main difference between them is that the TCP is connection oriented while UDP is connection-less. In TCP after the connection is setup, bidirectional sending of data is possible but in UDP, packets are sent in chunks. TCP is more reliable than UDP, but UDP is faster than TCP.

12 TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol in which the data can be transferred bidirectionally after connection is being setuped. TCP is reliable and secure but comparatively slower as it keeps the data smooth and checks error. The order of data at receiving end is same as on sending end. Header size of TCP is 20 bytes. UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol. UDP is connection-less protocol in which data is needed to send in chunks. UDP don t have error checking mechanism that is why it is less reliable but is faster in data transferring than TCP. Header size of UDP is 8 bytes. TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol while UDP stands for User datagram Protocol. TCP is connection oriented protocol while UDP is connectionless protocol. TCP is more reliable than UDP. UDP is more faster for data sending than TCP. UDP makes error checking but no reporting but TCP makes checks for errors and reporting. TCP gives guarantee that the order of data at receiving end is same as on sending end while UDP has no such guarantee. Header size of TCP is 20 bytes while that of UDP is 8 bytes. TCP is heavy weight as it needs three packets to setup a connection while UDP is light weight. TCP has acknowledgement segments but UDP has no acknowledgement. TCP is used for application that require high reliability but less time critical whereas UDP is used for application that are time sensitive but require less reliability. 7. What is WLAN? ANS: A wireless LAN (or WLAN, for wireless local area network, sometimes referred to as LAWN, for local area wireless network) is one in which a mobile user can connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless (radio) connection. The IEEE group of standards specify the technologies for wireless LANs standards use the Ethernet protocol and CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance) for path sharing and include an encryption method, the Wired Equivalent Privacy algorithm. High-bandwidth allocation for wireless will make possible a relatively low-cost wiring of classrooms in the United States. A similar frequency allocation has been made in Europe. Hospitals and businesses are also expected to install wireless LAN systems where existing LANs are not already in place.

13 8. Explain MAC layer ANS: In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of communication, the Media Access Control layer is one of two sublayers of the Data Link Control layer and is concerned with sharing the physical connection to the network among several computers. Each computer has its own unique MAC address. Ethernet is an example of a protocol that works at the Media Access Control layer level. The MAC sublayer acts as an interface between the logical link control (LLC) Ethernet sublayer and Layer 1 (the physical layer). The MAC sublayer emulates a full-duplex logical communication channel in a multipoint network. This channel may provide unicast, multicast, or broadcast communication service. The MAC sublayer uses MAC protocols to prevent collisions. In Layer 2, multiple devices on the same physical link can uniquely identify one another at the data link layer, by using the MAC addresses that are assigned to all ports on a switch. A MAC algorithm accepts as input a secret key and an arbitrary-length message to be authenticated, and outputs a MAC address. A MAC address is a 12-digit hexadecimal number (48 bits in long). MAC addresses are usually written in one of these formats: MM:MM:MM:SS:SS:SS MM-MM-MM-SS-SS-SS The first half of a MAC address contains the ID number of the adapter manufacturer. These IDs are regulated by an Internet standards body. The second half of a MAC address represents the serial number assigned to the adapter by the manufacturer. Contrast MAC addressing, which works at Layer 2, with IP addressing, which runs at Layer 3 (networking and routing). One way to remember the difference is that the MAC addresses apply to a physical or virtual node, whereas IP addresses apply to the software implementation of that node. MAC addresses are typically fixed on a per-node basis, whereas IP addresses change when the node moves from one part of the network to another. IP networks maintain a mapping between the IP and MAC addresses of a node using the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table. DHCP also typically uses MAC addresses when assigning IP addresses to nodes. 9. Describe in detail about data link layer. ANS: Data link layer is most reliable node to node delivery of data. It forms frames from the packets that are received from network layer and gives it to physical layer. It also synchronizes the information which is to be transmitted over the data. Error controlling is easily done. The encoded data are then passed to physical. Error detection bits are used by the data link layer. It also corrects the errors. Outgoing messages are assembled into frames. Then the system waits for the acknowledgements to be received after the transmission. It is reliable to send message.

14 FUNCTIONS OF DATA LINK LAYER: 1. Framing: Frames are the streams of bits received from the network layer into manageable data units. This division of stream of bits is done by Data Link Layer. 2. Physical Addressing: The Data Link layer adds a header to the frame in order to define physical address of the sender or receiver of the frame, if the frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network. 3. Flow Control: A flow control mechanism to avoid a fast transmitter from running a slow receiver by buffering the extra bit is provided by flow control. This prevents traffic jam at the receiver side. 4. Error Control: Error control is achieved by adding a trailer at the end of the frame. Duplication of frames are also prevented by using this mechanism. Data Link Layers adds mechanism to prevent duplication of frames. 5. Access Control: Protocols of this layer determine which of the devices has control over the link at any given time, when two or more devices are connected to the same link. 10. What are types of communication networks describe each in detail ANS: Types of Communication Networks Local Area Network (LAN) It is also called LAN and designed for small physical areas such as an office, group of buildings or a factory. LANs are used widely as it is easy to design and to troubleshoot. Personal computers and workstations are connected to each other through LANs. We can use different types of topologies through LAN, these are Star, Ring, Bus, Tree etc. LAN can be a simple network like connecting two computers, to share files and network among each other while it can also be as complex as interconnecting an entire building. LAN networks are also widely used to share resources like printers, shared hard-drive etc.

15 Applications of LAN One of the computer in a network can become a server serving all the remaining computers called clients. Software can be stored on the server and it can be used by the remaining clients. Connecting Locally all the workstations in a building to let them communicate with each other locally without any internet access. Sharing common resources like printers etc are some common applications of LAN. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) It is basically a bigger version of LAN. It is also called MAN and uses the similar technology as LAN. It is designed to extend over the entire city. It can be means to connecting a number of LANs into a larger network or it can be a single cable. It is mainly hold and operated by single private company or a public company.

16 Wide Area Network (WAN) It is also called WAN. WAN can be private or it can be public leased network. It is used for the network that covers large distance such as cover states of a country. It is not easy to design and maintain. Communication medium used by WAN are PSTN or Satellite links. WAN operates on low data rates. Wireless Network It is the fastest growing segment of computer. They are becoming very important in our daily life because wind connections are not possible in cars or aeroplane. We can access Internet at any place avoiding wire related troubles.. These can be used also when the telephone systems gets destroyed due to some calamity/disaster. WANs are really important now-a-days. Inter Network

17 When we connect two or more networks then they are called internetwork or internet. We can join two or more individual networks to form an internetwork through devices like routers gateways or bridges.

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