Intermediate Microsoft Excel 2008

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1 Intermediate Microsoft Excel 2008 Table of Contents ADVANCED FORMATTING... 2 FORMATTING NUMBERS... 2 WRAPPING TEXT... 3 THE MERGE AND CENTER FUNCTIONS... 4 INSERTING COMMENTS... 5 FREEZE PANES... 6 INSERTING AND DELETING ROWS, COLUMNS AND CELLS... 7 FORMULAS... 9 CHOOSING A FORMULA... 9 THE TEXT TO COLUMNS FEATURE RELATIVE & ABSOLUTE REFERENCES COPYING A FORMULA USING A RELATIVE REFERENCE COPYING A FORMULA USING AN ABSOLUTE REFERENCE AUTOFIL LINKING CELLS SOLVING BIZARRE PRINTING PROBLEMS Dianne Harrison Ferro Mesarch

2 ADVANCED FORMATTING Excel makes it easy to display your data in a specific format through the Format Cells dialog. To access the Format Cells dialog, follow the instructions below. Formatting Numbers 1. Select the cell(s) containing the numbers that you want to format. 2. Click on the word Format in the Apple Menu Bar. 3. Choose the option Cells. 4. The Format Cells dialog will appear with the Number tab displayed. 5. Select a number type option from the Category section. 6. A list of corresponding format options will appear in the Type section. 7. Select the desired formatting option. 8. Click on the OK button. 9. Your numbers will be formatted accordingly. Various Number Formatting Options To display the value as a regular number, select the Number option. You can specify the number of decimal places you want to display, the use of comma as a 1,000 separator, and the way in which a negative value will be displayed. To display the value as currency, select the Currency option. You can specify the number of decimal places, the type of currency symbol, and the way in which a negative value will be displayed. To display the value as a date or time, select the Date or Time option and choose the desired format. To display the value as a percentage, select the Percentage option and choose the number of decimal places you want to display. To display the value as a zip code, phone number or social security number, select the Special option and choose the desired format. To remove any and all number formatting, select the General option. 2

3 Wrapping Text Wrapping text deepens the row, rather than widening the column. 1. Select the cell(s) in which you want to wrap text. 2. Click on the word Format in the Apple Menu Bar. 3. Choose the option Cells. 4. The Format Cells dialog will appear with the Alignment tab displayed. 5. Enable the Wrap Text field in the in the Text Control section. 6. Click on the OK button. 7. The text will now be wrapped within the cell(s). Note: To un wrap text, select the cell(s), display the Format Cells dialog, disable the Wrap Text field in the Text Control section, and click on the OK button. 3

4 The Merge and Center Functions You can merge and center the contents of one cell across several cells. This feature is very effective for titles. 1. Select the cells that you want to merge. (If you want to center existing data within the cells, make sure that the data is located in the leftmost cell.) 2. Click on the word Format in the Apple Menu Bar. 3. Choose the option Cells. 4. The Format Cells dialog will appear with the Alignment tab displayed. 5. Enable the Merge Cells field in the In the Text Control section. 6. If you want to center your data across the merged cells, click on the arrows to the right of the Horizontal field and choose the option Center. 7. Click on the OK button. 8. The cells will be merged and the data will be centered. (In the example below, cells A1 through L1 have been merged and the data centered within the merged cells.) Note: To unmerge cells, select the merged cells, display the Format Cells dialog, disable the Merge Cells field in the Text Control section, and click on the OK button. You can use the Alignment icons in the Formatting Toolbar to change the alignment of your data after you unmerge the cells. 4

5 Inserting Comments 1. Select the cell in which you want to place a comment. 2. Click on the word Insert in the Apple Menu Bar. 3. Select the Comment option. 4. A blank Comment will appear, displaying your user name. 5. Click underneath your name and type your comment. 6. When you finish typing, deselect by clicking outside of the Comment dialog. 7. The cell in which you added the comment will have a small, red triangle in its upper right hand corner. 8. Hold your cursor over the cell for the comment to appear. To Display or Hide All of Your Comments, click on the word View in the Apple Menu Bar and enable the Comments option. All of the comment within your worksheet will display. To Edit a Comment, select the cell that contains the comment you want to edit, click on the word Insert in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the Edit Comment option. The comment will display and you can make your edits. To Delete a Comment, select the cell that contains the comment you want to delete, click on the word Edit in the Apple Menu Bar, hold your cursor over the Clear option, and choose the Comments option. The comment will be deleted. To Change your Excel User Name, click on the word Excel in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the Preferences option. The Excel Preferences dialog will appear. Click on the General icon. The General dialog will appear. Type your name in the User Name field and click on the OK button. All new comments that you insert will display your user name. 5

6 FREEZE PANES To keep an area of a worksheet visible while you scroll to another area of the worksheet, you can freeze panes. 1. Select the cell below and to the right of the rows and columns that you want to keep visible when you scroll. 2. Click on the word Window in the Apple Menu Bar. 3. Choose the option Freeze Panes. 4. Dark lines will appear, defining your frozen columns and rows. (The freeze pane lines appear above and to the left of the red lines in the example below.) 5. You can now scroll vertically or horizontally, while keeping the frozen rows and columns constantly visible. (Column A and Rows 1 and 2 in the above example.) 6. To unfreeze panes, click on the word Window in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the Unfreeze Panes option. 6

7 INSERTING AND DELETING ROWS, COLUMNS AND CELLS The easiest way to insert a row or column is to use the CTRL+click keys on your Apple keyboard. To Insert a Row Select a row by clicking on its row heading number, press the CTRL+click keys simultaneously on your Apple keyboard, and choose the option Insert from the submenu that appears. A row will be inserted above the selected row. or Select a row, click on the word Insert in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the option Rows. A row will be inserted above the selected row. To Delete a Row Select a row, press the CTRL+click keys simultaneously on your Apple keyboard, and choose the option Delete from the submenu that appears. The row will be deleted. or Select a row, click on the word Edit in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the option Delete. The row will be deleted. To Insert a Column Select a column by clicking on its column heading letter, press the CTRL+click keys simultaneously on your Apple keyboard, and choose the option Insert from the submenu that appears. A column will be inserted to the left of the selected column. or Select a column, click on the word Insert in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the option Columns. A column will be inserted to the left of the selected column. To Delete a Column Select a column, press the CTRL+click keys simultaneously on your Apple keyboard, and choose the option Delete from the submenu that appears. The column will be deleted. or Select a column, click on the word Edit in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the option Delete. The column will be deleted. Note: You can insert and delete multiple rows or columns by selecting multiple rows or columns. The number of columns or rows you select will determine the number of columns or rows you insert or delete. 7

8 To Insert a Cell 1. Select the cell that is either one cell below or one cell to the right of where you want to new cell to appear. 2. Click on the word Insert in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the option Cells. 3. The Insert dialog will appear. 4. Enable the Shift Cells Right field if you want a new cell inserted to the left of the active cell. 5. Enable the Shift Cells Down field if you want a new cell inserted above the active cell. 6. The remaining cells in that column or row will move down or to the right, accordingly. To Delete a Cell 1. Select the cell that you want to delete. 2. Click on the word Edit in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the option Delete. 3. The Delete dialog will appear. 4. Enable the Shift Cells Left field if you want the remaining cells in that row to all move left by one cell. 5. Enable the Shift Cells Up field if you want the remaining cells in that column to all move up by one cell. 6. The remaining cells in that column or row will move up or to the left, accordingly. Note: As with columns and rows, the number of cells you select will determine the number of cells you insert or delete. 8

9 FORMULAS Excel has a collection of built in formulas. The following table illustrates some of the most commonly used functions. Function Description =SUM(A1:A3) Totals all the values in the range A1 to A3. =AVERAGE(A1:A3) Averages all the values in the range A1 to A3. =MIN(A1:A3) Returns the smallest value in the range A1 to A3. =MAX(A1:A3) Returns the largest value in the range A1 to A3. Choosing a Formula 1. Choose the cell where you want the outcome of your formula to appear. (The cell that contains the formula CANNOT be used in the formula.) 2. Click on the Open the Formula Builder icon in the Formula Bar. 3. The Formula Builder will appear. The Description section 4. Click once on a formula to see what it does in the Description section. 5. Double click on a formula to use it. 9

10 6. After double clicking on a formula name, an Arguments section will appear at the bottom of the Formula Builder. The Arguments section 7. Excel will populate the Number 1 field with the cell references that it thinks should be part of the calculation. 8. You can change the data if it is incorrect by either selecting new cells within your worksheet or typing the cell references in the Number 1 field. 9. Press the Return key on your Apple keyboard when you are ready to accept the formula. 10. The outcome of your formula will appear in the cell that you selected. Note: The cell that you select to contain the outcome of a formula CANNOT be included in the formula itself. If it is, you will receive a Circular Reference error that will prevent Excel from properly calculating your formula. The best way to deal with this error is to delete the offending formula and start afresh. 10

11 The Text to Columns Feature The Text to Columns feature allows you to split the contents of one column into adjacent columns, such as splitting a column of full names into separate first name and last name columns. 1. Select the column that contains the data that you want to separate. 2. Click on the word Data in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the option Text to Columns. 3. The Convert Text to Columns Wizard Step 1 of 3 dialog will appear. 4. Select the correct file type. (For a column with spaces separating the names, choose the Delimited option.) 5. Click on the Next button. 6. The Convert Text to Columns Wizard Step 2 of 3 dialog will appear. 7. Select the delimiter that separates your data within the column. 8. Click on the Next button. 9. The Convert Text to Columns Wizard Step 3 of 3 dialog will appear. 10. Select your desired data format. 11. Click on the Finish button. 12. Your one column will be separated into two columns. Note: You can use the Concatenate formula/function to merge the date from two columns into one column. 11

12 RELATIVE & ABSOLUTE REFERENCES After adding a formula to your spreadsheet, you may want to copy it. When you copy a formula, you have the choice of making it relative or absolute. The following table describes the differences between relative references, which adjust relative to their location, and absolute references, which remain constant regardless of location. Item Relative References Absolute References Explanation When you copy formulas from one place to another in a worksheet, Excel uses Relative References by default and adjusts the formula based on its new location. For example, if you copy the formula =AVERAGE(C8:F8) from G8 to G9, Excel adjusts the formula so that it reads =AVERAGE(C9:F9). There may be times when you want Excel to continue to refer to a specific cell in your formula, even if other variables change. For example, you might be adding several different columns of numbers, but want the sums of each column to be multiplied by a constant number. You can enter a constant or Absolute Reference by placing a $ in front of the column and row designation. For example, C7 is a relative reference, which can change, while $C$7 is an absolute reference, which will never change. 12

13 Copying a Formula Using a Relative Reference 1. Select the cell that contains the formula you want to copy. 2. Point the cursor to the lower right hand corner of the cell until the cursor changes from an arrow to a black, solid cross (+). 3. Press down and hold down the mouse button while dragging your cursor down a column or across a row. 4. The cells that you dragged the mouse through will now contain the copied formula, which has been adjusted based on each new cell location. The original formula in cell B6 The copied relative reference formula in cell C6 The copied relative reference formula in cell D6 13

14 Copying a Formula Using an Absolute Reference 1. Select the cell that contains the formula you want to copy. 2. To create an absolute reference, place the dollar sign ($) in front of the row and column reference that you do not want to change (i.e., =SUM(B4:B6)*$B$1). 3. Point the cursor to the lower right hand corner of the cell until the cursor changes from an arrow to a black, solid cross (+). 4. Press down and hold down the mouse button while dragging your cursor down a column or across a row. 5. The cells that you dragged the mouse through will now contain the copied formula, which will contain the absolute reference (the constant cell location). The original formula in cell B7, with cell B2 marked as an absolute reference The copied formula in cell C7, with cell B2 still marked as an absolute reference The copied formula in cell D7, with cell B2 still marked as an absolute reference Note: In the above example, the original formula is =SUM(B4:B8)*$D$2. When the formula is dragged into new cells, the sum part of the formula changes because it is a relative reference. However, the constant rate value, $D$2, stays the same no matter where the formula is copied, as the dollar signs have made it an absolute reference. 14

15 AUTOFIL Excel uses its absolute and relative reference logic in the AutoFil function, which allows you to create a series or a list by dragging value(s) down columns or across rows. 1. Enter the first option of your list or series in a cell. 2. Point the cursor to the lower right hand corner of the cell until the cursor changes from an arrow to a black, solid cross (+). 3. Press down and hold down the left mouse button while dragging your cursor down a column or across a row. 4. The cells that you dragged the mouse through will now contain your data series or list. Note: For a numbered list, you have to establish a pattern in two adjacent cells. In the example above, I entered the number 3 in cell A19 and the number 5 in cell B19. I then selected both cells A19 and B19 and dragged my cursor across row 19. Excel picked up the pattern, increasing each subsequent number by two digits. If I had just selected cell A19 and then dragged it across the row, Excel would have assumed that I meant to copy the number 3 multiple times. To Create Your Own AutoFil Lists, click on the word Excel in the Apple Menu Bar and choose the Preferences option. The Excel Preferences dialog will appear. Click on the Custom Lists icon. The Custom Lists dialog will open. Make sure that the NEW LIST option is selected in the Custom Lists section, click on the Add button and type your list in the List Entries section. When you are done typing, click on the OK button. Your new AutoFil list will be created. 15

16 LINKING CELLS Excel allows you to link one cell to another, such that a given cell will always hold the same value as the specified cell to which it is linked. Once the cells are linked, if the value of the original cell is changed, the value of the linked cell will also change. This is very convenient when there are a lot of numbers and calculations that need to be updated across different cells and worksheets simultaneously. 1. Enter data in the original cell. 2. Click on the cell that you want to link to the original cell. 3. Type an equal sign (=) in the new cell. 4. Click on the cell containing the original data or type in that cell s reference. 5. Moving lines will surround the original cell and the newly linked cell will display the original cell s reference in the Formula Bar. The original cell s address displays in the Formula Bar when you click on the linked cell. 6. Press the Return key on your Apple keyboard. 7. The data in the original cell and linked cell will now be identical. 8. You can test the cell link by changing the data within the original cell. Note: You can link cells within the same worksheet, the same workbook and across different workbooks. When you link cells within the same worksheet or workbook, the cell values will be relative. However, when you link cells across different workbooks, the cell values will become absolute. Note 2: You can use linked cells in formulas. 16

17 SOLVING BIZARRE PRINTING PROBLEMS You can use the Page Setup dialog to solve almost any odd printing issue that you encounter in Excel. You can also use the Page Setup dialog to add headers and footers to your worksheets. To display the Page Setup dialog, follow the instructions below. 1. Click on the word File in the Apple Menu Bar. 2. Choose the option Page Setup. 3. The Page Setup dialog will appear. The table below describes some of the different page setup commands that you can use. Function Orientation Scaling Margins Center on Page Paper Size Header/Footer Rows to Repeat at Top/ Columns to Repeat at Left Print Area Gridlines Row and Column Headings Description and Comment You can choose either portrait or landscape page orientation on the Page tab. You can reduce, enlarge, or fit the data on your worksheet to a specific number of pages by using the fields within the Scaling section of the Page tab. You can change the margins of your worksheet on the Margins tab. Please note that the minimum margin should be 0.3 inches, so that the printer can grab the paper. You can choose whether the data on your spreadsheet will be centered horizontally, vertically or both by using the Center on Page section of the Margins tab. You can change the paper size by clicking on the Options button located on the Margins tab. You can create worksheet headers or footers by clicking on the Customize Header or Customize Footer button, both of which are located on the Header/Footer tab. You can choose to print rows and/or columns of data on every page by using the Print Titles section of the Sheet tab. You can select a specific area of your worksheet to print by using the Print Area field, located on the Sheet tab. You can print the cell gridlines by enabling the Gridlines field, which is located on the Sheet tab. You can print the row heading numbers and the column heading letters by enabling the Row and Column Headings field, which is located on the Sheet tab. 17

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