Al Mustansiriyah University / College of Medicine. Computer Science for First Year

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1 Al Mustansiriyah University / College of Medicine Computer Science for First Year

2 1 THE WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM Every computer needs an operating system which lets you, literally, operate your computer. There are a few around and Microsoft Windows is just one of them. Some of the functions the Windows operating system allows you to do are: 1. Access applications (programs) on your computer (word processing, games, spread sheets, calculators and so on) 2. Load any new programs on to the computer 3. Manage hardware such as printers, scanners, mice, digital cameras 4. Manage how files are stored on your computer (File Management, covered later in this module) 5. Change computer settings such as color schemes, screensavers, and the resolution of your monitor. What software versions do I have and what is on my computer? 1. Find the COMPUTER icon on the desktop. 2. Right mouse click on this icon and select PROP ERTIES from the shortcut menu. The SYSTEM PROPERTIES dialog box will appear. The DEVICE MANAGER dialog box has a list of devices attached to your PC. More information about each can be obtained by clicking on the icon with the plus sign located in front of each device. Introduction to the Desktop The desktop is the main screen area that you see after you turn on your computer and log on to Windows. Like the top of an actual desk, it serves as a surface for your work.

3 2 1. Documents: Is the default storage folder for your files that you create. When you save or open a file, Microsoft Windows initially opens the MY DOCUMENTS dialog box. 2. Computer: Displays information about your computer, such as the contents of your computer drives and which printers you have installed. It also allows you to find, view and organize files. 3. The Recycle Bin : This is where you place files you no longer need. Any file you delete from your hard drive will be placed first in the RECYCLE BIN. 4. Internet Explorer : With INTERNET EXPLORER and an Internet connection, you can search for and view information on the World Wide Web. You can search the Internet for people, businesses, and information about subjects that interest you, download music, copy graphics, stay in touch with or meet new friends, and a host of other activities. 5. Microsoft Excel: is a spread sheet application which allows users to enter text and numbers into rows and columns. This data can be manipulated and

4 3 analyzed by using formulas and functions and reporting and charting can be done on the results, 6. Microsoft PowerPoint: is a presentation program. It turns text, numbers and graphics into a presentation which can be shown to an audience in a slideshow, or printed off as handouts. 7. Microsoft Word : is a word processing application used for creating documents such as reports, letters, business plans, and more. ICONS 1. Understanding Icons Object icons: Such as My Computer, Recycle Bin, and Internet Explorer. These icons allow you to open files and programs on your computer. Shortcut icons allow you to open an application quickly. These icons appear on your desktop and with little arrow in the left corner. Desktop shortcuts are links to files and programs. You can add or delete shortcuts without affecting the programs on your computer. 2. To open a program using an icon: Place your mouse over the icon. Text appears identifying its name or contents. Then, double-click the icon. 3. Arrange Desk top Icons To arrange icons on desktop click Right mouse button on an empty space on desktop, menu appear choose Sort by.

5 4 4. Change Desk top Icons View To change your icons View click Right mouse button on an empty space on desktop, menu appears choose icon size. Opening an Application There are many ways to open an application the most common ways are: 1. By clicking on the START button, going to the PROGRAMS menu and locating the application in the list that appears. 2. By double clicking with the mouse on a shortcut icon on the desktop if one has been created. 3. Some applications may be located on the taskbar as a quick link (look at the left hand side of the taskbar, just after the START button). These quick links only need to be clicked on once. When you open an application it will open up in what is known as a WINDOW. Windows 1. What is a Window? A window is a boxed area in which you view programs, files, folders, drives, icons representing programs, files or folders, and other elements.

6 5 Title bar. Displays the name of the document and program (or the folder name if you're working in a folder). Minimize, Maximize, and Close buttons. These buttons hide the window, enlarge it to fill the whole screen, and close it, respectively (more details on these shortly). Menu bar. Contains items that you can click to make choices in a program. Scroll bar. Let s you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. Borders and corners. You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. 2. Arranging Folders

7 6 Navigation Pane: Use the navigation pane to access libraries, folders, saved searches, and even entire hard disks. Use the Favorites section to open your most commonly used folders and searches; use the Libraries section to access your libraries. You can also use the Computer folder to browse folders and subfolders. Back and Forward Buttons :Use the Back button and the Forward button to navigate to other folders or libraries you've already opened without closing the current window. These buttons work together with the address bar; after you use the address bar to change folders, for example, you can use the Back button to return to the previous folder. Toolbar : Use the toolbar to perform common tasks, such as changing the appearance of your files and folders, burning files to a CD, or starting a digital picture slide show. The toolbar's buttons change to show only the tasks that are relevant. For example, if you click a picture file, the toolbar shows different buttons than it would if you clicked a music file.

8 7 Address bar: Use the address bar to navigate to a different folder or library or to go back to a previous one. Library pane: The library pane appears only when you are in a library (such as the Documents library). Use the library pane to customize the library or to arrange the files by different properties. Column headings: Use the column headings to change how the files in the file list are organized. (Note that column headings are available only in Details view. File list: This is where the contents of the current folder or library are displayed. If you type in the search box to find a file, only the files that match your current view (including files in subfolders) will appear. The search box : Type a word or phrase in the search box to look for an item in the current folder or library. The search begins as soon as you begin typing so if you type "B," for example, all the files with names starting with the letter B will appear in the file list. Details pane : Use the details pane to see the most common properties associated with the selected file. File properties are information about a file, such as the author, the date you last changed the file, and any descriptive tags you might have added to the file. Preview pane: Use the preview pane to see the contents of most files. If you select an message, text file, or picture, for example, you can see its contents without opening it in a program. If you don't see the preview pane, click the Preview pane button in the toolbar to turn it on. 3. Moving a window To move a window, point to its title bar with the mouse pointer. Then drag the window to the location that you want. (Dragging means pointing to an item, holding down the mouse button, moving the item with the pointer, and then releasing the mouse button.) 4. Changing the size of a window To make a window fill the entire screen, click its Maximize button double-click the window's title bar. or

9 8 To return a maximized window to its former size, click its Restore button double-click the window's title bar. Or, To resize a window (make it smaller or bigger), point to any of the window's borders or corners. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow (see picture below), drag the border or corner to shrink or enlarge the window. Note Although most windows can be maximized and resized, there are some windows that are fixed in size, such as dialog boxes. 5. Hiding a window Hiding a window is called minimizing it. If you want to get a window out of the way temporarily without closing it, minimize it. To minimize a window, click its Minimize button. The window disappears from the desktop and is visible only as a button on the taskbar, the long horizontal bar at the bottom of your screen. To make a minimized window appear again on the desktop, click its taskbar button. 6. Closing a window Closing a window removes it from the desktop and taskbar. If you're done with a program or document and don't need to return to it right away, close it. To close a window, click its Close button. 7. Arranging windows automatically Now that you know how to move and resize windows, you can arrange them however you like on your desktop. You can also have Windows automatically arrange them in one of three ways: cascading, vertically stacked, or side by side.

10 9 To choose one of these options, open some windows on your desktop, then right-click an empty area of the taskbar and click Cascade windows, Show windows stacked, or Show windows side by side. 2. To maximize a window 1. Drag the title bar of the window to the top of the screen. The window's outline expands to fill the screen. 2. Release the window to expand it to fill the entire desktop. 3. Change thumbnail size and file details You can change the size and appearance of your files and folders by using the Views button located on the toolbar of every open window. 1. Open the folder that you want to change. 2. Click the arrow next to the Views button on the toolbar. 3. Click a view or move the slider to change the appearance of your files and folders. Tips To quickly switch between views, click the Views button rather than the arrow next to it. Dialog Boxes DIALOG BOXES are special windows where you are asked to give details and select options. The choices you make are then sent as commands to the software you are using. DIALOG BOXES vary depending on the task requested as well as the application, however they do have several items in common.

11 11 The Taskbar The taskbar is the long horizontal bar at the bottom of your screen. It has three main sections: 1. The Start button, which opens the Start menu. The START button gives you access to most things available on your computer. Some of the items you may see are: Documents: This links you to your documents. Pictures: This will link you to your pictures folder Music: This links you to a folder for storing music Computer: Clicking this link will show you the drives connected to this computer Control Panel: Allows you to make changes to the current settings on the computer. Search programs and files: This bar allows you to search for files, folders, printers, software applications etc. by entering search criteria Help and Support: Gives you access to a help facility where you can find out how to do certain things on your computer. 2. The middle section (Quick launch icons), which shows you which programs and files you have opened and allows you to quickly switch between them. Whenever

12 11 you open a program, folder, or file, Windows creates a corresponding button on the taskbar. These are quick launch icons, meaning you can quickly launch any of the programs you see there. When you hold your mouse over one of the icons, you'll see a small popup rectangle that shows you a preview of any open windows. Click on the preview window and it opens the program up in full screen. There are several ways to add new program to the Quick Launch area. Open up a program using the Start menu. When it's open, use the right mouse button to click its icon in the Taskbar. A new menu appears: In the image above, we have Microsoft Excel open. Right-clicking its icon in the Taskbar gave us the above menu. Once "Pin this program to the taskbar" is clicked with the left mouse button, it will appear permanently in the Quick Launch area. If you want to get rid of any Quick Launch program, the item on the menu will say "Unpin this program from the taskbar" when you right-click. You can also use the Start menu to add program to the Quick Launch area.

13 12 Again, right-click the program you want to add. From the menu, select "Pin to Taskbar". In the image below, we're adding Notepad as a Quick Launch icon: The result is a new icon in the Quick Launch area: 3. The notification area: The Notification area, formally called the System Tray, is the area of the Taskbar where you can view programs and tasks that are running in the background, as well as view important messages about updating your computer. In the image below, the Notification area shows three icons: The first one, the white arrow, is for hidden icons. Click the white arrow to see which icons have been hidden: Probably the only one of the four icons above that you'll have is the speaker icon. This sets the volume for your speakers. If yours is too low, click the speaker icon to see a slider that you can move up and down. This flag alerts you to issues that need to be taken care of. Click the flag icon to see if there are any problems:

14 13 As you can see, Windows 7 is telling us that there is 1 message, and that it's to do with Windows Defender. You can click on the "1 message" heading at the top, or on the message itself. You can also open the "Action Center" from here. Network icon tells us that we have an internet connection, and there are no problems. If the internet access is down, there will be a red X through this icon: The red X will disappear when the problem with the internet is solved. 4. Customize the Taskbar To unlock the taskbar: Right-click an empty space on the taskbar. If Lock the taskbar has a check mark next to it, the taskbar is locked. You can unlock it by clicking Lock the taskbar, which removes the check mark.

15 14 To move the taskbar : Click an empty space on the taskbar, and then hold down the mouse button as you drag the taskbar to one of the four edges of the desktop. When the taskbar is where you want it, release the mouse button. 5. Toolbars in Windows 7 You can add Toolbars to your taskbar area. A toolbar is a list of shortcuts to favorite areas of your computers. Right click the Taskbar to see the following menu: As you can see, there are entries for Address, Links, PowerDVD 8, Desktop, and New toolbar. This is similar to the Search bar on the Start menu. You can type a web site address in the text box. Or just navigate to areas on your computer. Click the black down arrow to see some shortcuts. The Links item on the menu refers to the Favourites Bar folder that appears in Internet Explorer. These are shortcuts to websites you've added. At the bottom of the toolbar menu there is an item for "New toolbar". This allows you to create a toolbar of your very own. When you click on "New toolbar", you'll see an Explorer window open. Select a folder to add to your new toolbar. In the image below, we've selected the Pictures folder from the list on the left.

16 15 + The Folder text box at the bottom then says "Pictures". Click the Select Folder button. Your chosen folder will appear on your Taskbar at the bottom of your screen: Help and Support Help is always available as you learn about the different functions on your computer. You can access it by clicking on the START button and selecting HELP AND SUPPORT then dialog box will appear: Enter the search criteria in the search box Alternatively, click on a topic. NOTE: You can also hit F1 on your keyboard at any time to launch the HELP

17 16 menu. You need to click on the desktop first then press F1 Quickly find files and folders (Search) Windows 7 enables you to quickly locate files and folders on your drives. To quickly find a file or folder: 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu will appear. 2. A Search Bar will be your first choice. 3. Enter your search criteria. 4. Click Enter. The results of your search will appear in the start menu. Control Panel You can modify many aspects of Windows here and intermediate users will have access to all the options they need to control their computer. 1.Opening the Control Panel The Control Panel is opened by clicking Start then Control Panel 2.Control Panel Overview

18 17 The Control Panel contains an address bar and search box like many other folders. The different commands are categorized into eight groups: 3.Personalizing Your Computer Modern graphics cards and graphics chipsets have the ability to display millions of colors and vibrant visual effects. Windows 7 takes advantage of this technological capability and allows you to create a bright and colorful interface to suit your liking. Click Start Control Panel Appearance and Personalization Personalization to view how you can customize Windows 7. (You can also access these options by rightclicking the desktop and clicking Personalize.)

19 18 Desktop Background At the top of the Desktop Background feature, you can use the combo box to choose the source for your wallpaper. You can also click Browse to select any other folder that contains images. Screen Saver Windows comes with a few screen savers that are automatically activated after a certain period of inactivity. Choose a screen saver, modify its properties by clicking the Settings button, and apply a password if you wish. Screen Resolution Monitors come in two main types: cathode ray tube (CRT, which looks like a television) or liquid crystal display (LCD, flat screens that are now the norm). Depending on the size of your monitor, you can adjust the amount of information that can fit on the screen by changing the number of pixels (individual dots of color that make up your screen) that are displayed at once. Changing the amount of pixels is called changing the resolution. Screen resolution is measured in horizontal x vertical pixels. The default Windows 7 resolution is 1024x768 pixels, which will fit comfortably in a 17 CRT or LCD monitor. Larger monitors, like 19 or 21 and above, can support larger resolutions. From the Control Panel, click Appearance and Personalization and then click Adjust screen resolution under the Display heading: 5.Changing the Date and Time If you are moving to a different region of the world, or have suffered a power loss which can throw off the clock time, you can change the date and time in the Control Panel. Click Clock, Language, and Region and then click Set the time and date under the Date and Time heading:

20 19 Now click the Change date and time button: You can also click the clock in the Taskbar and then click Change date and time settings: 6.Changing How Your Mouse Behaves In the Control Panel, click Hardware and Sound and then click Mouse under the Devices and Printers heading. This will open the Mouse Properties dialog box: Under the Button configuration heading, you can reverse the operation of the left and right mouse buttons to accommodate left or right-handed people. To adjust the double-click speed, click and drag the slider and test it by double-clicking the folder icon. Click Lock allows you to click and drag to select something without having to hold the left mouse button down all the time. 7.Removing Software Packages When you no longer want or need a program, you can uninstall it to free up the hard disk space it occupied. However, uninstalling a program is not as simple as deleting the files that were used to run it. The registry entries must also be erased, along with other operations that will remove all aspects of a program. Windows makes this process, like program installation, very easy. In the Control Panel, click Uninstall a program under the Programs heading:

21 21 This will open a new window that lists all programs installed on your computer: Windows will compile a list of files and settings that will need to be removed and then uninstall the program: 8.Cleaning Up Your Hard Disk You can gain a small performance increase by simply removing the old files you no longer need. This will obviously free up extra disk space too. Many of the files on your computer are your responsibility for managing. However, there are a number of system files saved by Windows that are only stored for convenience and are not vital to the operation of your computer. You can use the Disk Cleanup utility to remove these files. Click Start All Programs Accessories System Tools Disk Cleanup:

22 21 Windows will scan the selected hard disk for many different types of files: 9.Scandisk Scandisk checks your hard drive for errors and fixes them for you. You must use Scandisk before Disk Defragmenter because Disk Defragmenter will not work if there are errors. To use Scandisk: 1. Disable your screen saver. 2. Double click on Computer on your desktop. 3. Right click the drive that you want to perform Scandisk on. 4. Select Properties Click on the Tools tab. 5. Under Error-checking status, click on the Check Now button. 6. Click on Automatically Fix Error if you want Scandisk to repair any errors it finds. Click OK. 10.Disk Defragmenter Disk Defragmenter, as the name implies, defragments your disks. Your disks get fragmented when you add and delete files. Information that should be grouped together eventually gets split up.

23 22 When you defragment your disk, all of this information gets grouped back together. This speeds up your computer. You should run Scandisk before using Disk Defragmenter. 1. Disable your screen saver. 2. Double click on Computer on your desktop. 3. Right click the drive that you wish to defragment. 4. Click on Properties Click on the Tools tab. 5. In the Defragmentation status box, click on the Defragment now button. Printing a File The quickest way to print a document or file is to print using Windows. You don't have to open any programs or change any settings. Right-click the file you want to print, and then click Print. 1. Adding a new printer 2. Make sure your printer is plugged in, connected to your computer, turned on, and has paper in it. 3. Click the Start button. The Start menu will appear. 4. Click Devices and Printers. 5. Double-click on Add Printer. The Add Printer Wizard will open. 6. Follow the onscreen instructions. 7. Changing your Default Printer 1. Click on start button, then Devices and Printers 2. Right-click the printer you want to use, and then click Set as default printer. (You'll see a check mark on the printer's icon signifying that it's now your default printer.)

24 23 Print Screen It s a common that your print Scrn (print screen) key is there only for decoration. Not true. To capture a copy of your entire screen, press print scrn keys. To capture a copy of only the open window, hold down the Alt+Print Scrn keys. The picture is now on your windows Clipboard. You can paste it into any program that will allow you to view a picture. User Accounts in Windows 7 If you have more than one person using the computer it makes sense to create a user account for them. That way, they can have their own backgrounds, themes, internet settings, etc. To create a new account, click your picture on the Start menu: This will open up the following screen:

25 24 Click on the link that says "Manage another account" and you'll see this screen: There are already two accounts set up here. One is a Guest account, and the other is an Administrator account. If an account is set up as Administrator then you have full control of what happens on the computer. The other type of account is called a Standard account. This is the type of account you should set up for other people, as it means they don't have full control on the computer. For example, if they wanted to install software, they would have to type in an Administrator's password to do so. Which means they'd have to ask you. This makes your computer more secure than it otherwise would be. (Only Administrators can set up accounts for others.) So to create a new account, click on the link "Create a new account", which is circled in red above. You'll then see a new screen:

26 Type a name for the account in the text box. (We'd just called ours User2.) Keep it on the default option, Standard user. Then click the Create Account button at the bottom. You'll then be taken back to the account page: 25

27 26 As you can see the new account is created, along with a random picture (a balloon, in this case). The Owner account will still be selected, however. Click on your new account and you'll be able to change some settings for it: "Change the account type" means setting it to either a Standard user or an Administrator. But you can create a password for this account by clicking the link. You'll then be taken to the password screen:

28 27 You can ignore all the dire warnings if this is a new account, as they won't have any encrypted files, certificates or website password. But type a password, and a password hint. Then click the button at the bottom "Create Password". You'll then be taken back to the account options. Log Off or Shut Down? Once you have closed all open applications, you can either log off your computer or shut down. It will depend on whether someone else will be using your computer when you ve finished as to which action you choose. 1. Log Off means that you log off as a User without turning the computer off. Someone else can then log on. 1. Click on the START button; 2. Select LOG OFF (click the arrow next to Shut down);

29 28 3. If you have any open programs then you will be asked to close them down or to let Windows, Force them to shut down. You will lose any un-saved information if you do this. 2. Shut Down means that you log off as a User and the computer is turned off at the same time. If you are leaving work for the day and no-one else will be using your computer, you will need to Shut Down your computer as this saves power. 1. Click on the START button 2. Select SHUT DOWN 3. You will then see the SHUT DOWN WINDOWS dialog box 4. If you have any open programs then you will be asked to close them down or to let Windows, Force them to shut down. You will lose any un-saved information if you do this. 3. Restart your computer 1. Click on the START button 2. Select RESTART from the drop down menu 3. Your computer will log you off, turn itself off and turn itself on again so you can relog on. 4. What is Sleep? When your computer is in the Sleep mode, your computer consumes less electricity, but is ready for immediate use. However, if the computer loses electrical power while in the sleep mode, any information you have not saved will be lost.

30 29 Windows Version On Desktop RC Computer icon Choose Properties from Shortcut Menu Sys Properties window appear. Arrange Desktop icons RC on Desktop Empty space Shortcut Menu appears Choose Sort by Choose Size. Change Desktop Icons View RC on Desktop Empty space Shortcut Menu appears Choose View Choose Small icons. Arranging Desktop Opened windows automatically Put Mouse on empty Space on Taskbar RC Shortcut Menu appears Choose (Cascade) Add Icon to quick launch area Open Start Menu Click All Programs RC on selected Program Choose Pin to Taskbar Delete Icon From quick launch area Put Mouse on Program Icon in Taskbar RC Shortcut Menu appears Choose (Unpin from Taskbar) To Lock or Unlock the taskbar Put Mouse on empty Space on Taskbar RC Shortcut Menu appears Choose (Lock or Unlock) To move the taskbar (Top, Right, Left or Bottom) Put Mouse on empty Space on Taskbar RC Shortcut Menu appears Choose (Properties) Change Taskbar Location (Top, Right, Left or Bottom).

31 31 To Hide or UnHide the taskbar Put Mouse on empty Space on Taskbar RC Shortcut Menu appears Choose (Properties) Check or Uncheck (Auto Hide) Accessing Help and Support 1) From an Opened Window: To the Right of Tool bar Click on? Icon Help Window opened Enter the search criteria in the search box. 2) From Taskbar Click on Start Button from right Menu Click Help and Support Help Window opened enter the search criteria in the search box. 3) Hit F1 on your keyboard at any time to open the HELP. Quickly Find files and folders on your drives 1) From Start Button: Click Start Menu appear Click on Search bar Enter Key Words Press Enter Search list Opened Click on the one you need. 2) From Opened window: Click on Search bar on Upper Right Corner Enter Key Words Search list Opened Click on the one you need. Selecting icons 1) Single icon select: One Left Click on Icon 2) Select Icon Randomly (more than one): Press Ctrl key and hold it+ LC on Icon 3) Select Icons in Sequential order (more than one): LC on first icon Press Shift and holds it + use arrow key on keyboard to select. Copy Or Cut Icons 1) Copy Paste Icons on desktop: Select Icons Put Mouse on Selected Icons RC shortcut Menu appears Choose Copy Open Destination folder RC Paste. 2) Copy Paste Icons on an opened Window: Select Icons LC on Organize on Tool bar Select copy from Menu appear Go to Destination (folder or Desktop) on empty space RC Paste or LC on Organize on Tool bar Select Paste from Menu appear.

32 31 Delete icons 1) Select Icons press Delete key From keyboard 2) Select Icons RC on any one of the selected Icon Choose Delete From shortcut menu delete dialog box appear LC on yes Create Shortcut icons on the Desktop Open Window RC on Selected Icon Shortcut menu appear select Send to Desktop (create Shortcut). Recycle bin Restore deleted Icon: Open Recycle bin select icons LC on (Restore the Selected items) found on Tool bar. Restore all Items: Open Recycle bin LC (Restore all items) on Tool bar. Empty Recycle bin: Open Recycle bin LC (Empty Recycle bin) on Tool bar. Control panel From Taskbar LC Start Button from menu appears LC on Control Panel. From Desktop Double Click on Control Panel Icon. Change Desktop Background LC Start Control panel Appearance and Personalization Change Desktop Background (ex: Solid color) Change Screen Saver LC Start Control panel Appearance and Personalization Personalization Screen Saver. Change Screen Resolution LC Start Control panel Appearance and Personalization Appearance Screen Resolution.

33 32 Change Mouse Behave LC Start Control panel Hardware and Sound Device and Printer Mouse Cheek (Switch primary and secondary) Change Mouse Double Click Speed LC Start Control panel Hardware and Sound Device and Printer Mouse by Dragging change speed. Remove Software Package LC Start Control panel Programs Uninstall Select Program click Uninstall from Tool bar. Printing file RC on Selected File shortcut menu appear Select Print Adding new printer Plugs in your printer, connect it to computer and enter paper LC Start Device and printer LC on Add Printer from Tool bar Follow instructions. Change Default printer LC Start Device and printer RC on Desired Printer Shortcut menu appear select set as Default printer. Add New User account LC Start Control panel LC on picture LC on Manage another Account Create New account Write your name Click OK. Switch User Account LC Start Arrow next to shutdown select Switch user Close User Account and back to Login Window LC Start Arrow next to shutdown Select Log off

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