Bottom Up Parsing. Shift and Reduce. Sentential Form. Handle. Parse Tree. Bottom Up Parsing 9/26/2012. Also known as ShiftReduce parsing


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1 Also known as ShiftReduce parsing More powerful than top down Don t need left factored grammars Can handle left recursion Attempt to construct parse tree from an input string eginning at leaves and working to top Process of reducing strings to a non terminal shiftreduce Uses parse stack Contains symols already parsed Shift until match RHS of production Reduce to nonterminal on LHS ventually reduce to start symol Shift and Reduce Shift: Move the first input token to the top of the stack. Reduce: Choose a grammar rule X ɑ β γ pop γβɑ from the top of the stack push X onto the stack. Sentential Form A sentential form is a memer of N)* that can e derived in a finite numer of steps from the start symol S. A sentential form that contains no nonterminal symols i.e., is a memer of *) is called a sentence. Stack is initially empty and the parser is at the eginning of the input. Shifting $ is accepts. Handle Parse ree Intuition: reduce only if it leads to the start symol Handle has to match RHS of production and lead to rightmost derivation, if reduced to LHS of some rule S M M L M a L M a ) L ) S M L Definition: Let w e a sentential form where: is an aritrary string of symols X is a production w is a string of terminals hen at is a handle of w if S Xw w y a rightmost derivation Handles formalize the uition reduce to X), ut doesn t say how to find the handle Considering string: a a ) M a ) S M L M a ) a a ) ry to find handles and then reduce from sentential form via rightmost derivation a a ) M a ) L M S a 1
2 Issues Grammar + * ) id Sentential form Handle Products id 1 + id 2 * id id 1 id + id 2 * id id 2 id + * id id id + * * * We need to locate the handle in the right sentential form and then decide what production to reduce it to which of the RHS of our grammar. Notice in rightmost derivation, where right sentential form is: S M 2 Use to indicate where we are in string: id 1 + id 2 * id + id 2 * id + id 2 * id + * id + * id + * + Parsing never has to guess aout the middle of the string. he right side always contains terminals. hus, we can discover the rightmost derivation in reverse: L M 4 a ) a Viale Prefix Consider our usual grammar and the prolem of when to reduce: + * ) Definition: is a viale prefix if here is a w where w is a right sentential form w is a configuration of a shiftreduced parser For the string: * + a a ) M a ) L M S Sentential form * + Production + Alternatively, a prefix of a rightmost derived sentential form is viale if it does not extend the right end of the handle. * * * A prefix is viale ecause it can e extended y adding terminals to form a valid rightmost derived) sentential form + + As long as the parser has viale prefixes on the stack, no parsing error has een detected. Parser Structure Syntax Stack $ op Input okens: Parser Driver Read head Parse tale $ Output Operations 1. Shift shift input symol onto the stack 2. Reduce RHS of a nonterminal handle is at the top of the stack. Decide which nonterminal to reduce it to. Accept success 4. rror Parse S M M L M a L M a ) L ) String: a a ) $ Stack Input Action $ a a ) $ shift $ a a ) $ shift $ a a ) $ shift $ a a ) $ reduce $ M a ) $ shift $ M a ) $ shift $ M a ) $ reduce $ L $ reduce $ M $ shift $ M $ reduce $ Z $ accept 2
3 Amiguous Grammars Conflicts arise with amiguous grammars Amiguous grammars generate conflicts ut so do other types of grammars xample: Consider the amiguous grammar * + ) Sentential form * + * Actions shift reduce * shift shift reduce reduce + Sentential form Actions * + shift * + shift * + shift * + reduce * + reduce + * reduce * Amiguity In the first step shown, we can either shift or reduce y * Choice ecause of precedence of + and * Same prolem with association of * and + We can always rewrite amiguous grammars of this sort to encode precedence and association in the grammar Sometimes this results in convoluted grammars. he tools we will use have other means to encode precedence and association We must get rid of conflicts! Know what a handle is ut not clear how to detect it Properties aout Handles always appear at the top of the stack Never in middle of stack Justifies use of stack in shift reduce parsing General shift reduce strategy If there is no handle on the stack, shift If there is a handle, reduce to the nonterminal Conflicts If it is legal to either shift or reduce then there is a shiftreduce conflict. If it is legal to reduce y two or more productions, then there is a reducereduce conflict. LR Parsers LR family of parsers LRk) L left to right R rightmost derivation in reverse k elements of look ahead Attractive LRk) is powerful virtually all language constructs fficient LLk) LRk) LR parsers can detect an error as soon as it is possile to do so Automatic technique to generate YACC, Bison, Java CUP LR and LL Parsers LR parser, each reduction needed for parse is detected on the asic of Left context Reducile phrase k terminals of look ahead LL parser Left context First k symols of what right hand side derive comined phrase and what is to right of phrase) ypes of LR Parsers SLR simple LR asiest to implement Not as powerful Canonical LR Most powerful xpensive to implement LALR Look ahead LR In etween the 2 previous ones in power and overhead Overall parsing algorithm is the same tale is different
4 LR Parser Actions How does the LR parser know when to shift and when to reduce? By using a DFA! he edges of the DFA are laeled y the symols terminals and nonterminals) that can appear on the stack. Five kinds of actions: 1. sn Shift o state n; 2. gn Goto state n;. rk Reduce y rule k; 4. a Accept; 5. rror LR Parser Actions Shiftn): Advance input one token; push n on stack. Reducek): Pop stack as many times as the numer of symols on the righthand side of rule k Let X e the lefthandside symol of rule k In the state now on top of stack, look up X to get goto n Push n on top of stack. Accept: Stop parsing, report success. rror: Stop parsing, report failure. LR Parsers Can tell handle y looking at stack top: grammar symol, state) and k input symols index our FSA tale In practice, k<=1 How to construct LR parse tale from grammar: 1. First construct SLR parser 2. LR and LALR are augmented asic SLR techniques. 2 phases to construct tale: I. Build deterministic finite state automation to go from state to state II. Build tale from DFA ach state how do we know from grammar where we are in the parse. Production already seen. Notion of an LR0) item An item is a production with a distinguished position on the right hand side. his position indicates how much of the production already seen. xample: S a B S is a production Items for the production: S a B S S a B S S a B S S a B S Basic idea: Construct a DFA that recognizes the viale prefixes group items o sets Construction of LR0) items Create augmented grammar G G: S G : S S S What else is needed: A c d Indicate a new state y consuming symol d: need goto function A c d What are all possile things to see all possile derivations from? Add strings derivale from closure function A c d reduce to A and goto another state Compute functions closure and goto will e used to determine the action and goto parts of the parsing tale closure essentially defines what is expected goto moves from one state to another y consuming symol LR0) States Start with our usual grammar: 1.) + 2.) *.) ) Add a special start symol, S, that goes to our original start symol and $: 0.) S $ he LR0) start state will e the set of LR0) items: S $ + 4
5 LR0) States What happens if we shift an onto the stack from the start state 1)? What happens if we shift a onto the stack from this start state 1)? LR0) States What happens if we parse some string derived from nonterminal? We will execute a goto for in state 1, yielding state 4. S $ + * 2 1 ) + S $ + * 2 1 ) + S $ 4 LR0) States LR0) Operations In state 8, we find that the parsing position is at the end of the item. his means that the top of the stack has the complete RHS of a production on its top. Compute closurei) and gotoi, X), where I is a set of items and X is a grammar symol terminal or nonterminal). his is a reduce action. ) ) 8 ClosureI) = repeat for any item A α Xβ in I for any production X γ I I {X γ } until I does not change. return I GotoI, X) = J {} for any item A α Xβ in I add A αx β to J return ClosureJ) Closure adds more items to a set of items when there is a dot to the left of a nonterminal Goto moves the dot past the symol X in all items. LR0) Parser Construction 1. Augment the grammar with an auxiliary start production S S$. 2. Let e the set of states seen so far,. Let the set of shift or goto) edges found so far. 4. Make an accept action for the symol $ do not compute GotoI, $)) Initialize to {Closure{S S$})} Initialize to {} LR0) Reduce Actions R is the set of reduce actions R {} for each state I in for each item A α in I R R {I, A α)} repeat for each state I in for each item A α Xβ in I let J e GotoI, X) {J} {I X J} until and did not change in this iteration 5
6 DFA S $ + ) S $ * 5 * 6 ) 10 * * ) 7 11 ) Building the LR0) ale for each edge I X J if X is a terminal M[I,X] = shift J if X is a nonterminal M[I,X] = goto J for each state I containing an item S S.$ M[I,$] = accept for a state containing an item A γ // A production n with the dot at the end for every token Y M[I,Y] = reduce n LR0) Parse ale LR0) Parse ale ) * + $ ) * + $ 1 s4 s5 g2 g 2 a s8 4 s6 5 s4 s5 g10 g 6 s4 s5 g7 7 r2 r2 r2 r2 r2 r2 8 g9 g 9 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 10 s11 11 r r r r r r 6
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