# CS1100 Introduction to Programming

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1 Decisions with Variables CS1100 Introduction to Programming Selection Statements Madhu Mutyam Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras Course Material SD, SB, PSK, NSN, DK, TAG CS&E, IIT M 1 Need for taking logical decisions during problem solving If (b 2 4ac) is negative, we should report that the quadratic has no real roots The if-else programming construct provides the facility to make logical decisions Syntax: if (condition) else evaluate this part if evaluate this part if 2 Conditions Specified using relational and equality operators Relational: >, <, >=, <= Equality: ==,!= Usage: for a, b values or variables a > b, a < b, a >= b, a <= b, a == b, a!= b A condition is satisfied or, if the relational operator, or equality is satisfied For a = 3 and b = 5: a < b, a <= b, and a!= b are a > b, a >= b, a == b are Completing the program if (discrim < 0) else printf( no real roots, only complex\n ); exit (1); Terminates execution and returns argument (1) root1 = ( coeff2 + sqrt(discrim))/denom; root2 = ( coeff2 sqrt(discrim))/denom; 3 4 Statements Statement: a logical unit of instruction/command Program : declarations and one or more statements assignment statement selection statement repetitive statements function calls etc. All statements are terminated by semicolon ( ; ) Note: In C, semi-colon is a statement terminator rather than a separator! Assignment statement General Form: variable = expression constant ; The declared type of the variable should match the type of the result of expression/constant Multiple Assignment: var1 = var2 = var3 = expression; var1 = (var2 = (var3 = expression)); Assignment operator associates right-to-left

2 Compound Statements A group of declarations and statements collected into a single logical unit surrounded by braces a block or a compound statement scope of the variable declarations part of the program where they are applicable the compound statement variables come into existence just after declaration continue to exist till end of the block unrelated to variables of the same name outside the block block-structured fashion 7 An Example int i, j, k; i = 1; j = 2; k = 3; if ( expr ) int i, k; i = j; printf( i = %d\n, i); printf( i = %d\n, i); This i and k and the previously declared i and k are different. Not a good programming style. // output is 2 // output is 1 Note: No semicolon after A compound statement can appear wherever a single statement may appear 8 Selection Statements Three forms: single selection: if ( att < 85 ) grade = W ; double selection: if (marks < 40 ) passed = 0; /* = 0 */ else passed = 1; /* = 1 */ multiple selection: switch statement - to be discussed later no then reserved word If Statement if (<expression>) <stmt1> [ else <stmt2>] Semantics: expression evaluates to stmt1 will be executed expression evaluates to stmt2 will be executed Else part is optional expression is -- stmt1 is executed Otherwise the if statement has no effect optional 9 10 Sequence and Selection Flowcharts Sequence Structure If structure Single Entry Single Exit if - else structure 11 Grading Example Below 50: D; 50 to 59: C ; 60 to 75: B; 75 above: A int marks; char grade; if (marks <= 50) grade = D ; else if (marks <= 59) grade = C ; else if (marks <=75) grade = B ; else grade = A ; Note the semicolon before else! Unless braces are used, an else part goes with the nearest else-less if stmt 12 2

3 Caution in use of else Switch Statement if ( marks > 40) /* WRONG */ if ( marks > 75 ) printf( you got distinction ); else printf( Sorry you must repeat the course ); if ( marks > 40) /*RIGHT*/ if ( marks > 75 ) printf( you got distinction ); else printf( Sorry you must repeat the course ); A multi-way decision statement Syntax: switch ( expression ) case const-expr : statements; case const-expr : statements; [default: statements;] Counting Evens and Odds int num, ecount = 0, ocount = 0; scanf ( %d, &num); while (num >= 0) switch (num%2) case 0: ecount++; break; case 1: ocount++; break; scanf ( %d, &num); Counts the number of even and odd integers in the input. Terminated by giving a negative number printf( Even: %d, Odd: %d\n, ecount, ocount); Fall Through Switch statement: Execution starts at the matching case and falls through the following case statements unless prevented explicitly by break statement Useful for specifying one action for several cases Break statement: Control passes to the first statement after switch A feature requiring exercise of caution Switch Statement Flowchart Conditional Operator (?: ) case a case b case a action(s) case b action(s) break break Single Entry Single Exit Syntax (<expression>)? <stmt1>:<stmt2> Closely related to the if else statement if (<expression>) <stmt1> else <stat2> Only ternary operator in C case z case z action(s) break E.g.: (marks < 40)? passed = 0 : passed = 1; printf ( passed = %d\n, (marks<40)?0:1); default action(s)

4 Programming Problems Write a program to check if a given number is prime. Write a program to count the number of digits in a given number. Your answer should contain two parts, number of digits before and after the decimal. (Can you do this only with assignments to variables, and decisions?) Repetitive Statements A very important type of statement iterating or repeating a set of operations a very common requirement in algorithms C offers three iterative constructs the while construct the for construct the do while construct The while Construct General form: while ( <expr> ) <statement> Semantics: repeat: Evaluate the expr If the expr is execute the statement else exit the loop expr expr must be modified in the loop or we have an infinite loop! body 21 Computing 2 n, n>=0, using while Construct Syntax while (condition) statement #include<stdio.h> main( ) int n, counter, value; printf ( Enter value for n: ); scanf ( %d, &n); value = 1; printf ( current value is %d \n, value); 22 Contd counter = 0; while (counter <= n) value = 2 * value; printf ( current value is %d \n, value); counter = counter + 1; Exercise: try this program and identify problems 23 Testing the Program Choose test cases: A few normal values: n = 2, 5, 8, 11 Boundary values: n = 0, 1 Invalid values: n = 1 Hand simulate the execution of the program On paper, draw a box for each variable and fill in the initial values (if any) Simulate exec. of the program one statement at a time For any assignment, write the new value of the variable in the LHS Check if the output is as expected in each test case 24 4

5 Hand Simulation #include<stdio.h> main( ) int n, counter, value; printf ( Enter value for n: ); scanf ( %d, &n); value = 1; printf ( current value is %d \n, value); n counter value 4 1 Current value is 1 25 Contd counter = 0; while (counter <= n) value = 2 * value; printf ( current value is %d \n, value); counter = counter + 1; condition T F n counter value Current value is 1 Current value is 2 Current value is 4 Current value is 8 Current value is 16 Current value is More on Loops Loop execution can be controlled in two ways: counter-controlled and sentinel-controlled. Counter loop runs till counter reaches its limit. Use it when the number of repetitions is known. Sentinel loop runs till a certain condition is encountered. For example a \n (newline) is read from the input. Use it when the number of repetitions is a property of the input and not of the problem being solved. Reversing a Number: Methodology Print the reverse of a given integer: E.g.: 234 à 432 Method: Till the number becomes zero, extract the last digit number modulo 10 make it the next digit of the result multiply the current result by 10 and add the new digit Reversing a Number: Illustration x is the given number y is the number being computed x = y = 0 x = 5634 y = 0* = 2 x = 563 y = 2* = 24 x = 56 y = 24* = 243 x = 5 y = 243* = 2436 x = 0 y = 2436* = x = x/10 Termnation condition: Stop when x becomes zero y = y*10 + (x%10) 29 Reversing a Number: Program main( ) int x = 0, y = 0; printf ("input an integer :\n"); scanf ("%d", &x); while (x > 0) y = y*10 + ( x % 10 ); x = (x / 10); Remember integer division truncates the quotient printf ("The reversed number is %d \n", y); 30 5

6 Perfect Number Detection main ( ) int d=2, n, sum=1; scanf ( %d, &n); while (d <= (n/2)) if (n%d == 0) d++; sum += d; if (sum == n) printf ( %d is perfect\n, n); else printf ( %d is not perfect\n, n); Perfect number: sum of proper divisors adds up to the number d<n will also do, but would do unnecessary work Exercise: Modify to find 31 the first n perfect numbers 6

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