# Programming for Engineers Iteration

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1 Programming for Engineers Iteration ICEN 200 Spring 2018 Prof. Dola Saha 1

2 Data type conversions Grade average example,-./0 class average = /0298 Grade and number of students can be integers Averages do not always evaluate to integer values, needs to be floating point for accuracy. The result of the calculation total / counter is an integer because total and counter are both integer variables. 2

3 Explicit conversions Dividing two integers results in integer division in which any fractional part of the calculation is truncated (i.e., lost). To produce a floating-point calculation with integer values, we create temporary values that are floating-point numbers. C provides the unary cast operator to accomplish this task. average = ( float ) total / counter; includes the cast operator (float), which creates a temporary floating-point copy of its operand, total. Using a cast operator in this manner is called explicit conversion. The calculation now consists of a floating-point value (the temporary float version of total) divided by the unsigned int value stored in counter. 3

4 Implicit conversion C evaluates arithmetic expressions only in which the data types of the operands are identical. To ensure that the operands are of the same type, the compiler performs an operation called implicit conversion on selected operands. For example, in an expression containing the data types unsigned int and float, copies of unsigned int operands are made and converted to float. In our example, after a copy of counter is made and converted to float, the calculation is performed and the result of the floating-point division is assigned to average. 4

5 Assignment operators C provides several assignment operators for abbreviating assignment expressions. For example, the statement o c = c + 3; can be abbreviated with the addition assignment operator += as o c += 3; The += operator adds the value of the expression on the right of the operator to the value of the variable on the left of the operator and stores the result in the variable on the left of the operator. 5

6 Comparison of Prefix & Postfix Increments 6

7 Assignment operators Any statement of the form o variable = variable operator expression; where operator is one of the binary operators +, -, *, / or %, can be written in the form o variable operator = expression; Thus the assignment c += 3 adds 3 to c. 7

8 Assignment operator - examples 8

9 Unary Increment & Decrement Operators 9

10 Increment Example 10

11 Increment Example Output 11

12 Precedence 12

13 for Iteration Statement - Syntax for (initialization expression; loop repetition condition; update expression) statement; for (count_star = 0; count_star < N; count_star ++) printf( * ); 13

14 for Iteration Statement - Syntax The general format of the for statement is for (initialization; condition; update expression) { statement } where the initialization expression initializes the loop-control variable (and might define it), the condition expression is the loop-continuation condition and the update expression increments the control variable. 14

15 for Iteration Statement Counter-controlled iteration 15

16 Flow chart 16

17 for Iteration Statement Common Error Off-By-One Errors Notice that program uses the loop-continuation condition counter <= 10. If you incorrectly wrote counter < 10, then the loop would be executed only 9 times. This is a common logic error called an off-by-one error. 17

18 for Iteration Statement Common Practice Start the loop from 0 for (i=0; i<10; i++) printf( It will be printed 10 times.\n ); for (i=1; i<=10; i++) printf( It will be printed 10 times.\n ); 18

19 Optional Header in for Statement The three expressions in the for statement are optional. If the condition expression is omitted, C assumes that the condition is true, thus creating an infinite loop. You may omit the initialization expression if the control variable is initialized elsewhere in the program. The increment may be omitted if it s calculated by statements in the body of the for statement or if no increment is needed. 19

20 Valid code snippets for (;;) printf( The code is in infinite loop\n ); int i=0; for (; i<10; i++) printf( It will be printed 10 times.\n ); int i=0; for (; i<10; ){ printf( It will be printed 10 times.\n ); i++; } 20

21 Examples of varying control variable Task Vary the control variable from 1 to 100 in increments of 1. Vary the control variable from 100 to 1 in increments of -1 (decrements of 1). Vary the control variable from 7 to 77 in steps of 7. Vary the control variable from 20 to 2 in steps of -2. Vary the control variable over the following sequence of values: 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17. Vary the control variable over the following sequence of values: 44, 33, 22, 11, 0. 21

22 Examples of varying control variable Task Vary the control variable from 1 to 100 in increments of 1. Vary the control variable from 100 to 1 in increments of -1 (decrements of 1). Vary the control variable from 7 to 77 in steps of 7. Vary the control variable from 20 to 2 in steps of -2. Vary the control variable over the following sequence of values: 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17. Vary the control variable over the following sequence of values: 44, 33, 22, 11, 0. for Loop for (i = 1; i <= 100; ++ i) for (i = 100; i >= 1; --i) for (i = 7; i <= 77; i += 7) for (i = 20; i >= 2; i -= 2) for (j = 2; j <= 17; j += 3) for (j = 44; j >= 0; j -= 11) 22

23 For Statement Notes The initialization, loop-continuation condition and update expression can contain arithmetic expressions. For example, if x = 2 and y = 10, the statement for (j = x; j <= 4 * x * y; j += y / x) is equivalent to the statement for (j = 2; j <= 80; j += 5) If the loop-continuation condition is initially false, the loop body does not execute. 23

24 For Statement Variable Declaration The first expression in a for statement can be replaced by a declaration. This feature allows the programmer to declare a variable for use by the loop: for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) The variable i need not have been declared prior to this statement. 24

25 For Statement Scope of variable A variable declared by a for statement can t be accessed outside the body of the loop (we say that it s not visible outside the loop): for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) { printf("%d", i); /* legal; i is visible inside loop */ } printf("%d", i); /*** WRONG ***/ 25

26 For Statement Control Variable Declaration Having a for statement declare its own control variable is usually a good idea: it s convenient and it can make programs easier to understand. However, if the program needs to access the variable after loop termination, it s necessary to use the older form of the for statement. A for statement may declare more than one variable, provided that all variables have the same type: for (int i = 0, j = 0; i < n; i++) 26

27 For Statement Comma Operator On occasion, a for statement may need to have two (or more) initialization expressions or one that increments several variables each time through the loop. This effect can be accomplished by using a comma expression as the first or third expression in the for statement. A comma expression has the form expr1, expr2 where expr1 and expr2 are any two expressions. 27

28 For Statement Comma Operator A comma expression is evaluated in two steps: First, expr1 is evaluated and its value discarded. Second, expr2 is evaluated; its value is the value of the entire expression. Evaluating expr1 should always have a side effect; if it doesn t, then expr1 serves no purpose. When the comma expression ++i, i + j is evaluated, i is first incremented, then i + j is evaluated. If i and j have the values 1 and 5, respectively, the value of the expression will be 7, and i will be incremented to 2. 28

29 For Statement Comma Operator The comma operator is left associative, so the compiler interprets i = 1, j = 2, k = i + j as ((i = 1), (j = 2)), (k = (i + j)) Since the left operand in a comma expression is evaluated before the right operand, the assignments i = 1, j = 2, and k = i + j will be performed from left to right. 29

30 For Statement Comma Operator The comma operator makes it possible to glue two expressions together to form a single expression. Certain macro definitions can benefit from the comma operator. The for statement is the only other place where the comma operator is likely to be found. Example: for (sum = 0, i = 1; i <= N; i++) sum += i; With additional commas, the for statement could initialize more than two variables. 30

31 Nested for Loop int row, col; for (row=0; row<2; row++) for (col=0; col<3; col++) printf( %d, %d\n, row, col); 31

32 Nested for Loop int row, col; for (row=0; row<2; row++) for (col=0; col<3; col++) printf( %d, %d\n, row, col); Sample Output 0, 0 0, 1 0, 2 1, 0 1, 1 1, 2 32

33 Application: Summing even numbers 33

34 Application: Compound Interest Calculation Consider the following problem statement: A person invests \$ in a savings account yielding 5% interest. Assuming that all interest is left on deposit in the account, calculate and print the amount of money in the account at the end of each year for 10 years. Use the following formula for determining these amounts: a = p(1 + r) n where p is the original amount invested (i.e., the principal) r is the annual interest rate n is the number of years a is the amount on deposit at the end of the n th year. 34

35 C Code for Compound Interest Calculation 35

36 Output 36

37 do... while Iteration Statement Similar to the while statement. while (condition) The loop-continuation condition is tested at the beginning of the loop do statement while (condition); The loop-continuation condition after the loop body is performed. The loop body will be executed at least once. 37

38 Example do... while Iteration Statement 38

39 Flowchart do... while Iteration Statement 39

40 break and continue Statements Break Used inside while, for, do while, switch Statements When executed, program exits the statements Continue Used in while, for, do while Statements When executed, the loop-continuation test is evaluated immediately after the continue statement is executed. In the for statement, the increment expression is executed, then the loop-continuation test is evaluated. 40

41 break Statement 41

42 continue Statement 42

43 Revisiting switch Statement If break is not used anywhere in a switch statement, then each time a match occurs in the statement, the statements for all the remaining cases will be executed called fallthrough. If no match occurs, the default case is executed, and an error message is printed. 43

44 Code Snippet (1) 44

45 Code Snippet (2) 45

46 Code Snippet (3) 46

47 Code Snippet (4) & Output 47

48 Logical Operators Used to form more complex conditions by combining simple conditions. The logical operators are && (logical AND), (logical OR) and! (logical NOT also called logical negation) Logical AND used to ensure that two conditions are both true before we choose a certain path of execution Logical OR used to ensure that at least one condition is true before we choose a certain path of execution Logical NOT used to reverse the meaning of a condition. 48

49 Truth Table Table of Logic 49

50 Operator Precedence 50

51 Structured Program Summary (1) 51

52 Structured Program Summary (2) 52

53 Rules for forming structured programs Begin with the simplest flowchart Stacking Rule Any rectangle (action) can be replaced by two rectangles (actions) in sequence Nesting Rule Any rectangle (action) can be replaced by any control statement Stacking & Nesting Rule rules may be applied in any order. 53

54 Simplest Flowchart 54

55 Stacking Rule 55

56 Nesting Rule 56

57 Structured Program Building Blocks 57

58 Structured Programming Structured programming promotes simplicity. Bohm and Jacopini showed that only three forms of control are needed: Sequence Selection Iteration 58

59 Structured Programming Options Sequence is straightforward. Selection is implemented in one of three ways: if statement (single selection) if else statement (double selection) switch statement (multiple selection) Iteration is implemented in one of three ways: while statement do while statement for statement 59

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Marenglen Biba (C) 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All for repetition statement do while repetition statement switch multiple-selection statement break statement continue statement Logical

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