# Chapter 2 Elementary Programming

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2 The program needs to declare a symbol called a variable that will represent the radius. Variables are used to store data and computational results in the program. Use descriptive names rather than x and y. Use radius for radius, and area for area. Specify their data types to let the compiler know what radius and area are, indicating whether they are integer, float, or something else. The program declares radius and area as double-precision variables. The reserved word double indicates that radius and area are double-precision floating-point values stored in the computer. For the time being, we will assign a fixed number to radius in the program. Then, we will compute the area by assigning the expression radius * radius * to area. The program s output is: The area for the circle of radius 20.0 is A string constant should not cross lines in the source code. Use the concatenation operator (+) to overcome such problem. Page 2 / 21

4 2.4 Identifiers Programming languages use special symbols called identifiers to name such programming entities as variables, constants, methods, classes, and packages. The following are the rules for naming identifiers: o An identifier is a sequence of characters that consist of letters, digits, underscores (_), and dollar signs (\$). o An identifier must start with a letter, an underscore (_), or a dollar sign (\$). It cannot start with a digit. o An identifier cannot be a reserved word. (See Appendix A, Java Keywords, for a list of reserved words). o An identifier cannot be true, false, or null. o An identifier can be of any length. For example: o Legal identifiers are for example: \$2, ComputeArea, area, radius, and showmessagedialog. o Illegal identifiers are for example: 2A, d+4. o Since Java is case-sensitive, X and x are different identifiers. Page 4 / 21

6 2.6 Assignment Statements and Assignments Expressions After a variable is declared, you can assign a value to it by using an assignment statement. The syntax for assignment statement is: variable = expression; x = 1; // Assign 1 to x; Thus 1 = x is wrong radius = 1.0; // Assign 1.0 to radius; a = 'A'; // Assign 'A' to a; x = 5 * (3 / 2) + 3 * 2; // Assign the value of the expression to x; x = y + 1; // Assign the addition of y and 1 to x; The variable can also be used in the expression. x = x + 1; // the result of x + 1 is assigned to x; To assign a value to a variable, the variable name must be on the left of the assignment operator. 1 = x; // would be wrong In Java, an assignment statement can also be treated as an expression that evaluates to the value being assigned to the variable on the left-hand side of the assignment operator. For this reason, an assignment statement is also known as an assignment expression, and the symbol = is referred to as the assignment operator. System.out.println(x = 1); which is equivalent to x = 1; System.out.println(x); The following statment is also correct: i = j = k = 1; which is equivalent to k = 1; j = k; i = j; Page 6 / 21

7 2.7 Named Constants The value of a variable may change during the execution of the program, but a constant represents permanent data that never change. The syntax for declaring a constant: final datatype CONSTANTNAME = VALUE; final double PI = ; // Declare a constant final int SIZE = 3; A constant must be declared and initialized before it can be used. You cannot change a constant s value once it is declared. By convention, constants are named in uppercase. import java.util.scanner; // Scanner is in the java.util package public class ComputeAreaWithConstant { public static void main(string[] args) { final double PI = ; // Declare a constant // Create a Scanner object Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); // Prompt the user to enter a radius System.out.print("Enter a number for radius: "); double radius = input.nextdouble(); // Compute area double area = radius * radius * PI; // Display result System.out.println("The area for the circle of radius " + radius + " is " + area); Note: There are three benefits of using constants: o You don t have to repeatedly type the same value. o The value can be changed in a single location. o The program is easy to read. Page 7 / 21

8 2.8 Naming Conventions Use lowercase for variables and methods. If a name consists of several words, concatenate all in one, use lowercase for the first word, and capitalize the first letter of each subsequent word in the name. Ex: showinputdialog. Choose meaningful and descriptive names. For example, the variables radius and area, and the method computearea. Capitalize the first letter of each word in the class name. For example, the class name ComputeArea. Capitalize all letters in constants. For example, the constant PI. Do not use class names that are already used in Java library. For example, the constants PI and MAX_VALUE. Page 8 / 21

9 2.9 Numerical Data Types and Operations Numeric Types Every data type has a range of values. The compiler allocates memory space to store each variable or constant according to its data type. Java has six numeric types: four for integers and two for floating-point numbers. TABLE 2.1 Numeric Data Types Name Range Storage Size byte 2 7 to (-128 to 127) 8-bit signed short 2 15 to ( to 32767) 16-bit signed int 2 31 to ( to ) 32-bit signed long 2 63 to bit signed (i.e., to ) float Negative range: 32-bit IEEE E+38 to -1.4E-45 Positive range: 1.4E-45 to E+38 double Negative range: 64-bit IEEE E+308 to -4.9E-324 Positive range: 4.9E-324 to E Reading Numbers from the Keyboard Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); int value = input.nextint(); TABLE 2.2 Methods for Scanner Objects Method Description nextbyte() reads an integer of the byte type. nextshort() reads an integer of the short type. nextint() reads an integer of the int type. nextlong() reads an integer of the long type. nextfloat() reads a number of the float type. nextdouble() reads a number of the double type. Page 9 / 21

10 2.9.3 Numerical Operators TABLE 2.3 Numeric Operators Name Meaning Example Result + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication 300 * / Division 1.0 / % Remainder 20 % 3 2 5/2 yields an integer 2 5.0/2 yields a double value 2.5-5/2 yields an integer value /2 yields a double value % 2 yields 1 (the remainder of the division.) -7 % 3 yields % 4 yields 0-26 % -8 yields % -13 yields 7 Remainder is very useful in programming. For example, an even number % 2 is always 0 and an odd number % 2 is always 1. So you can use this property to determine whether a number is even or odd. Suppose today is Saturday and you and your friends are going to meet in 10 days. What day is in 10 days? You can find that day is Tuesday using the following expression: Saturday is the 6 th day in a week A week has 7 days (6 + 10) % 7 is 2 The 2 nd day in a week is Tuesday After 10 days Page 10 / 21

11 The program in Listing 2.5 (DisplayTime.java) obtains minutes and remaining seconds from an amount of time in seconds. For example, 500 seconds contains 8 minutes and 20 seconds. import java.util.scanner; public class DisplayTime { public static void main(string[] args) { Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); // Prompt the user for input System.out.print("Enter an integer for seconds: "); int seconds = input.nextint(); int minutes = seconds / 60; // Find minutes in seconds int remainingseconds = seconds % 60; // Seconds remaining System.out.println(seconds + " seconds is " + minutes + " minutes and " + remainingseconds + " seconds"); Enter an integer for seconds: seconds is 8 minutes and 20 seconds Exponent Operations System.out.println(Math.pow(2, 3)); // Displays 8.0 System.out.println(Math.pow(4, 0.5)); // Displays 2.0 System.out.println(Math.pow(2.5, 2)); // Displays 6.25 System.out.println(Math.pow(2.5, -2)); // Displays 0.16 Page 11 / 21

12 2.10 Numeric Literals A literal is a constant value that appears directly in a program. For example, 34, 1,000,000, and 5.0 are literals in the following statements: int i = 34; long l = ; double d = 5.0; Integer Literals An integer literal can be assigned to an integer variable as long as it can fit into the variable. A compilation error would occur if the literal were too large for the variable to hold. For example, the statement byte b = 1000 would cause a compilation error, because 1000 cannot be stored in a variable of the byte type. An integer literal is assumed to be of the int type, whose value is between ( ) to ( ). To denote an integer literal of the long type, append it with the letter L or l (lowercase L). For example, the following code display the decimal value for hexadecimal number FFFF. System.out.println(0xFFFF); Floating-Point Literals Floating-point literals are written with a decimal point. By default, a floating-point literal is treated as a double type value. For example, 5.0 is considered a double value, not a float value. You can make a number a float by appending the letter f or F, and make a number a double by appending the letter d or D. For example, you can use 100.2f or 100.2F for a float number, and 100.2d or 100.2D for a double number. The double type values are more accurate than float type values. System.out.println("1.0 / 3.0 is " / 3.0); // displays 1.0 / 3.0 is System.out.println("1.0F / 3.0F is " + 1.0F / 3.0F); // displays 1.0F / 3.0F is Scientific Notations Floating-point literals can also be specified in scientific notation; for example, e+2, same as e2, is equivalent to , and e-2 is equivalent to E (or e) represents an exponent and it can be either in lowercase or uppercase. Page 12 / 21

13 2.11 Evaluating Expressions and Operator Precedence For example, the arithmetic expression 3 4x 10( y 5)( a b c) 4 9 x 9( ) 5 x x y can be translated into a Java expression as: (3 + 4 * x)/5 10 * (y - 5)*(a + b + c)/x + 9 *(4 / x + (9 + x)/y) Operators contained within pairs of parentheses are evaluated first. Parentheses can be nested, in which case the expression in the inner parentheses is evaluated first. Multiplication, division, and remainder operators are applied next. Order of operation is applied from left to right. Addition and subtraction are applied last. LISTING 2.6 FahrenheitToCelsius.java import java.util.scanner; public class FahrenheitToCelsius { public static void main(string[] args) { Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter a degree in Fahrenheit: "); double fahrenheit = input.nextdouble(); // Convert Fahrenheit to Celsius double celsius = (5.0 / 9) * (fahrenheit - 32); System.out.println("Fahrenheit " + fahrenheit + " is " + celsius + " in Celsius"); Enter a degree in Fahrenheit: 100 Fahrenheit is in Celsius Page 13 / 21

14 2.12 Case Study: Displaying the Current Time Write a program that displays current time in GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) in the format hour:minute:second such as 1:45:19. The currenttimemillis method in the System class returns the current time in milliseconds since the midnight, January 1, 1970 GMT. (1970 was the year when the Unix operating system was formally introduced.) You can use this method to obtain the current time, and then compute the current second, minute, and hour as follows. Unix Epoch :00:00 GMT FIGURE 2.2 The System.currentTimeMillis() return the number of milliseconds since the Unix epoch. Listing 2.7 ShowCurrentTime.java Elapsed time public class ShowCurrentTime { public static void main(string[] args) { // Obtain the total milliseconds since midnight, Jan 1, 1970 long totalmilliseconds = System.currentTimeMillis(); // Obtain the total seconds since midnight, Jan 1, 1970 long totalseconds = totalmilliseconds / 1000; // Compute the current second in the minute in the hour long currentsecond = totalseconds % 60; // Obtain the total minutes long totalminutes = totalseconds / 60; // Compute the current minute in the hour long currentminute = totalminutes % 60; // Obtain the total hours long totalhours = totalminutes / 60; // Compute the current hour long currenthour = totalhours % 24; Current Time System.currentTimeMills() Time // Display results System.out.println("Current time is " + currenthour + ":" + currentminute + ":" + currentsecond + " GMT"); Current time is 17:31:26 GMT Page 14 / 21

15 2.13 Augmented Assignment Operators Table 2.4 Augmented Assignment Operators Page 15 / 21

16 2.14 Increment and Decrement Operators There are two more shortcut operators for incrementing and decrementing a variable by 1. These two operators are ++, and --. They can be used in prefix or suffix notations. suffix prefix suffix prefix x++; // Same as x = x + 1; ++x; // Same as x = x + 1; x ; // Same as x = x - 1; x; // Same as x = x - 1; Table 2.5 Increment and Decrement Operators int i = 10; Same effect as int newnum = 10 * i++; int newnum = 10 * i; i = i + 1; int i = 10; Same effect as int newnum = 10 * (++i); i = i + 1; int newnum = 10 * i; Ex: double x = 1.0; double y = 5.0; double z = x-- + (++y); After execution, y = 6.0, z = 7.0, and x = 0.0; Using increment and decrement operators make expressions short; it also makes them complex and difficult to read. Avoid using these operators in expressions that modify multiple variables or the same variable for multiple times such as this: int k = ++i + i. Page 16 / 21

17 2.15 Numeric Type Conversions Consider the following statements: byte i = 100; long k = i * 3 + 4; double d = i * k / 2; Are these statements correct? When performing a binary operation involving two operands of different types, Java automatically converts the operand based on the following rules: 1. If one of the operands is double, the other is converted into double. 2. Otherwise, if one of the operands is float, the other is converted into float. 3. Otherwise, if one of the operands is long, the other is converted into long. 4. Otherwise, both operands are converted into int. Thus the result of 1 / 2 is 0, and the result of 1.0 / 2 is 0.5. Type Casting is an operation that converts a value of one data type into a value of another data type. Casting a variable of a type with a small range to variable with a larger range is known as widening a type. Widening a type can be performed automatically without explicit casting. Casting a variable of a type with a large range to variable with a smaller range is known as narrowing a type. Narrowing a type must be performed explicitly. Caution: Casting is necessary if you are assigning a value to a variable of a smaller type range. A compilation error will occur if casting is not used in situations of this kind. Be careful when using casting. Lost information might lead to inaccurate results. float f = (float) 10.1; int i = (int) f; double d = 4.5; int i =(int)d; // d is not changed System.out.println("d " + d + " i " + i); // answer is d 4.5 i 4 Implicit casting double d = 3; // type widening Explicit casting int i = (int)3.0; // type narrowing int i = (int)3.9; // type narrowing (Fraction part is truncated) What is wrong? int i = 1; byte b = i; // Error because explicit casting is required Page 17 / 21

18 2.16 Software Development Process The software development life cycle is a multistage process that includes requirements specification, analysis, design, implementation, testing, deployment, and maintenance. FIGURE 2.3 At any stage of the software development life cycle, it may be necessary to go back to a previous stage to correct errors or deal with other issues that might prevent the software from functioning as expected. Requirement Specification: A formal process that seeks to understand the problem and document in detail what the software system needs to do. This phase involves close interaction between users and designers. Most of the examples in this book are simple, and their requirements are clearly stated. In the real world, however, problems are not well defined. You need to study a problem carefully to identify its requirements. System Analysis: Seeks to analyze the business process in terms of data flow, and to identify the system s input and output. Part of the analysis entails modeling the system s behavior. The model is intended to capture the essential elements of the system and to define services to the system. System Design: The process of designing the system s components. This phase involves the use of many levels of abstraction to decompose the problem into manageable components, identify classes and interfaces, and establish relationships among the classes and interfaces. IPO: The essence of system analysis and design is input, process, and output. Implementation: The process of translating the system design into programs. Separate programs are written for each component and put to work together. This phase requires the use of a programming language like Java. The implementation involves coding, testing, and debugging. Testing: Ensures that the code meets the requirements specification and weeds out bugs. An independent team of software engineers not involved in the design and implementation of the project usually conducts such testing. Deployment: Deployment makes the project available for use. For a Java program, this means installing it on a desktop or on the Web. Page 18 / 21

19 Maintenance: Maintenance is concerned with changing and improving the product. A software product must continue to perform and improve in a changing environment. This requires periodic upgrades of the product to fix newly discovered bugs and incorporate changes. This program lets the user enter the interest rate, number of years, and loan amount and computes monthly payment and total payment. monthlypayment LISTING 2.9 ComputeLoan.java import java.util.scanner; loanamount monthlyinterestrate 1 (1 monthlyinterestrate ) 1 numberofyears 12 public class ComputeLoan { public static void main(string[] args) { // Create a Scanner Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); // Enter yearly interest rate System.out.print("Enter yearly interest rate, for example 8.25: "); double annualinterestrate = input.nextdouble(); // Obtain monthly interest rate double monthlyinterestrate = annualinterestrate / 1200; // Enter number of years System.out.print( "Enter number of years as an integer, for example 5: "); int numberofyears = input.nextint(); // Enter loan amount System.out.print("Enter loan amount, for example : "); double loanamount = input.nextdouble(); // Calculate payment double monthlypayment = loanamount * monthlyinterestrate / (1-1 / Math.pow(1 + monthlyinterestrate, numberofyears * 12)); double totalpayment = monthlypayment * numberofyears * 12; // Display results System.out.println("The monthly payment is " + (int)(monthlypayment * 100) / 100.0); System.out.println("The total payment is " + (int)(totalpayment * 100) / 100.0); Enter yearly interest rate, for example 8.25: 5.75 Enter number of years as an integer, for example 5: 15 Enter loan amount, for example : The monthly payment is The total payment is Page 19 / 21

20 2.17 Case Study: Counting Monetary Units This program lets the user enter the amount in decimal representing dollars and cents and output a report listing the monetary equivalent in single dollars, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies. Your program should report maximum number of dollars, then the maximum number of quarters, and so on, in this order. LISTING 2.10 ComputeChange.java import java.util.scanner; public class ComputeChange { public static void main(string[] args) { // Create a Scanner Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); // Receive the amount System.out.print( "Enter an amount in double, for example 11.56: "); double amount = input.nextdouble(); int remainingamount = (int)(amount * 100); // Find the number of one dollars int numberofonedollars = remainingamount / 100; remainingamount = remainingamount % 100; // Find the number of quarters in the remaining amount int numberofquarters = remainingamount / 25; remainingamount = remainingamount % 25; // Find the number of dimes in the remaining amount int numberofdimes = remainingamount / 10; remainingamount = remainingamount % 10; // Find the number of nickels in the remaining amount int numberofnickels = remainingamount / 5; remainingamount = remainingamount % 5; // Find the number of pennies in the remaining amount int numberofpennies = remainingamount; // Display results String output = "Your amount " + amount + " consists of \n" + "\t" + numberofonedollars + " dollars\n" + "\t" + numberofquarters + " quarters\n" + "\t" + numberofdimes + " dimes\n" + "\t" + numberofnickels + " nickels\n" + "\t" + numberofpennies + " pennies"; System.out.println(output); Enter an amount in double, for example 11.56: ÏÏÏYour amount consists of ÏÏÏ 11 dollars ÏÏÏ 2 quarters ÏÏÏ 0 dimes ÏÏÏ 1 nickels ÏÏÏ 1 pennies Page 20 / 21

21 2.18 Common Errors and Pitfalls Common Error 1: Undeclared/Uninitialized Variables and Unused Variables o Java is case-sensitive, X and x are different identifiers double interestrate = 0.05; double interest = interestrate * 45; // error: cannot find symbol interestrate Common Error 2: Integer Overflow o Max 32 bit integer value is int value = ; // value will actually be Common Error 3: Round-off Errors o Calculations involving floating-point numbers are approximated because these numbers are not stored with complete accuracy. For example, o Integers are stored precisely. Therefore, calculations with integers yield a precise integer result. System.out.println( ); // display , not 0.5 System.out.println( ); // display , not 0.9 Common Error 4: Unintended Integer Division int number1 = 1; int number2 = 2; double average = (number1 + number2) / 2; System.out.println(average); (a) Bad code: display 1 int number1 = 1; int number2 = 2; double average = (number1 + number2) / 2.0; System.out.println(average); (b) Good code: display 1.5 Common Pitfall 1: Redundant Input Objects Scanner input1 = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter an integer: "); int v1 = input1.nextint(); Scanner input2 = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter a double value: "); double v2 = input2.nextdouble(); Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter an integer: "); int v1 = input.nextint(); System.out.print("Enter a double value: "); double v2 = input.nextdouble(); (a) Bad code: two input objects (b) Good code: one input object Page 21 / 21

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