CS GPU and GPGPU Programming Lecture 7: Shading and Compute APIs 1. Markus Hadwiger, KAUST

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1 CS GPU and GPGPU Programming Lecture 7: Shading and Compute APIs 1 Markus Hadwiger, KAUST

2 Reading Assignment #4 (until Feb. 23) Read (required): Programming Massively Parallel Processors book, Chapter 2 (History of GPU Computing) GLSL book, Chapter 7 (OpenGL Shading Language API) OpenGL Shading Language 4.5 specification: Chapter 2 Download OpenGL 4.5 specification Read (optional): OpenGL 4.0 Shading Language Cookbook, Chapter 3 See more at: 2

3 Shading Example Multiple layers: procedural shading, fetch textures, do lighting,... A Real-Time Procedural Shading System for Programmable Graphics Hardware Kekoa Proudfoot, William R. Mark, Svetoslav Tzvetkov, and Pat Hanrahan, SIGGRAPH 2001.

4 Example: Per-Pixel(Fragment) Lighting Simulating smooth surfaces by calculating illumination for each fragment Example: specular highlights (Phong illumination/shading) per-fragment evaluation linear interp. from vertices 4

5 Example: Bump Mapping / Normal Mapping High-frequency surface detail from normal map (texture storing surface normals) that yields per-fragment normal vectors for shading 5

6 Normal Map Example: Quake 2 Model ( ) + ( ) = Diffuse Decal Specular Gloss Note: Gloss map defines where to apply specular Final result! 6

7 Normal Map Example + Model by Piotr Slomowicz 7

8 Normal Map Example 8

9 Normal Map Example 9

10 Doom 3 (id Software, 2004)

11 Half-Life 2 (Valve, 2004) vs. Half-Life (Valve, 1998)

12 Half-Life 2: The Lost Coast (Valve, 2005)

13 Unreal Engine 3 (Epic Games, 2006 )

14 Crysis (Crytek, 2007)

15 Shading Languages Ancestors Offline shading: Pixar s RenderMan Shading Language,... Real-time: Stanford Shading Language,... Programmable shading on GPUs Old assembly language OpenGL extensions / Direct3D NVIDIA Cg (compiles to low-level OpenGL or Direct3D shaders) DirectX HLSL (compiles to low-level Direct3D shaders) OpenGL shading language (GLSL); GLSL 1.10 in core OpenGL 2.0 (2004) 15 Write Fragment (pixel) shaders Vertex shaders Geometry shaders...

16 High-Level Shading Languages Syntax similar to C, plus vector variables and vector instructions: GLSL: vec4 v1; Cg/HLSL: float4 v1; // same as float v1[4] in C ivec3 v2; int3 v2; // same as int v2[3] in C Swizzling: vec4 v3 = v1.xzzy; Basic C, plus built-in functions for graphics, plus C math functions Functions like sin(), pow(), exp(),... Functions like length(), distance(), normalize(), dot(),... Functions like clamp(), mix(),...

17 GLSL History 17

18 Programmable Processing Stages GLSL 1.50 (OpenGL 3.2) Vertex shaders (run on vertex processors) Geometry shaders (run on geometry processors) Fragment shaders (run on fragment processors) From the language / API perspective it is useful to consider separate types of processors, even when all of these shaders are in reality executed on identical processing cores on current GPUs! 18

19 Direct3D 10 Pipeline New geometry shader stage: Vertex -> geometry -> pixel shaders Stream output after geometry shader Courtesy David Blythe, Microsoft 19

20 Vertex Shader (1) Process vertices and their attributes Position Color, texture coordinate(s),... GLSL

21 Vertex Shader (2) Pass-through example Pass through per-vertex color Transform vertex position with OpenGL Model-View-Projection matrix 21

22 Geometry Shader (1) Process whole primitives Emit vertices Emit primitive(s) 22 GL_EXT_geometry_shader4

23 Geometry Shader (2) Pass-through example Pass through (emit) all vertices Pass through (emit) one primitive 23

24 Fragment Shader (1) Process fragments Write one or more output fragments Use input color, texture coordinates,... Compute shading, sample textures,... Optionally discard fragment MRT: multiple render targets GLSL

25 Fragment Shader (2) Pass-through example Pass through interpolated color as fragment color 25

26 Detailed Geometry Coarse base mesh Refine through subdivision High-frequency detail from displacement mapping 26

27 Simple OpenGL Program (1) Simplest option for window and context management: GLUT Can use GLEW for OpenGL extensions (not shown here; see programming assignment!) 27

28 Simple OpenGL Program (2) Init a (vertex) shader 28

29 29

30 30

31 31

32 32 GLSL 1.20

33 GLSL 1.20 beware: N must be normalized: N = normalize(n); 33

34 Thank you.

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