# Bitmap and Vector Graphics (Introduction to Painting and Drawing applications)

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 COMPSCI 111 S1C - Lecture 14 1 of 8 Computer Science COMPSCI 111 S1C - Lecture 14 March 2004 Bitmap and Vector Graphics (Introduction to Painting and Drawing applications) Vector Graphics After computers had graduated from punch cards to computer screens, people tried to use computers to represent information graphically. Unfortunately, the screens which computers used were text-only, and did not have the capacity for computer graphics. However, it was possible to write a program which sent instructions to a peripheral device (such as a plotter) which would draw the output in a graphical manner. These devices controlled a pen which it could move up, down, left, right, forwards and backwards. Because each part of the drawing was a line segment, the information about the lines was stored as mathematical vectors. Devices which used this technique became known as Vector Graphics Devices. The vector graphics screen became commonplace for displaying early computer graphics of this type. This screen was a cathode ray tube, which shot an electron beam onto a phosphorus surface. The electron gun would trace each line (or vector) in the object about 60 times per second. This technique produced excellent results for Computer Aided Design (technical drawings), and is still in use today, albeit uncommonly. Object: Name: Circle Attributes: Radius: 5 X Position: 120 Y Position: 231 Pen Width: 3 Pen Colour: Black Fill Colour: Green Figure 1: Information about objects is stored as independent attributes. Some graphics applications use the vector graphics paradigm to represent the objects to be drawn. Using this representation, each object is stored independently. A list of objects is created, with each object specifying its location, line width, colour, orientation, and other attributes. The primary limitation with this method is that only shapes that can be easily described in mathematical terms (such as square, rectangle, circle, ellipse, polygon, line) can be represented. There are many advantages to storing graphics information in this manner: Since each object records attributes describing the way it looks, it is possible to alter any of these attributes in order to alter the appearance of the object. This can be done even after the object is created. Each object is able to be manipulated independently of the others. Given the information stored in this way, it is possible to scale the image and retain the desired look just change the size attribute of each object. It is possible to describe the shape of letters (characters) using lines and curves, so entire fonts can be created which use vector-based descriptions of the characters. Note that TrueType fonts are stored in this way to enable them to be scaled effectively. Most printers today are compatible with the Postscript language developed in Xerox PARC. This language operates via a vector graphics paradigm, using mathematical formulae to describe smooth curves. A graphics program (like a drawing package) which stores information using vector graphics is able to convert the information to Postscript, and so the printed lines will look smooth and professional.

2 COMPSCI 111 S1C - Lecture 14 2 of 8 Drawn Font Drawn Font Figure 2: Objects Stored using the Vector Graphics Paradigm scale smoothly, and can be printed by postscript using the original attributes of the object. Raster Graphics Raster Graphics devices developed with the idea that a picture could be formed from a very small grid of dots. The first common technology to use this idea was the television. A cathode ray tube is used, but the electron gun does not scan each object like a vector graphics device, but rather scans horizontally across each row on the screen, regardless of what is actually being drawn. The rate of refresh (i.e. how many times the screen is redrawn) needs to be about 50 times a second (50Hz) to avoid flickering. Modern computer screens use this Raster Graphics technology. A picture stored using the raster paradigm is known as a Bitmap. Historically, pictures consisted of black and white dots only. This meant that each dot of a picture (pixel) could be stored using a single bit. The contents of the bits in memory mapped onto the screen image, and were hence known as a bitmap. Today, most bitmaps use many colours which means the mapping between memory and screen is no longer 1 to 1, but often 8 or 16 to 1 (i.e. sixteen bits are used to represent each pixel) Figure 3: Bits in memory map onto the screen representation in a 1 to 1 relation. Early printers that used the raster graphics paradigm were known as dot-matrix printers, and were available in a number of different varieties. The more dots that you were able to fit into a small area, the smoother, and more realistic the images would appear when printed. Newspapers and many magazines still use this approach to printing pictures. If you look closely, you are able to see each individual dot which makes up the picture. Representing graphics information using a bitmap has its disadvantages: Because the original picture information is stored in a discrete grid, the only way to increase the size of the image is to increase the size of each dot. The image will then begin to appear to be of poor quality as jagged edges become more apparent. Figure 4: Objects stored using a Bitmap do not scale well. Laser quality printers use Postscript, which is a vector based language. Each dot in the bitmap image is converted into a small square (or circle), and printed out as a dot by the printer. An average laser printer is capable of printing with a resolution of about 600 dots per inch, whereas a screen is typically 72 dots per inch. The capacity of the printer is usually wasted when printing bitmap images. In order to use it to get am image as crisp and clear as possible, the bitmap on the screen needs to be 10 times as large as the final printing will appear, that way a 1 to 1 mapping can occur between the printer resolution and the screen resolution.

3 COMPSCI 111 S1C - Lecture 14 3 of 8 A diagonal line drawn on a screen. Each square is one pixel. The bitmap converted for printing. Note the resolution of the printer is wasted. The way the diagonal line should look. Figure 5: Printer Resolution exceeds screen resolution, causing difficulty for graphics stored as bitmaps. Why would you want to use bitmaps at all? Consider how a photographic image would be stored. Vector graphics is only capable of representing a small number of mathematical shapes, so it is simply incapable of representing the complexity involved in a photograph. The closest it would be capable of would be to divide the object up into a large number of regular shapes, where each shape contained a uniform colour. But that is exactly what a bitmap is so it would be more efficient to store the image as a bitmap! Vector graphics is more efficient when the image to be represented consists of regular shapes. Bitmaps should be used when the image is more complex, with irregular shapes. Using Painting and Drawing Applications You create drawings from objects. Drawing is like making a collage. You arrange and layer separate pieces. Painting is like creating a watercolour. You create paintings from images made up of single dots on the screen called pixels. You add and blend colours and textures into a single canvas. Use Drawing in order to Create independent lines and shapes Quickly select objects and groups of objects. Alter pen and fill attributes after objects are drawn Overlap objects and move them to the front or back of the drawing Use Painting in order to Creating images of custom shapes and textures Edit precisely by working with one pixel at a time Add special effects such as perspective and distortion to images Blend, combine and tint images of different colours and patterns. Drawing Applications Use a draw document to draw and combine objects, such as lines or circles that you can select, move, modify, and delete independently of each other. For example, you can use a drawing application to create: illustrations, designs, and logos brochures newsletters organisation charts slide presentations diagrams and maps Drawing Tools The tools for drawing objects are usually found in a toolbar, or tool panel. Use the drawing tools to create and edit objects. The drawing tools are usually pre-set to draw solid black lines. Objects drawn usually have a white fill colour (i.e. white is the default). To draw an object: Click a tool and drag the crosshair pointer in the drawing area. Release the mouse button when the object is the size you want.

4 COMPSCI 111 S1C - Lecture 14 4 of 8 Selecting Objects Before you can move, modify, or delete any object you must select it. A selected object displays handles (small black boxes). An object remains selected until you deselect it or select another object. You select objects with the arrow pointer. If the pointer is not an arrow, click the arrow pointer in the tool panel. To select a single object, simply click on it. To select multiple objects use one of the following methods: I. Starting outside the object, drag the pointer across the objects to enclose them in a selection rectangle. Only those objects entirely enclosed are selected. II. Hold down the Shift key and click each object you wish to be selected. Attributes of objects Every object has many attributes which describe what it looks like. The attributes which are used to describe the objects depend upon the application. Most applications use at least the following: Location of the object on the page (co-ordinates) Object Size Width of the outline (pen width) Colour of the outline (pen colour) Pattern of the outline (pen pattern) Colour used inside the object (fill colour) Pattern used inside the object (fill pattern) Painting Applications Use a painting application (or bitmap editor) when you want to create a variety of artwork and illustrations. The images are created by blending colours directly upon the canvas. There is no notion of objects, merely the colour of each point (pixel) in the picture. For example, you can use a bitmap editor to: create logos for stationery draw illustrations for reports or newsletters paint abstract images create school artwork Painting Tools You can use various painting tools to create and edit images. (e.g. MS Paint) When you're working in application that allows you to edit the bitmap, remember that you are directly making changes to individual dots on a page. If you want to select a piece of the canvas (for moving or modification) then you need to define the boundaries of the selection before it can be altered. You should use one of the image selection tools to select areas in a painting document. Most painting tools are similar to those used in drawing applications. Similar attributes can be set for each painting tool before it is used to paint onto the canvas. However, because of the way the information is stored, the attributes of an object may not be altered once it has been painted (since the computer does not distinguish between different objects in a painting canvas). Layers More advance graphical packages, such as Adobe Photoshop and Paint Shop Pro use layers to work around the problem of not being able to edit objects once they have been drawn. Layers can be thought of as transparent plates that are placed on top of one another to produce a picture. You can draw on these layers or place them in any particular order. Obviously thing on the lowest layer can be obscured by things drawn on a layer above. By splitting the various components of a picture up, we can now edit them independently of each other.

5 COMPSCI 111 S1C - Lecture 14 5 of 8 Colours: The number of colours available on a computer depends upon the screen and the graphics capacity of the computer (specifically the power of the video card). The greater the range of colours required, the higher quality the screen is required to be (and therefore the greater the cost). If the computer can display more colours, then it will use much more of the processing power just dealing with the colours. Note that the amount of memory used increases significantly with a larger number of colours (A full size scr een of 1024 x 1024 in black and white requires 128KB, but in photographic quality colour will use 3 MB). No. of bits needed 1 bit No. of colours 2 colours (Black and White) 2 bits 4 colours 3 bits 4 bits 8 colours 16 colours 8 bits 256 colours 16 bits colours 24 bits 16, 777, 216 colours (True Colour) Figure 1: Table showing how the number of colours depends upon number of bits used. Image Processing Computer Graphics can be broadly divided into two categories (although there is some overlap): the analysis of images, and the synthesis (or creation) of images. Image processing is concerned with the analysis and alteration of existing images. Typically, an image is cleaned up to remove distortion, or enhanced to show desired objects more effectively. There are many examples of image processing in the technical and scientific community. Some of these include: Hospitals using computer enhanced images from x-rays, CAT scans, ultra-sound etc. W eather reports which show computer enhanced satellite images; etc. Police enhancing photographs to recognise people or license plate numbers It is also possible to alter aspects of an image (eg. morphing an image, changing its colour, proportions etc). Some examples include: Photo developers who alter the colours/ contrast of your photos; Hair salons which take a photo of your hair and recolour it; Removal of parts of an image (legs of Lieutenant Dan in Forrest Gump) Combining two images (Forrest Gump meeting JFK, people falling off the Titanic) Morphing which occurs in Terminator II Figure 2: Combining two images to form a third image.

6 COMPSCI 111 S1C - Lecture 14 6 of 8 Graphics Rendering Generating (or creating) computer images is perhaps the most easily recognised aspect of computer graphics. In order to generate computer graphics, a model of the object must be created within the computer, and then a representation of the object is displayed on the screen. The process of converting the computer model to a visible image is known as rendering. These rendered images are used primarily as artwork (eg; company logos, pretty pictures, special effects, etc. ), although they are also used to help visualise technical information (such as the flow of air around an object in fluid dynamics, a house drawn from plans, chemical interactions, educational recreations, etc.) Ray Casting Ray-casting is a rendering technique that calculates an image of a scene by shooting rays into the scene. The scene is built from shapes, ma terials, light sources, a camera, and other special features such as fog and atmospheric effects. Once the three dimensional objects have been placed, and a camera and light sources positioned, th e internal representation is complete. In order to draw the image, a viewing window must be positioned in the scene. The image which is rendered is the image that the camera would see when looking through the viewing window. The re ndering software divides up the viewing window into a grid, where the number of cells in the grid is equal to the number of pixels in the final image. It is then possible to work out the colour of each cell in the viewing window, and set the corresponding pixel in the final picture to display that colour. To work out the colour of each cell, a viewing ray is shot from the camera through each cell and into the scene. This ray is tested for intersection with any of the objects in the scene. Every time an object is hit, the colour of the surface at that point is calculated. This calculation is based upon the angle between the camera and the light source at that point. The surface material of the object is also taken into consideration in the calculation (a hard shiny surface reflects more light than a soft dull surface). Figure 3: The process of ray casting

7 COMPSCI 111 S1C - Lecture 14 7 of 8 Ray Tracing Ray Tracing produces photo-realistic images by using the same approach as ray casting, but involving more complex methods of calculating the colour of the surface. If the surface is reflective or translucent, then the ray tracing technique generates secondary rays from the point of intersect ion between the object and the viewing ray. These secondary rays are known as reflection rays, and are generated in order to work out the contribution to the colour of the surface which comes from light reflected from other objects. The colour of this reflected light alters the colour at the point of intersection on the original object. This complex process allows ray tracing to produce im ages which have reflections, transparent surfaces and complex lighting models involving such effects as halos. Figure 4: The technique of ray tracing works out the colour of a surface by calculations involving angle between light source and camera, surface of object, and colour or reflected light Computer Animation Animation was traditionally achieved by an artist hand-drawing each frame in the animated sequence. Computers have been used for some time to speed up this time consuming process. It is easy to scan the outline of the hand-drawn images into the computer, and then simply use a painting program to fill the interior with colours. A more sophisticated approach is to draw key frames by hand, and then allow a computer program to automatically draw the intermediate frames. Key Frame Computer Generated Figure 5: Computers are used to automatically draw flat 2d animation cells. Key Frame Three Dimensional Animation Today, some animations (such as Toy Story) are generated by a computer, based upon a description of the scene which is required. In addition to specifying the physical look of the object, it is possible to describe movement through three dimensional space using a computer model. The computer can generate multiple frames of an animation given a simple description of the scene. In order to make the movement of physical objects look realistic, the computer model needs to take account of physical laws such as gravity and friction. The more realistic the scene is required to be, the more realistic the computer model has to be.

8 COMPSCI 111 S1C - Lecture 14 8 of 8 Modelling and Simulation A recent trend in computer graphics research is to attempt to make the model as close to reality as possible. The distinction between simulation and computer graphics is blurred in this area. Computer graphics are far more realistic if they appear like the real world, and to achieve this, they need to accurately model the real world. This requires the computer model to account for the laws of physics, in order for the objects to behave more realistically. This simulation of reality has been closely linked to research in other fields of study, such as weather prediction, stresses of objects in engineering, chaos theory and quantum physics models. The partnership formed with these alternate disciplines is a symbiotic one, with both sides working towards a closer understanding of the physical universe. Limits of Computer Graphics The traditional problems associated with the production of computer are the physical limits imposed by the quality of the screen, and the speed of computation. Advances are being made in both of these areas, and many of the classical limitations have been defeated. The limits of computer graphics today are due to the difficulty in programming a computer to represent reality in a realistic way. Hardware is no longer such a major concern, but software techniques are a popular topic for research. Traditionally, computer graphics has been poor at modelling small particles such as those which make up clouds and fire. Recent developments (shown in movies such as Lord of the Rings) have proven that both of these effects are achievable. It is also difficult to model anything that is irregular, or uneven. This is because computers use mathematical models to create the objects which are represented. The natural result of this approach is for everything to appear regular, or to follow a pattern. Anything which is not regular is more difficult. This is because the computer must model everything that you see. Every minor blemish or imperfection must be deliberately placed. This makes scratches, dirt, and other imperfections difficult, and can often seem out of place. The creation of realistic living creatures is still the most difficult task for computer graphics. Biological entities tend to be very complex, and highly irregular. Because people are so good at recognising small details about body language and emotion, the discrepancies between the computer representation of a human and reality are noticed easily.

### Knightswood Secondary School. Graphic Communication. Desktop Publishing otes. Auto Tracing

Auto Tracing The process of converting a bit mapped image into a vector image. In a bit-mapped image, each object is represented by a pattern of dots, while in a vector image every object is defined geometrically.

### Paint/Draw Tools. Foreground color. Free-form select. Select. Eraser/Color Eraser. Fill Color. Color Picker. Magnify. Pencil. Brush.

Paint/Draw Tools There are two types of draw programs. Bitmap (Paint) Uses pixels mapped to a grid More suitable for photo-realistic images Not easily scalable loses sharpness if resized File sizes are

### How to draw and create shapes

Adobe Flash Professional Guide How to draw and create shapes You can add artwork to your Adobe Flash Professional documents in two ways: You can import images or draw original artwork in Flash by using

### How to create shapes. Drawing basic shapes. Adobe Photoshop Elements 8 guide

How to create shapes With the shape tools in Adobe Photoshop Elements, you can draw perfect geometric shapes, regardless of your artistic ability or illustration experience. The first step to drawing shapes

### LinkMotion and CorelDraw 9, 10, 11, 12, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7 and X8:

LinkMotion and CorelDraw 9, 10, 11, 12, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7 and X8: After you install LinkMotion software and set up all settings launch CorelDraw software. Important notes: Solustan s LinkMotion driver

### INSTRUCTORS: A. SANPHAWAT JATUPATWARANGKUL A. NATTAPOL SUPHAWONG A. THEEPRAKORN LUNTHOMRATTANA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN I AUTOCAD AND ILLUSTRATOR CS

INSTRUCTORS: A. SANPHAWAT JATUPATWARANGKUL A. NATTAPOL SUPHAWONG A. THEEPRAKORN LUNTHOMRATTANA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN I AUTOCAD AND ILLUSTRATOR CS BITMAP IMAGES VS VECTOR GRAPHICS WORKING WITH BITMAP IMAGES

### Graphics in IT82. Representing Graphical Data. Graphics in IT82. Lectures Overview. Representing Graphical Data. Logical / Physical Representation

Graphics in IT82 What does computer graphics cover? Representing Graphical Data Chapman & Chapman, chapters 3,4,5 Richardson IT82 Input, output, and representation of graphical data Creation of graphics

### Paint Tutorial (Project #14a)

Paint Tutorial (Project #14a) In order to learn all there is to know about this drawing program, go through the Microsoft Tutorial (below). (Do not save this to your folder.) Practice using the different

### Corel Draw 11. What is Vector Graphics?

Corel Draw 11 Corel Draw is a vector based drawing that program that makes it easy to create professional artwork from logos to intricate technical illustrations. Corel Draw 11's enhanced text handling

Adobe Graphics Software Untitled-1.indd 1 20.11.2015 13:05:28 Untitled-1.indd 2 20.11.2015 13:05:28 3 Recent versions have brought in functionality for working with 3D designs, though the program still

### Computer Graphics. Chapter 4 Attributes of Graphics Primitives. Somsak Walairacht, Computer Engineering, KMITL 1

Computer Graphics Chapter 4 Attributes of Graphics Primitives Somsak Walairacht, Computer Engineering, KMITL 1 Outline OpenGL State Variables Point Attributes Line Attributes Fill-Area Attributes Scan-Line

### Representing Graphical Data

Representing Graphical Data Chapman & Chapman, chapters 3,4,5 Richardson 1 Graphics in IT82 What does computer graphics cover? IT82 Input, output, and representation of graphical data Creation of graphics

### Learning to use the drawing tools

Create a blank slide This module was developed for Office 2000 and 2001, but although there are cosmetic changes in the appearance of some of the tools, the basic functionality is the same in Powerpoint

### Animation & Rendering

7M836 Animation & Rendering Introduction, color, raster graphics, modeling, transformations Arjan Kok, Kees Huizing, Huub van de Wetering h.v.d.wetering@tue.nl 1 Purpose Understand 3D computer graphics

### ILLUSTRATOR TUTORIAL-1 workshop handout

Why is Illustrator a powerful tool? ILLUSTRATOR TUTORIAL-1 workshop handout Computer graphics fall into two main categories, bitmap graphics and vector graphics. Adobe Illustrator is a vector based software

### Computer Graphics. Lecture 9 Environment mapping, Mirroring

Computer Graphics Lecture 9 Environment mapping, Mirroring Today Environment Mapping Introduction Cubic mapping Sphere mapping refractive mapping Mirroring Introduction reflection first stencil buffer

### HBS Training - IT Solutions. PlanWeb. Intermediate

HBS Training - IT Solutions PlanWeb Intermediate CONTENTS Logging on to the system...3 The PlanWeb Window...5 The Tool Bar...6 The Status Bar...6 The Map Window...6 The Information Window...7 Changing

### Adobe Illustrator CS Design Professional GETTING STARTED WITH ILLUSTRATOR

Adobe Illustrator CS Design Professional GETTING STARTED WITH ILLUSTRATOR Chapter Lessons Create a new document Explore the Illustrator window Create basic shapes Apply fill and stroke colors to objects

### INKSCAPE BASICS. 125 S. Prospect Avenue, Elmhurst, IL (630) elmhurstpubliclibrary.org. Create, Make, and Build

INKSCAPE BASICS Inkscape is a free, open-source vector graphics editor. It can be used to create or edit vector graphics like illustrations, diagrams, line arts, charts, logos and more. Inkscape uses Scalable

### CSE528 Computer Graphics: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

CSE528 Computer Graphics: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications Hong Qin State University of New York at Stony Brook (Stony Brook University) Stony Brook, New York 11794--4400 Tel: (631)632-8450; Fax: (631)632-8334

ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR CS3 Chapter 2 Creating Text and Gradients Chapter 2 1 Creating type Create and Format Text Create text anywhere Select the Type Tool Click the artboard and start typing or click and drag

### Tactile and Advanced Computer Graphics Module 7. Introduction to Illustrator

Tactile and Advanced Computer Graphics Module 7 Introduction to Illustrator Module #7 Introduction to Illustrator Tactile and Advanced Computer Graphics Module 7 Introduction to Illustrator Summary Goal(s):

### Do Now # 1 Label the Photoshop Interface.

Class Warmup AVTECH Do Now # 1 Label the Photoshop Interface. The Menu Bar The Options Panel The Canvas The Navigator Panel The History Panel Button The Workspace Button The Tool Bar The Layers Panel The

### PowerPoint. Tutorial 1 Creating a Presentation. Tutorial 2 Applying and Modifying Text and Graphic Objects

PowerPoint Tutorial 1 Creating a Presentation Tutorial 2 Applying and Modifying Text and Graphic Objects Tutorial 3 Adding Special Effects to a Presentation COMPREHENSIVE PowerPoint Tutorial 1 Creating

### Multimedia Technology CHAPTER 4. Video and Animation

CHAPTER 4 Video and Animation - Both video and animation give us a sense of motion. They exploit some properties of human eye s ability of viewing pictures. - Motion video is the element of multimedia

### animation, and what interface elements the Flash editor contains to help you create and control your animation.

e r ch02.fm Page 43 Wednesday, November 15, 2000 8:52 AM c h a p t 2 Animating the Page IN THIS CHAPTER Timelines and Frames Movement Tweening Shape Tweening Fading Recap Advanced Projects You have totally

### Tutorial 1 Engraved Brass Plate R

Getting Started With Tutorial 1 Engraved Brass Plate R4-090123 Table of Contents What is V-Carving?... 2 What the software allows you to do... 3 What file formats can be used?... 3 Getting Help... 3 Overview

### Fig. A. Fig. B. Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Create A Spinning Logo Tutorial. Bob Taylor 2009 To do this you will need two programs from Xara: Xara Xtreme (or Xtreme Pro) and Xara 3D They are available from: http://www.xara.com. Xtreme is available

### Adobe Photoshop CS2 Reference Guide For Windows

This program is located: Adobe Photoshop CS2 Reference Guide For Windows Start > All Programs > Photo Editing and Scanning >Adobe Photoshop CS2 General Keyboarding Tips: TAB Show/Hide Toolbox and Palettes

### Publisher 2007 Creating Flyers and Brochures

MS Publisher 2007 User Guide Publisher 2007 Creating Flyers and Brochures THE NATURE OF DESKTOP PUBLISHING - INTRODUCTION Publisher is a desktop publishing program. You can create publications that

### Publisher 2007 Creating Flyers and Brochures

MS Publisher 2007 User Guide Publisher 2007 Creating Flyers and Brochures THE NATURE OF DESKTOP PUBLISHING - INTRODUCTION Publisher is a desktop publishing program. You can create publications that use

### Virtual MODELA USER'S MANUAL

Virtual MODELA USER'S MANUAL Virtual MODELA is a program that simulates the movement of the tool on the screen. Contents Contents Part 1 Introduction 1-1 System Requirements... 4 1-2 Overview of Virtual

### Lets assume each object has a defined colour. Hence our illumination model is looks unrealistic.

Shading Models There are two main types of rendering that we cover, polygon rendering ray tracing Polygon rendering is used to apply illumination models to polygons, whereas ray tracing applies to arbitrary

### DIS: Design and imaging software

Using IT productivity tools and applications This is the ability to use a software application designed to create, modify and layout artwork or images for display in print or on a screen (eg vector graphics

### S206E Lecture 3, 5/15/2017, Rhino 2D drawing an overview

Copyright 2017, Chiu-Shui Chan. All Rights Reserved. S206E057 Spring 2017 Rhino 2D drawing is very much the same as it is developed in AutoCAD. There are a lot of similarities in interface and in executing

### FLAMINGO CHEAT SHEET FOR ES 305 CLASS 5 Pages of Fresh Flamingo Goodness

FLAMINGO CHEAT SHEET FOR ES 305 CLASS 5 Pages of Fresh Flamingo Goodness *Keep this PDF with you at all times it will help you to maneuver the vast and confusing ocean that is the Flamingo Materials Editor!

### :: MULTIMEDIA TOOLS :: (2131) :: CLASS NOTES

CLASS :: 06 03.04 2016 3 Hours THE AGENDA LOGO CREATION [Adobe Illustrator] :: Text Tool [Creating Outlines] :: Type on Path :: Shapes and Pathfinder :: Pen Tool [DEMO] :: Trace a Simple Illustration/Image

### COMP environment mapping Mar. 12, r = 2n(n v) v

Rendering mirror surfaces The next texture mapping method assumes we have a mirror surface, or at least a reflectance function that contains a mirror component. Examples might be a car window or hood,

### HBS Training - IT Solutions. PlanWeb. Introduction

HBS Training - IT Solutions PlanWeb Introduction CONTENTS Logging on to the system...3 The PlanWeb Window...5 The Tool Bar...6 The Status Bar...6 The Map Window...6 The Information Window...7 Changing

### Dr.Engrave USER'S MANUAL

Dr.Engrave USER'S MANUAL This document is the operation manual for Dr. Engrave for Windows, a program for plate engraving. Contents Introduction... 4 Operating environment... 5 Overview of Dr.Engrave...

### Homework Graphics Input Devices Graphics Output Devices. Computer Graphics. Spring CS4815

Computer Graphics Spring 2016-2017 Outline 1 2 3 Displays To Do 1 Go to Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/ and read the pages on Colour Spaces (http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/colour_spaces), Optical Illusions

### Review Questions FW Chapter 1: Getting Started with Adobe Fireworks

Review Questions FW Chapter 1: Getting Started with Adobe Fireworks TRUE/FALSE 1. The 2 Up and 4 Up buttons allow you to select different optimization settings and evaluate them side by side. Page: Fireworks

### Microsoft Office Publisher

Microsoft Office 2007- Publisher Opening Microsoft Publisher Using the Start Menu, click on All Programs and navigate to the Microsoft Office folder. Click on Microsoft Office Publisher 2007. Choosing

Adobe InDesign CS6 Tutorial Adobe InDesign CS6 is a page-layout software that takes print publishing and page design beyond current boundaries. InDesign is a desktop publishing program that incorporates

### Quick Crash Scene Tutorial

Quick Crash Scene Tutorial With Crash Zone or Crime Zone, even new users can create a quick crash scene diagram in less than 10 minutes! In this tutorial we ll show how to use Crash Zone s unique features

### A Study of Angles & Curves

A Study of Angles & Curves Method 1: Cutting Quilt Shapes/Using the Shapes Tools Open BERNINA CutWork Software. Make sure that Create New is selected. Click Next. Place a dot in front of New Graphic. Select

Adobe Illustrator Advanced Special Effects AI exercise preview exercise overview The object is to create a poster with a unified color scheme by compositing artwork drawn in Illustrator with various effects

### Chapter 6 Formatting Graphic Objects

Impress Guide Chapter 6 OpenOffice.org Copyright This document is Copyright 2007 by its contributors as listed in the section titled Authors. You can distribute it and/or modify it under the terms of either

### 1. New document, set to 5in x 5in, no bleed. Color Mode should be default at CMYK. If it s not, changed that when the new document opens.

art 2413 typography fall 17 software review This exercise will reacquaint students with Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, and InDesign. These are the three main design programs used by the industry. There

### 4) Finish the spline here. To complete the spline, double click the last point or select the spline tool again.

1) Select the line tool 3) Move the cursor along the X direction (be careful to stay on the X axis alignment so that the line is perpendicular) and click for the second point of the line. Type 0.5 for

### Volume Rendering. Lecture 21

Volume Rendering Lecture 21 Acknowledgements These slides are collected from many sources. A particularly valuable source is the IEEE Visualization conference tutorials. Sources from: Roger Crawfis, Klaus

### MS Word 2007: Graphics. Lesson Notes Author: Pamela Schmidt. The Drawing Tools Format Ribbon appears when the object is selected.

AutoShapes MS Word 2007: Graphics Lesson Notes Author: Pamela Schmidt To insert a shape, on the Insert Ribbon choose the Shapes control. When a shape tool is selected, a cross hair will appear when the

### What is Publisher, anyway?

What is Publisher, anyway? Microsoft Publisher designed for users who need to create and personalize publications such as marketing materials, business stationery, signage, newsletters and other items

### Using Graphics to Enhance A PowerPoint Presentation

Using Graphics to Enhance A PowerPoint Presentation This document provides instructions for working with various types of graphics in Microsoft PowerPoint. A design rule of thumb is to include some sort

### Spring Semester Study Guide

Spring Semester Study Guide 1. When you create a table in Datasheet view, Access automatically adds a field called ID as the first field in the table. 2. To undo the most recent change to a table structure,

### Creative Effects with Illustrator

ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR PREVIEW Creative Effects with Illustrator AI OVERVIEW The object is to create a poster with a unified color scheme by compositing artwork drawn in Illustrator with various effects and

### 123D Catch - Tutorial

123D Catch - Tutorial Autodesk s 123D Catch software (formerly Project Photofly) is based on photogrammetry. Photogrammetry is a process which derives geometric properties of an object from a series of

### Screen Designer. The Power of Ultimate Design. 43-TV GLO Issue 2 01/01 UK

Screen Designer The Power of Ultimate Design 43-TV-25-13 GLO Issue 2 01/01 UK 43-TV-25-13 GLO Issue 2 01/01 UK Table of Contents Table of Contents Honeywell Screen Designer - The Power of Ultimate Design

### How to work. How to work

How to work How to work To create a collage using AKVIS Chameleon do the following: 1. Open an image with the object that you want to use for creating a collage (Pic. 1). 2. Select an object that you want

### CS 200. Lecture 04. Geometric Graphics. (aka Vector Graphics) CS 200 Winter Geometric Graphics

CS 200 Lecture 04 (aka Vector Graphics) 1 Abbreviations aka dpi HCGW NDWB ppi Also Known As Dots Per Inch How Computer Graphics Works (a book) The Non-Designer s Web Book pixels per inch Please note that

### Tutorial CREATING MAPS STEP 1: PREPARING A NEW DOCUMENT

A map is an efficient method of providing easy to understand visual information. Creating a map to meet project-specific needs can be a daunting task; however, if you have Canvas at your command, there

### A QUICK TOUR OF ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR CC (2018 RELEASE)

A QUICK TOUR OF ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR CC (2018 RELEASE) Lesson overview In this interactive demonstration of Adobe Illustrator CC (2018 release), you ll get an overview of the main features of the application.

### Tricking it Out: Tricks to personalize and customize your graphs.

Tricking it Out: Tricks to personalize and customize your graphs. Graphing templates may be used online without downloading them onto your own computer. However, if you would like to use the templates

### Welcome to Desktop Publishing with InDesign!

Welcome to Desktop Publishing with InDesign! What We ll Cover Today What is InDesign? Preparing a print project Creating a new document InDesign interface Working with layers and links Formatting and managing

### Keyboard Shortcuts. Command Windows Macintosh

S00ILCS5.qxp 3/19/2010 1:11 AM Page 477 Keyboard Shortcuts k Adobe Illustrator CS5 If a command on a menu includes a keyboard reference, known as a keyboard shortcut, to the right of the command name,

### Exploring Microsoft Office Word 2007

Exploring Microsoft Office Word 2007 Chapter 3: Enhancing a Document Robert Grauer, Keith Mulbery, Michelle Hulett Objectives Insert a table Format a table Sort and apply formulas to table data Convert

### CS770/870 Spring 2017 Animation Basics

Preview CS770/870 Spring 2017 Animation Basics Related material Angel 6e: 1.1.3, 8.6 Thalman, N and D. Thalman, Computer Animation, Encyclopedia of Computer Science, CRC Press. Lasseter, J. Principles

### CS770/870 Spring 2017 Animation Basics

CS770/870 Spring 2017 Animation Basics Related material Angel 6e: 1.1.3, 8.6 Thalman, N and D. Thalman, Computer Animation, Encyclopedia of Computer Science, CRC Press. Lasseter, J. Principles of traditional

### Adobe InDesign Reference NEW YORK CITY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK

Adobe InDesign Reference NEW YORK CITY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT By Annie Boccelli, Anne Leonhardt, Joseph Lim, & Joe Smith created 18 December

### Creating Digital Illustrations for Your Research Workshop III Basic Illustration Demo

Creating Digital Illustrations for Your Research Workshop III Basic Illustration Demo Final Figure Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is used primarily for the analysis of large molecules such as proteins

### If you have been using CorelDRAW, you may have turned off this opening screen. If so, skip to step 5.

Opening CorelDRAW If you have been using CorelDRAW, you may have turned off this opening screen. If so, skip to step 5. 1. When CorelDRAW is loaded, a new section is created on the Start Menu. To open

### Computer Graphics and Visualization. Graphics Systems and Models

UNIT -1 Graphics Systems and Models 1.1 Applications of computer graphics: Display Of Information Design Simulation & Animation User Interfaces 1.2 Graphics systems A Graphics system has 5 main elements:

### Lecture 17: Recursive Ray Tracing. Where is the way where light dwelleth? Job 38:19

Lecture 17: Recursive Ray Tracing Where is the way where light dwelleth? Job 38:19 1. Raster Graphics Typical graphics terminals today are raster displays. A raster display renders a picture scan line

### Some Resources. What won t I learn? What will I learn? Topics

CSC 706 Computer Graphics Course basics: Instructor Dr. Natacha Gueorguieva MW, 8:20 pm-10:00 pm Materials will be available at www.cs.csi.cuny.edu/~natacha 1 midterm, 2 projects, 1 presentation, homeworks,

### Computer graphics 2 Marks 1. Define Computer graphics.

Computer graphics 2 Marks 1. Define Computer graphics. Computer graphics remains one of the most existing and rapidly growing computer fields. Computer graphics may be defined as a pictorial representation

### Understanding Geospatial Data Models

Understanding Geospatial Data Models 1 A geospatial data model is a formal means of representing spatially referenced information. It is a simplified view of physical entities and a conceptualization of

### Unit 21 - Creating a Navigation Bar in Macromedia Fireworks

Unit 21 - Creating a Navigation Bar in Macromedia Fireworks Items needed to complete the Navigation Bar: Unit 21 - House Style Unit 21 - Graphics Sketch Diagrams Document ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### MS WORD INSERTING PICTURES AND SHAPES

MS WORD INSERTING PICTURES AND SHAPES MICROSOFT WORD INSERTING PICTURES AND SHAPES Contents WORKING WITH ILLUSTRATIONS... 1 USING THE CLIP ART TASK PANE... 2 INSERTING A PICTURE FROM FILE... 4 FORMATTING

### Designing effective scientific figures Introduction to Inkscape to finalise figures

Designing effective scientific figures Introduction to Inkscape to finalise figures Aiora Zabala, based on slides by Simon Andrews and Boo Virk Please, find and click on this icon on your computer: What

### ADOBE TRAINING CS6 PHOTOSHOP BASICS: EDITING PHOTOS & WORKING WITH TEXT - 1

ADOBE TRAINING CS6 PHOTOSHOP BASICS: EDITING PHOTOS & WORKING WITH TEXT Photoshop is the leading professional software for editing and adjusting photos, images and other graphic projects. It is a very

### 1 of 8 11/25/ :42 PM

1 of 8 11/25/2008 12:42 PM ART 484 - UV Mapping a Suitcase This page is designed as a supplement to lectures. It is not intended to be a stand alone tutorial. The task is to recreate this old suitcase.

### Keyframe Animation. Animation. Computer Animation. Computer Animation. Animation vs Modeling. Animation vs Modeling

CSCI 420 Computer Graphics Lecture 19 Keyframe Animation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation [Angel Ch. 9] Animation "There is no particular mystery in animation...it's really very simple, and like

### Chapter 9. 3D DVE and Titling. User s Guide 377

Chapter 9 3D DVE and Titling User s Guide 377 Chapter 9 3D DVE and Titling In This Chapter... This chapter describes how to create and edit 3D DVEs and titles. Combining the flexibility of 3D animation

### WORD XP/2002 USER GUIDE. Task- Formatting a Document in Word 2002

University of Arizona Information Commons Training Page 1 of 21 WORD XP/2002 USER GUIDE Task- Formatting a Document in Word 2002 OBJECTIVES: At the end of this course students will have a basic understanding

### How to work with text

How to work with text Adobe Flash Professional lets you add text to a Flash application in two formats: You can add Text Layout Framework (TLF) text. You can add Classic text. Using the Text Layout Framework

### Network licenses (5 seat minimum - price per seat and excl. VAT): Network extension (existing license required - price per seat and excl.

Pricing SketchUp Pro If you want to buy SketchUp Pro there are several options to choose from: Commercial Licenses A Standalone license costs per license only (excl. VAT): 655,- This price includes 1 year

TAKE A SECOND LOOK AT YOUR DOCUMENT. A CLOSER LOOK. Check your document s safe margin, bleeds and trim marks before uploading. Please note: Business cards have been used as an example throughout the PDF

### Introduction to Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2010

Introduction to Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS Open PowerPoint 2010... 1 About the Editing Screen... 1 Create a Title Slide... 6 Save Your Presentation... 6 Create a New Slide... 7

### Faculty Development Seminar Series Constructing Posters in PowerPoint 2003 Using a Template

2008-2009 Faculty Development Seminar Series Constructing Posters in PowerPoint 2003 Using a Template Office of Medical Education Research and Development Michigan State University College of Human Medicine

### Project report Augmented reality with ARToolKit

Project report Augmented reality with ARToolKit FMA175 Image Analysis, Project Mathematical Sciences, Lund Institute of Technology Supervisor: Petter Strandmark Fredrik Larsson (dt07fl2@student.lth.se)

### Create a Cool Vector Robot Character in Illustrator

Create a Cool Vector Robot Character in Illustrator In this tutorial, we will use various tools and techniques to create a simple vector robot character and learn the basic of Adobe Illustrated. With this

### How to use the ruler, grid, guides, and the Align panel

How to use the ruler, grid, guides, and the Align panel Much of your job as a page designer is to place text and graphics on the page in a pleasing, organized way. Although you can do much of this placing

### Professional Powerpoint Presentation II

Professional Powerpoint Presentation II Facilitator: Patrick Ng Fall 2012 Practical concerns in delivering presentation Creative Visual Possibility & Optimization for Presentation PPTII & IV: Quick Style,

### Design Visualization with Autodesk Alias, Part 2

Design Visualization with Autodesk Alias, Part 2 Wonjin John Autodesk Who am I? Wonjin John is an automotive and industrial designer. Born in Seoul, Korea, he moved to United States after finishing engineering

### 3 Polygonal Modeling. Getting Started with Maya 103

3 Polygonal Modeling In Maya, modeling refers to the process of creating virtual 3D surfaces for the characters and objects in the Maya scene. Surfaces play an important role in the overall Maya workflow

### GRAPHIC FILE FORMATS / SOFTWARE SELECTION / SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY

HIGHER COMPUTING COMPUTER SYSTEMS COMPUTER SOFTWARE GRAPHIC FILE FORMATS / SOFTWARE SELECTION / SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY SUCCESS CRITERIA I can describe the standard file formats for graphics files: Jpeg

### CS 200. Lecture 04. Geometric Graphics. (aka Vector Graphics) Geometric Graphics. CS 200 Fall 2014 Monday, September 29, 14

CS 200 Lecture 04 (aka Vector Graphics) 1 Miscellaneous Notes Abbreviations aka dpi HCGW NDWB ppi Also Known As Dots Per Inch How Computer Graphics Works (a book) The Non-Designer s Web Book pixels per