# Using Java Classes Fall 2018 Margaret Reid-Miller

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1 Using Java Classes Fall 2018 Margaret Reid-Miller

2 Today Strings I/O (using Scanner) Loops, Conditionals, Scope Math Class (random) Fall (Reid-Miller) 2

3 The Math Class The Math class contains mathematical constants and methods for common mathematical operations. Example: static double sqrt(double n) static indicates that we call this method using the name of the class. double indicates the data type of the answer the method returns. sqrt is in the Math class double answer = Math.sqrt(16.0); // returns 4.0 method header Fall (Reid-Miller) 3

4 The Math Class Math constants: The constants e and π are defined in the Math class. By convention, names of constants are in all upper case: Math.E and Math.PI Some Math methods: static double floor(double num) static double ceil(double num) static double sqrt(double num) static double pow(double num, double power) static int abs(int num) static double abs(double num) Method signature Example of method overloading, where abs is defined two ways. Fall (Reid-Miller) 5

5 Testing for Equality with doubles Which statement will Java print? double x = Math.sqrt(2.0); double y = x * x; if (y == 2.0) { System.out.println("sqrt(2) * sqrt(2) is 2"); } else { System.out.println("sqrt(2) * sqrt(2) + is not 2. It is " + y); } Never test for exact equality with floating point numbers! Fall (Reid-Miller) 8

6 Testing for Equality with doubles Because of round-off errors, you should test if the numbers are close. double tolerance = 1.0e-10; double x = Math.sqrt(2.0); double y = x * x; if (Math.abs(y - 2.0) < tolerance) { System.out.println("sqrt(2) * sqrt(2) is 2"); } else { System.out.println("sqrt(2) * sqrt(2) + is not 2. It is " + y); } Fall (Reid-Miller) 9

7 Java Data: Primitive vs Objects Primitive data: Data small fixed amount of memory. There are exactly eight primitive data types. byte, short, int, long, float, double, char, boolean Primitive data types names are in all lower case. A primitive is only data and has no other special abilities. You cannot define new primitive data types. Fall (Reid-Miller) 10

8 Java Data: Primitive vs Objects Objects (instance of a class): An object has both state and behaviors. An object s current state (data) is defined by the values for its attributes. These values are internally and may require a little or a lot of memory. An object s behaviors (methods) are the actions it can perform. The type (or category) of an object is its class. Java has many classes already defined, e.g., String, System, Scanner. (Recall: Class names start with a capital letter.) Fall (Reid-Miller) 11

9 Class as a type A class is like a blueprint from which an object is created. We can create many objects from the class. The differences among these objects are the attribute values (data) that define the objects state. For example, a class Student might be used to create a student object. All such objects would have attributes common to students (e.g., name, andrewid, courses enrolled ). But each object would have its own values for these attributes, depending on which student it represents. (Later we will see how define new classes.) Fall (Reid-Miller) 12

10 Object State What state (data) an object holds internally often is hidden from us, the user of the object. We cannot access the data directly. For example, a String object holds the string of characters in the object. But it might hold other hidden information relating to the string, e.g., the length of the string. Another example is the System.out object that holds information about how and to where to write text to the console. We do not need to access these data in order to use the object; we just need to call the print or println methods. Fall (Reid-Miller) 13

11 Object Behaviors To use an object, we need to know only the behaviors of an object. An object s behaviors are defined by a set of methods associated with the object. For example, methods may enable you to access or change an object s attribute values, or to ask the object to perform a task. These methods are known as the interface to the object. Fall (Reid-Miller) 14

12 String Objects An object of type String holds a sequence of (unicode) characters. When we declare a variable of type String, it does not create an object. All you get is a way to refer to the object: String founder; value is null To create an object we use the new operator: founder = new String("Carnegie"); initializes its state Strings have a shortcut way of creating them: String founder2 = "Mellon"; Fall (Reid-Miller) 15

13 Object vs Primitive Data A primitive variable holds an actual value: int count = 15100; count An object variable holds a reference (address) to the object (how to find the object). String founder = new String("Carnegie"); founder a35f3cd reference: computer generated address a35f3cd "Carnegie" length() substring() A String object object data object methods Fall (Reid-Miller) 16

14 Escape Sequences How do you include a " in a String literal? You cannot have a String literal break across lines. How do you include a line break? Solution: An escape sequence is a two-character sequence that represent a single special character. Sequence \t \n \ \ \\ Meaning tab character newline character double quote single quote backslash character Fall (Reid-Miller) 17

15 No static qualifier String Length int length() BEHAVIOR: Returns the number of characters in this string. Because String objects may have different lengths, you need to ask the object for its length. (It is nonstatic method.) Example: String founder = "Carnegie"; int numchar = founder.length(); object dot operator method Fall (Reid-Miller) 18

16 Getting a single character char charat(int index) BEHAVIOR: Returns the character at a specified index C a r n e g i e M e l l o n Example: String school = "Carnegie Mellon"; char firstchar = school.charat(0); WARNING: You cannot assign a char to an object of type String without first converting the char to a String object! e.g., String initial = "" + firstchar; Fall (Reid-Miller) 19

17 Substrings Another example of method overloading, where the number of parameters differs. String substring(int startindex, int endindex) String substring(int startindex) BEHAVIOR: Returns a new string consisting of the substring starting at startindex (inclusive) and ending at endindex (exclusive) or, if one parameter, at the last character C a r n e g i e M e l l o n Example: String school = "Carnegie Mellon"; String founder = school.substring(0, 8); String founder2 = school.substring(9); Fall (Reid-Miller) 20

18 Replacing Characters String replace(char oldchar, char newchar) BEHAVIOR: Returns a new String object resulting from replacing every occurrence of oldchar with newchar. The original String object is unchanged. (Strings are immutable!) Example: String founder = "Carnegie"; System.out.println( founder.replace('e', 'E')); System.out.println(founder); OUTPUT: CarnEgiE Carnegie Fall (Reid-Miller) 21

19 Changing Case String touppercase() BEHAVIOR: Returns a new String object with all letters converted to uppercase. String tolowercase() BEHAVIOR: Returns a new String object with all letters converted to lowercase. Example: String founder = "Carnegie"; String upper = founder.touppercase(); String lower = founder.tolowercase(); Immutable: You need to print or assign the result to a variable! Fall (Reid-Miller) 22

20 Testing For Equality For primitive values use == for equality testing. For objects, use the equals method for testing equal contents. The argument must be the same type as the object on which equals() is called. The method returns true or false depending on whether both objects are equal or not. For example, let day be an int variable and month be a String variable. if (day == 1 && month.equals( APRIL )) { System.out.println( It s April Fool s Day ); } Two String objects are equal if they have exactly the same characters, including case and number of characters. Fall (Reid-Miller) 24

21 Method order The dot(.) operator is evaluated from left to right. If a method returns an object, you can invoke one of the returned object s methods. Example: String school = Carnegie Mellon"; System.out.println( school.substring(9).tolowercase() ); "Mellon" "mellon" Fall (Reid-Miller) 25

22 Reading User Input The Scanner class has methods for reading user input values while the program is running. The Scanner class is in the java.util package. Related classes are grouped into packages. Most of the classes we use are in the java.lang package, which is always available. To use classes in other packages we must tell the compiler about these packages by using an import declaration before the classheader: import java.util.scanner; Fall (Reid-Miller) 26

23 Scanner Object First, we need to create a Scanner object using the new operator: Scanner console = new Scanner(System.in); console is a variable that refers to the Scanner object. Scanner() is the constructor that helps set up the object. System.in is an object that refers to the standard input stream which, by default, is the keyboard. Fall (Reid-Miller) 27

24 String nextline() Scanner Methods Reads and returns the next line of input. String next() Reads and returns the next token (e.g., one word, one number). double nextdouble() Reads and returns the next token as a double value. int nextint() Reads and returns the next token as an int value. These methods pause until the user has entered some data and pressed the return key. Fall (Reid-Miller) 28

25 import java.util.scanner; Scanner Example Scanner console = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print( "What is the make of your vehicle? "); String vehiclemake = console.nextline(); System.out.print( "How many miles did you drive? "); int miles = console.nextint(); System.out.print( "How many gallons of fuel did you use? "); double gallons = console.nextdouble(); Fall (Reid-Miller) 29

26 Scanner Caveats nextint, nextdouble, and next read one token at a time. Tokens are delimited by whitespace (space, tab, newline characters) Several values can be on the same input line or on separate lines. nextline reads the rest of the line and moves to the next line. It may return a string of no characters if it is called after calling one of the above methods. What happens if the user does not enter an integer when we use nextint? Fall (Reid-Miller) 30

27 Conditionals if (boolean_expression) statement if (boolean_expression) statement1 else statement2 A statement can be any Java statement: A simple statement A compound statement, such as an if statement A block statement, a group of statements enclosed in braces {} Fall (Reid-Miller) 31

28 The Dangling else Problem When an if statement is nested inside the then clause of another if statement, the else clause is paired with the closest if statement without an else clause. if (x > 0) else if (y > 0) color = red ; color = blue ; Misleading indentation Fall (Reid-Miller) 32

29 The Dangling else Problem In reality it is if (x > 0) if (y > 0) color = red ; else color = blue ; y x Fall (Reid-Miller) 33

30 The Dangling else Problem Use braces to pair else with the outer if if (x > 0) { if (y > 0) color = red ; } else { color = blue ; } y x Fall (Reid-Miller) 34

31 Multiple Alternatives Determine if a number is positive, negative, or zero: if (value < 0) { System.out.println( Value is negative. ); } else if (value == 0) { System.out.println( Value is zero. ); } else if (value > 0) { System.out.println( Value is positive. ); } At most one statement is executed. Each choice, however, is at same indentation. Fall (Reid-Miller) 35

32 Multiple Alternatives Determine if a number is positive, negative, or zero: if (value < 0) { System.out.println( Value is negative. ); } else if (value == 0) { System.out.println( Value is zero. ); } else { // value must be positive System.out.println( Value is positive. ); } It is clear, exactly one statement is executed. Fall (Reid-Miller) 36

33 Loops initialize while (test) { do_stuff update } for (initialize; test; update) { do_stuff } initialize do { do_stuff update } while (test); Note: do-statement executes loop at least once rarely used Fall (Reid-Miller) 38

34 Generating Random Numbers static double Math.random() returns a random double in the range [0.0,1.0). Random integer from 0 to 9? (int)(math.random() * 10); Random integer from 1 to 6? (int)(math.random() * 6) + 1; includes 0.0 excludes 1.0 () are critical! Fall (Reid-Miller) 40

35 Generating Random Integers Generate a random integer in {5, 15, 25,,75}: 1. How many different integers do we want to generate? Math.random(); [0.0, 1.0); Math.random() * 8.0; [0.0, 8.0); (int)(math.random() * 8.0) {0,1, 2,, 7} 2. What is the difference between pairs of numbers? (int)(math.random() * 8.0) * 10; {0,10, 20,, 70} 3. What is the first number? (int)(math.random() * 8.0) * ; {5, 15, 25,, 75} Fall (Reid-Miller) 43

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