Primitive Data Types: Intro


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1 Primitive Data Types: Intro Primitive data types represent single values and are built into a language Java primitive numeric data types: 1. Integral types (a) byte (b) int (c) short (d) long 2. Real types (a) float (b) double 3. Boolean type 4. Char type What distinguishes the various data types of a given group is the amount of memory allocated for storage The greater the amount of storage, the greater the range of values that can be represented 1
2 Represent whole numbers: 2, 103, 47 Stored as binary whole numbers Primitive Data Types: Integers represents = = 213 Binary only uses digits 0 and represents = = 213 Java allocates the following storage type bytes smallest largest byte short int long
3 Primitive Data Types: Floating Point Types Represent numbers with decimal points: 3.0, , 32.5, 0.11, 3.,.6 Stored in scientific notation represented as = represented as = Java allocates the following storage type bytes smallest largest float double
4 Primitive Data Types: Variable Declarations A declaration is a statement which associates a memory location with a variable Primitive declaration syntax: type var name; type var name = initial value; Generally, put one declaration per line Use memory diagrams to represent variables and their values Memory diagrams for primitive types look like variable name: value There is no value until the variable has been initialized 4
5 Assignment is most basic instruction Syntax: storage location= expression Primitive Data Types: Numeric Assignment Semantics: Value of expression stored in storage location Left side often referred to as the lvalue of the statement Right side often referred to as the rvalue of the statement Numeric expressions can take a number of forms: 1. Literal Literal is an actual value Integer syntax: one or more digits Float syntax: number with a decimal point with digits before, after, or both number(float or int) e ± integer Type suffix By default, floating point literals are interpreted as type double By default, integral literals are interpreted as type int To indicate a specific type, Java allows a suffix to be appended to a literal Suffix f F d D l L Meaning float double long Long 5
6 2. Variable Primitive Data Types: Numeric Assignment (2) The assignment copies the value of the variable on the right into the memory associated with the variable on the left 3. Named (symbolic) constant Value that cannot be changed during program execution Represented by an identifier, just like a variable MUST be initialized at declaration Syntax: final [modifiers] type id = constant expression; Convention: use all caps for identifier 4. Valuereturning method calls The value produced by such a method will be stored in the variable java.lang.math provides a number of useful class methods for performing standard math function 6
7 Primitive Data Types: Numeric Assignment (3) Method** Function int abs(int) absolute value of x long abs(long) float abs(float) double abs(double) double acos(double) arccosine of x double asin(double) arcsin of x double atan(double) arctangent of x double ceil(double) smallest whole number x double cos(double) cosine of x double exp(double) e x double floor(double) largest whole number x double log(double) log e (x) int max(int, int) larger of x and y long max(long, long) float max(float, float) int min(int, int) smaller of x and y long min(long, long) float min(float, float) double pow(double, double) x y double random() 0.0 value < 1.0 int round(float) X rounded to the nearest whole number long round(double) double sin(double) sine of x double sqrt(double) x double tan(double) tangent of x double todegrees(double) x converted to degrees double toradians(double) x converted to radians ** NOTE: arguments assumed to be x and y (in that order) * NOTE: trig functions are based on radians Constants: Math.E Math.PI 7
8 5. Simple arithmetic expressions Primitive Data Types: Numeric Assignment (4) These involve a calculation involving an arithmetic operator Unary operators (1 operand): (a) + (b)  Binary operators (2 operands): (a) + (b)  (c) * (multiplication) (d) / (division: integer and real) (e) % (remainder: integer only) 6. Compound expressions Involve more than one operator Evaluation determined by associativity and precedence Associativity Pertains to the direction a given operator evaluates Can be left or right Precedence Pertains to order in which different operators are evaluated 8
9 Primitive Data Types: Numeric Assignment (5) Associativity and precedence chart (Wu, p 241): Operator Type Precedence Operators Associativity Subexpression 16 () Postfix increment L and decrement Prefix increment R and decrement Unary 14! R +  Type cast 13 (type) R Multiplicative 12 * L / % Additive 11 + L  + (string catenation) Relational 9 > L < <= >= Equality 8 == L!= Boolean AND 4 && L Boolean OR 3 L Boolean NOT 3! L conditional 2?: R Assignment 1 = R += (etc) Operator types listed from highest to lowest precedence. L indicates lefttoright; R indicates righttoleft. 9
10 Primitive Data Types: Numeric Assignment (6) 7. Increment and decrement operators Operators: (a) ++ (b) There are actually 4 of them 2 are postfix: (a) operand++ (b) operand 2 are prefix: (a) ++operand (b) operand Postfix semantics: (a) return value of operand (b) operand = operand ±1 Prefix semantics: (a) operand = operand ±1 (b) return value of operand 8. Special assignment operators These are shortcuts: (a) += (b) = (c) *= (d) /= (e) %= They all work in the same way e.g., Each combines an arithmetic operation with assignment Semantics of variable op= value: variable = variable op value e.g., x = y; is equivalent to x = x y; 10
11 Primitive Data Types: MixedMode Expressions and Data Conversions Operator overloading Expression uses integer addition Expression uses floating point addition There are actually several versions of the + operator This is called operator overloading How does Java handle ? Mixedmode expressions involve 2 different data types In order to perform operation, the arguments must be made compatible so Java knows which version of + to use Such changes in type are called type conversions Java provides 2 approaches: implicit and explicit Implicit (coercion, promotion) Java performs the conversion automatically Argument of lesser precision is converted to the type of the argument with greater precision Unary operator algorithm: 1. If type byte or short, int 2. Else, do nothing Binary operator algorithm: 1. If either type is double, other double 2. Else if either type is float, other float 3. Else if either type is long, other long 4. Else, both int These called widening conversions, as no information is lost 11
12 Primitive Data Types: MixedMode Expressions and Data Conversions (2) Assignment conversion Refers to situation when lvalue and rvalue of assignment statement are of different types Algorithm: 1. If lvalue of equal or greater precision, convert rvalue to data type of lvalue 2. Else, generate typemismatch error Java will not implicitly perform a narrowing conversion Dangerous: will lose precision, fractions, or may cause runtime error Explicit (type casting) Programmer s code forces the conversion Achieved using a typecast operator Syntax: (type) expression e.g., x = (int)( ); Semantics: Evaluate expression and convert result to type May be either widening or narrowing conversion 12
13 Primitive Data Types: Assignment Cautions Assignment is an instruction, not an equality as in algebra x = x + 1 is valid assignment Operators are not assumed x = 5(y + 10) is not valid Be careful of Integer division int x, y; float z; x = 10; y = 4; z = x/y; Value of z is??? 13
14 Primitive Data Types: Boolean and Char Types 1. Boolean 2. Char Values: true and false Operators: Relational: >, <, <=, >=, ==,!= Logical: Boolean AND: && Boolean OR: Boolean NOT:! Values: Any character Delimited by single quotes Special characters: \b (backspace) \n (newline) \r (return) \t (tab) Characters that have special meaning (e.g., double quote, backslash) can be represented without their special meaning by preceding with a backslash (e.g. \ ) Characters can appear in arithmetic expressions Chars are represented as integers using ASCII (Unicode), a numerical code for representing characters When appearing in arithmetic expressions, the numeric representation is used e.g., In intx = A + 1; x gets the value 66 (ASCII value for A is 65) In charc = (char) A + 1; c gets the value B (because 66 is the ASCII value for B ) 14
15 Reference Types: Intro Reference types do not have a fixed amount of memory storage associated with them Therefore, the compiler cannot simply set aside memory for such a type like it can for primitive types Reference types are represented by a class Classes consist of two components: 1. Instance variables Represent properties of the class 2. Methods Represent actions of the class Method calls are the means by which a program communicates with objects of a class Method call syntax: object name.method name(parameter list) A variable represents a specific instance of the class: an object When a reference type is declared, memory is set aside for a reference to a potential object At this time, the variable has no value (null, often represented by φ)) A null pointer refers to the absence of a reference; i.e., a reference to nothing If you try to use a variable with a null pointer, you will get error messages The program must contain code to create a new object to assign to the variable Syntax: var name = new class name(parameters); class name(parameters) is a method call to a special method called a constuctor A constructor method sets aside memory for the newly created object (which includes memory for its instance variables) and returns a reference to it (pointer, memory address) A constructor has the same name as the class, and starts with a capital letter Once created, the reference to the object is stored in the variable 15
16 Reference Types: Intro (2) Note that two sets of memory are used with reference types: 1. Memory for the reference, associated with the variable 2. Memory for the object, which is referenced (pointed to) A class is a template/model/schematic for an object An object is an instance  a specific example  of a class Each object has its own set of instance variables with their own values A call of an object s methods affect only that object Builtin reference types: Strings and arrays 16
17 Reference Types: Strings A String object represents an arbitrary sequence of characters The text is delimited by double quotes (but is not part of the string) Unlike other reference types, String objects can be created by simple assignment: String name = John Doe ; They can also be created using the standard syntax (but rarely are): String name = new String( John Doe ); The empty string Represented by a pair of double quotes: Is a string with no characters The concatenation operator: + If either operand is a string, 1. Converts second operand into a string if it is not 2. Combines the operands into a single string John + Doe John Doe John + 32 John32 17
18 Basic String methods (see pp ): Reference Types: Strings (2) 18
19 Basic IO 1. Basic output Standard output (the display) is represented by class System.out (where out is an instance variable of class PrintStream) To output a value, use System.out.print(argument) method, which prints its argument on the current line System.out.println(argument), works same except adds an endofline character ( \n ) The text also discusses System.out.printf(), which is used to format output; we will ignore this Note that there is a print and println method for each data type Which gets called depends of the argument This is called overloading 2. Basic input Standard input (the keyborad) is represented by class System.in System.in is comparable to System.out, except for input To facilitate input, use a Scanner object Found in java.util To associate a Scanner object with System.in: (a) import java.util.*; //import the appropriate package (b) Scanner scanner; //declare a Scanner object (c) scanner = new Scanner(System.in); // create object and pass the stream to be linked (d) //Access input stream using Scanner methods next(), nextbyte(), nextshort(), nextint(), nextlong(), nextfloat(), or nextdouble(), e.g., int x = scanner.nextint(); double y = scanner.nextdouble(); If user enters an incompatible data type, an error (exception) occurs A program should supply a prompt  a message stating what kind of data is expected If user enters more data than is required, extra sits in buffer until more input is requested 19
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