# Chapter 4: Control Structures I (Selection) Objectives. Objectives (cont d.) Control Structures. Control Structures (cont d.

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1 Chapter 4: Control Structures I (Selection) In this chapter, you will: Objectives Learn about control structures Examine relational and logical operators Explore how to form and evaluate logical (Boolean) expressions Discover how to use the selection control structures if, if...else, and switch in a program Objectives (cont d.) Learn how to avoid bugs by avoiding partially understood concepts Learn to use the assert function to terminate a program 3 4 Control Structures Control Structures (cont d.) A computer can proceed: In sequence Selectively (branch): making a choice Repetitively (iteratively): looping By calling a function Two most common control structures: Selection Repetition 5 6 EEE 117 Computer Programming

2 Relational Operators Relational Operators (cont d.) Conditional statements: only executed if certain conditions are met Condition: represented by a logical (Boolean) expression that evaluates to a logical (Boolean) value of true or false Relational operators: Allow comparisons Require two operands (binary) Evaluate to true or false 7 8 Relational Operators and Simple Data Types Comparing Characters Relational operators can be used with all three simple data types: 8 < 15 evaluates to true 6!= 6 evaluates to false 2.5 > 5.8 evaluates to false 5.9 <= 7.5 evaluates to true Expression of char values with relational operators Result depends on machine s collating sequence ASCII character set Logical (Boolean) expressions Expressions such as 4 < 6 and 'R' > 'T Returns an integer value of 1 if the logical expression evaluates to true Returns an integer value of 0 otherwise 9 10 Relational Operators and the string Type Relational Operators and the string Type (cont d.) Relational operators can be applied to strings Strings are compared character by character, starting with the first character Comparison continues until either a mismatch is found or all characters are found equal If two strings of different lengths are compared and the comparison is equal to the last character of the shorter string The shorter string is less than the larger string Suppose we have the following declarations: string str1 = "Hello"; string str2 = "Hi"; string str3 = "Air"; string str4 = "Bill"; string str5 = "Big"; EEE 117 Computer Programming

3 Relational Operators and the string Type (cont d.) Relational Operators and the string Type (cont d.) Relational Operators and the string Type (cont d.) Logical (Boolean) Operators and Logical Expressions Logical (Boolean) operators: enable you to combine logical expressions Logical (Boolean) Operators and Logical Expressions (cont d.) Logical (Boolean) Operators and Logical Expressions (cont d.) EEE 117 Computer Programming

4 Logical (Boolean) Operators and Logical Expressions (cont d.) Order of Precedence Relational and logical operators are evaluated from left to right The associativity is left to right Parentheses can override precedence Order of Precedence (cont d.) Order of Precedence (cont d.) Order of Precedence (cont d.) Order of Precedence (cont d.) EEE 117 Computer Programming

5 The int Data Type and Logical (Boolean) Expressions The bool Data Type and Logical (Boolean) Expressions Earlier versions of C++ did not provide built-in data types that had Boolean values Logical expressions evaluate to either 1 or 0 Logical expression value was stored in a variable of the data type int Can use the int data type to manipulate logical (Boolean) expressions The data type bool has logical (Boolean) values true and false bool, true, and false are reserved words The identifier true has the value 1 The identifier false has the value Selection: if and if...else One-Way Selection if and if...else statements can be used to create: One-way selection syntax: One-way selection Two-way selection Multiple selections Statement is executed if the value of the expression is true Statement is bypassed if the value is false; program goes to the next statement Expression is called a decision maker One-Way Selection (cont d.) Two-Way Selection Two-way selection syntax: If expression is true, statement1 is executed; otherwise, statement2 is executed statement1 and statement2 are any C++ statements EEE 117 Computer Programming

6 Two-Way Selection (cont d.) Compound (Block of) Statements Compound statement (block of statements): A compound statement functions like a single statement Compound (Block of) Statements (cont d.) if (age > 18) { cout << "Eligible to vote." << endl; cout << "No longer a minor." << endl; } else { cout << "Not eligible to vote." << endl; cout << "Still a minor." << endl; } Multiple Selections: Nested if Nesting: one control statement is located within another An else is associated with the most recent if that has not been paired with an else Multiple Selections: Nested if (cont d.) Comparing if else Statements with a Series of if Statements EEE 117 Computer Programming

7 Comparing if else Statements with if Statements (cont d.) Short-Circuit Evaluation Short-circuit evaluation: evaluation of a logical expression stops as soon as the value of the expression is known Example: (age >= 21) ( x == 5) //Line 1 (grade == 'A') && (x >= 7) //Line Comparing Floating-Point Numbers for Equality: A Precaution Comparison of floating-point numbers for equality may not behave as you would expect Example: 1.0 == 3.0/ / /7.0 evaluates to false Why? 3.0/ / /7.0 = Solution: use a tolerance value Example: if fabs(x y) < Associativity of Relational Operators: A Precaution Associativity of Relational Operators: A Precaution (cont d.) num = 5 num = 20 Avoiding Bugs by Avoiding Partially Understood Concepts and Techniques Must use concepts and techniques correctly Otherwise solution will be either incorrect or deficient If you do not understand a concept or technique completely Don t use it Save yourself an enormous amount of debugging time EEE 117 Computer Programming

8 Input Failure and the if Statement If input stream enters a fail state All subsequent input statements associated with that stream are ignored Program continues to execute May produce erroneous results Can use if statements to check status of input stream If stream enters the fail state, include instructions that stop program execution Confusion Between the Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators C++ allows you to use any expression that can be evaluated to either true or false as an expression in the if statement: if (x = 5) cout << "The value is five." << endl; The appearance of = in place of == resembles a silent killer It is not a syntax error It is a logical error Conditional Operator (?:) Program Style and Form (Revisited): Indentation Conditional operator (?:) A properly indented program: Ternary operator: takes 3 arguments Syntax for the conditional operator: expression1? expression2 : expression3 If expression1 is true, the result of the conditional expression is expression2 Otherwise, the result is expression3 Example: max = (a >= b)? a : b; Helps you spot and fix errors quickly Shows the natural grouping of statements Insert a blank line between statements that are naturally separate Two commonly used styles for placing braces On a line by themselves Or left brace is placed after the expression, and the right brace is on a line by itself Using Pseudocode to Develop, Test, and Debug a Program switch Structures Pseudocode, or just pseudo Informal mixture of C++ and ordinary language Helps you quickly develop the correct structure of the program and avoid making common errors Use a wide range of values in a walk-through to evaluate the program switch structure: alternate to if-else switch (integral) expression is evaluated first Value of the expression determines which corresponding action is taken Expression is sometimes called the selector EEE 117 Computer Programming

9 switch Structures (cont d.) switch Structures (cont d.) One or more statements may follow a case label Braces are not needed to turn multiple statements into a single compound statement When a case value is matched, all statements after it execute until a break is encountered The break statement may or may not appear after each statement switch, case, break, and default are reserved words switch Structures (cont d.) Avoiding Bugs: Revisited To output results correctly Consider whether the switch structure must include a break statement after each cout statement Terminating a Program with the assert Function Certain types of errors are very difficult to catch The assert Function (cont d.) Syntax: Example: division by zero assert function: useful in stopping program execution when certain elusive errors occur expression is any logical expression If expression evaluates to true, the next statement executes If expression evaluates to false, the program terminates and indicates where in the program the error occurred To use assert, include cassert header file EEE 117 Computer Programming

10 The assert Function (cont d.) assert is useful for enforcing programming constraints during program development After developing and testing a program, remove or disable assert statements The preprocessor directive #define NDEBUG must be placed before the directive #include <cassert> to disable the assert statement assert example assert (denominator); quotient = numerator / denominator; If denominator is 0(zero), the assert statement halts the execution of the program with an error message : Assertion failed : denominator, file c:\temp\assert function\assertfunction.cpp, line Summary Summary (cont d.) Control structures alter normal control flow Most common control structures are selection and repetition Relational operators: ==, <, <=, >, >=,!= Logical expressions evaluate to 1 (true) or 0 (false) Logical operators:! (not), && (and), (or) Two selection structures: one-way selection and twoway selection The expression in an if or if...else structure is usually a logical expression No stand-alone else statement in C++ Every else has a related if A sequence of statements enclosed between braces, { and }, is called a compound statement or block of statements Summary (cont d.) Using assignment in place of the equality operator creates a semantic error switch structure handles multiway selection break statement ends switch statement Use assert to terminate a program if certain conditions are not met. 59 EEE 117 Computer Programming

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