# Expression and Operator

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1 Expression and Operator

2 Examples: Two types: Expressions and Operators 3 + 5; x; x=0; x=x+1; printf("%d",x); Function calls The expressions formed by data and operators An expression in C usually has a value except for the function call that returns void.

3 Arithmetic Operators Operator Symbol Action Example Addition + Adds operands x + y Subtraction - Subs second from first x - y Negation - Negates operand -x Multiplication * Multiplies operands x * y Division / Divides first by second x / y (integer quotient) Modulus % Remainder of divide op x % y

4 Assignment Operator x=3 = is an operator The value of this expression is 3 = operator has a side effect -- assign 3 to x The assignment operator = The side-effect is to assign the value of the right hand side (rhs) to the left hand side (lhs). The value is the value of the rhs. For example: x = ( y = 3 ) +1; /* y is assigned 3 */ /* the value of (y=3) is 3 */ /* x is assigned 4 */

5 Compound Assignment Operator Often we use update forms of operators x=x+1, x=x*2,... C offers a short form for this: Generic Form variable op= expr equivalent to variable = variable op expr Operator x *= y Equivalent to: x = x * y y -= z + 1 y = y - (z + 1) a /= b a = a / b x += y / 8 x = x + (y / 8) y %= 3 y = y % 3 Update forms have value equal to the final value of expr i.e., x=3; y= (x+=3); /* x and y both get value 6 */

6 Increment and Decrement Other operators with side effects are the pre- and postincrement and decrement operators. Increment: ++ ++x, x++ ++x is the same as : (x = x + 1) x++ Has value x old +1 Has side-effect of incrementing x Has value x old Has side-effect of incrementing x Decrement -- --x, x-- similar to ++

7 Relational Operators Relational operators allow you to compare variables. They return a 1 value for true and a 0 for false. Operator Symbol Example Equals == x == y NOT x = y Greater than > x > y Less than < x < y Greater/equals >= x >= y Less than/equals <= x <= y Not equal!= x!= y There is no bool type in C. Instead, C uses: 0 as false Non-zero integer as true

8 && AND OR! NOT Logical Operators!((a>1)&&(a<10)) ((a<-1)&&(a>-10))

9 Operating on Bits (1) C allows you to operate on the bit representations of integer variables. Generally called bit-wise operators. All integers can be thought of in binary form. For example, suppose ints have 16-bits = = FFF0 16 = In C, hexadecimal literals begin with 0x, and octal literals begin with 0. x=65520; base 10 x=0xfff0; x= ; base 16 (hex) base 8 (octal)

10 Bitwise operators The shift operator: x << n Operating on Bits (2) Shifts the bits in x n positions to the left, shifting in zeros on the right. If x = x >> n x << 1 equals Shifts the bits in x n positions right. shifts in the sign if it is a signed integer (arithmetic shift) shifts in 0 if it is an unsigned integer x >> 1 is (unsigned) x >> 1 is (signed)

11 Bitwise logical operations Work on all integer types & ^ ~ Operating on Bits (3) Bitwise AND x= 0xFFF0 y= 0x002F x&y= 0x0020 Bitwise Inclusive OR x y= 0xFFFF Bitwise Exclusive OR x^y= 0xFFDF The complement operator ~ y= 0xFFD0 Complements all of the bits of X

12 Shift, Multiplication and Division Multiplication and division is often slower than shift. Multiplying 2 can be replaced by shifting 1 bit to the left. n = 10 printf( %d = %d, n*2, n<<1); printf( %d = %d, n*4, n<<2); Division by 2 can be replace by shifting 1 bit to the right. n = 10 printf( %d = %d, n/2, n>>1); printf( %d = %d, n/4, n>>2);

13 Operator Operator Precedence ( ) 1 ~, ++, --, unary - 2 *, /, % 3 +, - 4 <<, >> 5 <, <=, >, >= 6 ==,!= 7 & 8 ^ 9 10 && =, +=, -=, etc. 14 Precedence level We ll be adding more to this list later on...

14 An Example What is the difference between the two lines of output? #include <stdio.h> int main () { int w=10,x=20,y=30,z=40; int temp1, temp2; temp1 = x * x /++y + z / y; printf ("temp1= %d;\nw= %d;\nx= %d;\ny= %d;\nz= %d\n", temp1, w,x,y,z); y=30; temp2 = x * x /y++ + z / y; printf ("temp2= %d;\nw= %d;\nx= %d;\ny= %d;\nz= %d\n", temp2, w,x,y,z); return 0; }

15 Conditional Operator The conditional operator essentially allows you to embed an if statement into an expression Generic Form exp1? exp2 : exp3 Example: z = (x > y)? x : y; This is equivalent to: if (x > y) else z = x; z = y; if exp1 is true (non-zero) value is exp2 if exp1 is false (0), (exp3 is not evaluated) value is exp3 (exp2 is not evaluated)

16 Comma Operator An expression can be composed of multiple subexpressions separated by commas. Subexpressions are evaluated left to right. The entire expression evaluates to the value of the rightmost subexpression. Example: x = (a++, b++); a is incremented b is assigned to x b is incremented Parenthesis are required because the comma operator has a lower precedence than the assignment operator! The comma operator is often used in for loops.

17 Comma Operator and For Loop Example: int i, sum; for (i=0,sum=0;i<100;i++){ sum += i; } printf( = %d, sum);

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