# Arithmetic Operators. Portability: Printing Numbers

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1 Arithmetic Operators Normal binary arithmetic operators: + - * / Modulus or remainder operator: % x%y is the remainder when x is divided by y well defined only when x > 0 and y > 0 Unary operators: - + Precedence (see H&S, section 7.2.1) highest unary - + * / % lowest + - so -2*a + b is parsed as (((-2)*a) + b) Associativity: left to right a + b + c is parsed as ((a + b) + c) Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 49 Portability: Printing Numbers Print a number in decimal void putd(int n) { if (n < 0) { n = -n; if (n >= 10) putd(n/10); putchar(n%10 + '0'); Can this program print INT_MIN == ? Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 50

2 Portability: Printing Numbers, Cont d Convert to negative numbers static void putneg(int n) { if (n <= -10) putneg(n/10); putchar(" "[-(n%10)]); void putd(int n) { if (n < 0) { putneg(n); else putneg(-n); n/10 and n%10 are implementation dependent when n < 0 Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 51 Portability, cont d Remainder is a mess: int a, b, q, r; q = a/b; r = a%b; ANSI Standard guarantees only q*b + r == a r < b r >= 0 when a >= 0 && b > 0 r might be negative if a is 5/(-3) = if 5/(-3) == -2, 5%(-3) = 5 - (-2)(-3) = -1 if 5/(-3) == -1, 5%(-3) = 5 - (-1)(-3) = 2 Check for sign of n%10, handle both cases static void putneg(int n) { int q = n/10, r = n%10; if (r > 0) { r -= 10; q++; if (n <= -10) putneg(q); putchar(" "[-r]); if (-7)/10 == -1, (-7)%10 = -7 - (-1)(10) = 3 if (-7)/10 == 0, (-7)%10 = -7 - (0)(10) = -7 Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 52

3 An Easier Way Use unsigned arithmetic #include <limits.h> #include <stdio.h> static void putu(unsigned n) { if (n > 10) putu(n/10); putchar(" "[n%10]); void putd(int n) { if (n == INT_MIN) { putu((unsigned)int_max + 1); else if (n < 0) { putu(-n); else putu(n); Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 53 Increment/Decrement Prefix operator increments operand before returning the value n = 5; x = ++n; x is 6, n is 6 Postfix operator increments operand after returning the value n = 5; x = n++; x is 5, n is 6 Operands of ++ and -- must be variables are illegal Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 54

4 Relational & Logical Operators Logical values are ints: 0 is false,!0 is true Normal relational operators: > >= < <= Equality operators: ==!= Unary logical negation:! Logical connectives: && Evaluation rules: left-to-right ; as far as to determine outcome && stops when the outcome is known to be 0 stops when the outcome is known to be!0 if (i >= 0 && i < 10 && a[i] == max) ++a[i]; Associativity: left to right; precedence: highest! arithmetic operators < <= >= > ==!= && lowest Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 55 Bit Manipulation Bitwise logical operators apply to all the bits of an integer value: & bitwise AND 1&1=1 0&1=0 bitwise inclusive OR 1 0=1 0 0=0 ^ bitwise exclusive OR 1^1=0 1^0=1 unary ~ bitwise complement ~1=0 ~0=1 The operator can be used to turn on one or more bits #define BIT0 0x1 #define BIT1 0x2 #define BITS (BIT0 BIT1) flags = flags BIT0; the & operator can be used to mask off one or more bits test = flags & BITS; examples using 16-bit quantities BIT0 = BIT1 = BITS = flags = flags BITS = flags & BITS = Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 56

5 Shifting Shift operators: << >> x<<y shifts x left y bit positions x>>y shifts x right y bit positions When shifting right: if x is signed, shift may be arithmetic or logical if x is unsigned, shift is logical arithmetic shift fills with sign bit logical shift fills with 0 When shifting left, the vacated bits are always filled with 0 Examples using 16-bit quantities bits = bits << 2 = bits >> 2 = (arithmetic, with sign extension) bits >> 2 = (logical) Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 57 Assignment Assignment is an operator, not a statement c = getchar(); if (c == EOF)... can be written as if ((c = getchar()) == EOF)... Watch out for typos like if (c = EOF)... probably meant ==; power tools can maim... Augmented assignment combines + - * / % >> << & ^ with = i = i + 2 is the same as i += 2 flags = flags BIT0 flags = BIT0; e 1 op= e 2 is the same as e 1 = e 1 op e 2 except that e 1 is evaluated once Watch out for precedence x *= y + 1 means x *= (y + 1) not (x *= y) + 1 (which is also legal) Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 58

6 Conversions Implicit conversions occur in expressions and across assignments In expressions with mixed types, Promote to the higher type int + float float + float short + long long + long Watch out for sign extension! e.g. char int char c = '\377'; int i = c; is i equal to 0377 or -1? when in doubt, mask: i = c&0377 Assigning a big int to a small int, causes the extra bits to be discarded Assigning a float or double to an int truncates int n = 2.5 assigns 2 to n Explicit conversions are specified with casts: (type)expr sqrt((double)n) (int)1.5 study H&S, section 6.2 carefully Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 59 Evaluation Order Except for && and, the evaluation order of expressions is undefined; Avoid expressions whose outcome might depend on evaluation order x = f() + g(); a[i] = i++; f(++n, g(n)); Operators use lint! Associativity () [] ->. left to right! ~ * & (type) sizeof right to left * / % left to right + - left to right << >> left to right < <= > >= left to right ==!= left to right & ^ left to right left to right left to right && left to right left to right?: right to left = += -= /= %= &= ^= = <<= >>= right to left, left to right Copyright 1997 Computer Science 217: Expressions Page 60

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