# Operators & Expressions

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1 Operators & Expressions

2 Operator An operator is a symbol used to indicate a specific operation on variables in a program. Example : symbol + is an add operator that adds two data items called operands.

3 Expression An expression is a combination of operands ( constants, variables, numbers) connected by operators and parenthesis. Example : A + B operand operator

4 Types of expression Arithmetic expression : An expression that involves arithmetic operators. The computed result of this expression is a numeric value. Logical or Boolean expression : An expression that involves relational and/ or logical operators. The result of this expression is a logical value i.e either 1 (TRUE) or 0 (FALSE)

5 Operators C language is very rich in operators. Four main classes of operators :»Arithmetic»Relational»Logical»Bit wise

6 Assignment operator It is used to assign variable a value: variable_name = expression; lvalue : In compiler lvalue error messages means that an object on left hand side of assignment operator is missing. rvalue : In compiler rvalue error messages means that expression on right hand side of assignment operator is erroneous.

7 Two cases of assignment Multiple assignment: int j=k=m=0; Compound assignment: j= j+10; this expression can be written as j + = 10; similarly m= m-100; is equivalent to m - = 100;

8 Arithmetic operators Following operators are used for arithmetic operations on all built in data types : + (unary plus) - (unary minus) + (addition) - (subtraction) * (multiplication) / (division or quotient) % (modulus or remainder) -- (decrement) ++ (increment)

9 Binary arithmetic operators A binary operator requires two operands to work with. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and modulus or remainder operator falls in this category. The evaluation of binary operator is LEFT associative that is in an expression operators of same precedence are evaluated from left to right.

10 Order of evaluation For a complex expression it becomes difficult to make out as to in what order the evaluation of sub expression would take place. In such case we check out the precedence and associativity of operators in the expression.

11 Precedence Defines the order in which an expression is evaluated operators precedence *, /, % High and are on same level +, - Lower and are on same level

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14 Example int x; x= * 5; output: x = 22 int x; x= ( 7 + 3) * 5; output: x = 50 int x; x= 7 / 3 * 5; output: x = 10

15 Modulus operator ( % ) This operator has same priority as that of multiplication and division a % b = output remainder after performing a / b Example: 7 % 10 = 7 7%1 = 0 7 % 2 = 1 7 % 7 = 0

16 Exercise int y; y = 10 % 4 * 3; Output: 6 int y; y = 3 * 10 % 4; Output:: 2

17 Important Modulus operator ( % ) : It produces remainder of an integer division. This operator can not be used with floating point numbers. int main( ){ float f_1=3.2, f_2=1.1, f_3 ; f_3 = f_1 % f_2; printf( %f, f_3); return 0; } Output: error at line 3 illegal use of floating point

18 Invalid arithmetic expressions a * + b : Invalid as two operators can not be used in continuation. a( b * c ) : Invalid as there is no operator between a and b.

19 Unary arithmetic operators A unary operator requires only one operand or data item. Unary arithmetic operators are:» Unary minus ( - )» Increment ( + +)» decrement ( - - ) Unary operators are RIGHT associative that is they are evaluated from right to left when operators of same precedence are encountered in an expression.

20 Unary minus ( - ) It is written before a numeric value, variable or expression Its effect is NEGATION of the operand to which it is applied. Example: x -( a * b) 8 * ( - ( a+b))

21 Increment operator ( ++ ) The increment ( ++ ) operator adds 1 to its operand. n = n +1 ; => ++ n ; Postfix Increment ( n ++) : It increments the value of n after its value is used. Prefix Increment ( ++ n) : It increments the value of n before it is used.

22 1. x = n++ ; 2. x = ++n ; Where n = 5; Example 1 case 1: It sets the value of x to 5 and then increments n to 6. x = 5 and n= 6 case 2: It increments the value of n and then sets the value of x to 6. x = 6 and n =6

23 Example sum=x++; sum = ++x; Sum = x; x=x+1; x=x+1; Sum=x;

24 Example 2 int i =10, net; net = ++i * 5; printf( \n i = %d, i); printf( \n net = %d,net); int i =10, net; net = i++ * 5; printf( \n i = %d, i); printf( \n net = %d,net); Output: i = 11 net = 55 Output: i = 11 net = 50

25 Decrement operator The decrement ( - - ) operator subtracts 1 from its operand. j = j - 1 ; => -- j; Postfix decrement ( y - -) : In this case value of operand is fetched before subtracting 1 from it. Prefix decrement ( - - y) : In this case value of operand is fetched after subtracting 1 from it.

26 Example sum=x--; sum = --x; sum = x; x=x-1; x=x-1; sum=x;

27 Precedence of Arithmetic operators Highest : (unary minus) * / % Lowest + - Operators on same level of precedence are evaluated by the complier from left to right.

28 Exercise int x= 34.9; printf ( \n\t ++x=%d and x++ = %d,++ x, x++); ++x = 36 and x++ = 34

29 Relational & Logical operators A relational operator is used to compare two values and the result of such operation is always logical either TRUE ( 1 ) or FALSE ( 0 ). < less than x < y > greater than x > y <= less than or equal to x <= y >= greater than or equal to x >= y == is equal to x = = y!= is not equal to x!= y

30 Exercise Suppose that i, j, and k are integer variables whose values are 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Expression i < j (i + j) > = k (j + k) > (i + 5) k!=3 j = = 2 Value Interpretation 1 true 1 true 0 false 0 false 1 true

31 Logical operator A logical operator is used to connect two relational expressions or logical expressions. The result of logical expressions is always an integer value either TRUE ( 1 ) or FALSE( 0 ).(67 > 5) returns 1 (67 = = 5) returns 0 && Logical AND x && y Logical OR x y! Logical NOT!x

32 Logic AND The output of AND operation is TRUE if BOTH the operands are true. Example: ( 8 < 7 ) && ( 6 > 7) 0 && 0 False ( 0 )

33 Example 2 (8 > 7) && (6 < 7) 1 && 1 True ( 1 )

34 Logical OR The result of a logical or operation will be true if either operand is true or if both operands are true. (8 < 7) (6 > 7) is false (8 > 7) (6 > 7) is true (8 > 7) (6 < 7) is true

35 Logical NOT The Logical NOT (! ) is a unary operator. It negates the value of the logical expression or operand. If value of X = 0! X =?! X = 1! ( 5 < 6 ) ( 7 > 7 ) =???! ( 1) ( 0) =! 1 = 0 -> false! ( 5 > 3) =?? -> 0 -> false!(34 >= 765) =?? -> 1 -> True.

36 Exercise x = 10 and y = 25 ( x > = 10 ) && ( x < 20 ) ( x >= 10) && ( y < = 15) ( x = = 10 ) && ( y > 20 ) ( x==10) ( y < 20) ( x ==10) &&(! ( y < 20) ) True False True True True

37 Precedence & Associativity!(logical NOT) sizeof( ) Right to left * (multiplication) / ( division) %( modulus) Left to right + - (binary ) Left to right < <= > >= Left to right ==(equal to)!=( Not equal to ) Left to right &&(AND) Left to right (OR) Left to right? : (conditional ) Right to left = += - = * = /= %= Right to left, Left to right highest P R E C E D E N C E lowest

38 Exercise Suppose that j = 7, an integer variable f = 5.5, a float variable c = w Interpret the value of the following expressions: ( j >= 6) && (c = = w ) ( j >= 6) ( c = = w ) (f < 11) && ( j > 100) (c! = p ) ((j + f) <= 10) f > 5!(f > 5) j < = 3!( j <= 3) j > (f +1)!( j > (f +1))

39 Suppose that j = 7, an integer variable f = 5.5, a float variable c = w Interpret the value of the following expressions: j + f <= 10 j >= 6 && c = = w f < 11 && j > 100!0 && 0 0!(0 && 0)

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