# Dr M Kasim A Jalil. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UTM (source: Deitel Associates & Pearson)

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1 Lecture 9 Functions Dr M Kasim A Jalil Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UTM (source: Deitel Associates & Pearson)

2 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn: To understand how to construct programs modularly from small pieces called functions.. To introduce the common math functions available in the C standard library. To be able to create new functions. To understand dthe mechanisms used to pass information i between functions. To introduce simulation techniques using random number generation. To understand how to write and use functions that call themselves.

3 Introduction Divide and conquer Construct a program from smaller pieces or components These smaller pieces are called modules Each piece more manageable than the original program

4 Program Modules in C Functions Modules in C Programs combine user-defined functions with library functions C standard library has a wide variety of functions C standard library has a wide variety of functions Function calls Invoking functions Provide function name and arguments (data) Function performs operations or manipulations Function returns results Function call analogy: Boss asks worker to complete task Worker gets information, does task, returns result Information hiding: boss does not know details

5 Program Modules in C Hierarchical boss function/worker function relationship. main worker1 worker2 worker3 worker4 worker5

6 Math Library Functions Math library functions perform common mathematical calculations #include <math.h> Format for calling functions FunctionName( argument ); If multiple arguments, use comma-separated list printf( "%.2f", sqrt( ) ); Calls function sqrt, which returns the square root of its argument All math functions return data type double Arguments may be constants, variables, or expressions

7 Math Library Functions Function Description Example sqrt( x ) square root of x sqrt( ) is 30.0 sqrt( 9.0 ) is 3.0 exp( x ) exponential function e x exp( 1.0 ) is exp( 2.0 ) is log( x ) natural logarithm of x (base e) log( ) is 1.0 log( ) is 2.0 log10( x ) logarithm of x (base 10) log10( 1.0 ) is 0.0 log10( 10.0 ) is 1.0 log10( ) is 2.0 fabs( x ) absolute value of x fabs( 5.0 ) is 5.0 fabs( 0.0 ) is 0.0 fabs( -5.0 ) is 5.0 ceil( x ) rounds x to the smallest integer not less than x ceil( 9.2 ) is 10.0 ceil( -9.8 ) is -9.0 floor( x ) rounds x to the largest floor( 9.2 ) is 9.0 floor( -9.8 ) is integer not greater than x pow( x, y ) x raised to power y (x y ) pow( 2, 7 ) is pow( 9,.5 ) is 3.0 fmod( x, y ) remainder of x/y as a floating point number sin( x ) trigonometric sine of x (x in radians) cos( x ) trigonometric cosine of x (x in radians) fmod( , ) is sin( 0.0 ) is 0.0 cos( 0.0 ) is 1.0 tan( x ) trigonometric tangent of x tan( 0.0 ) is 0.0 (x in radians) Commonly used math library functions.

8 Functions Functions Modularize a program All variables defined inside functions are local variables Known only in function defined Parameters Communicate information between functions Local variables Benefits of functions Divide and conquer Manageable program development Software reusability Use existing functions as building blocks for new programs Abstraction - hide internal details (library functions) Avoid code repetition

9 Function Definitions Function definition format return-value-type function-name( parameter-list ) { declarations and statements } Function-name: any valid identifier Return-value-type: data type of the result (default int) void indicates that the function returns nothing Parameter-list: comma separated list, declares parameters A type must be listed explicitly for each parameter unless, the parameter is of type int

10 Function Definitions Function definition format (continued) return-value-type type function-name( name( parameter-list ) { declarations and statements } Definitions and statements: function body (block) Variables can be defined inside blocks (can be nested) Functions can not be defined inside other functions Returning control If nothing returned return; or, until reaches right brace If something returned return expression;

11 1 /* Creating and using a programmer-defined function */ 2 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 5 int square( int y ); /* function prototype */ 6 7 /* function main begins program execution */ 8 main() 9 { 10 int x; /* counter */ /* loop 10 times and calculate and output square of x each time */ 13 for ( x = 1; x <= 10; x++ ) { fig05_03.c (Part 1 of 2) 14 printf( "%d ", square( x ) ); /* function call */ 15 } /* end for */ printf( "\n" ); system( pause ); } /* end main */ 22

12 23 /* square function definition returns square of an integer */ 24 int square( int y ) /* y is a copy of argument to function */ 25 { 26 return y * y; /* returns square of y as an int */ } /* end function square */

13 1 /* Finding the maximum of three integers */ 2 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 5 int maximum( int x, int y, int z ); /* function prototype */ 6 7 /* function main begins program execution */ 8 main() 9 { 10 int number1; /* first integer */ 11 int number2; /* second integer */ 12 int number3; /* third integer */ 13 fig05_04.c (Part 1 of 2) 14 printf( "Enter three integers: " ); 15 scanf( "%d%d%d", &number1, &number2, &number3 ); /* number1, number2 and number3 are arguments 18 to the maximum function call */ 19 printf( "Maximum is: %d\n", maximum( number1, number2, number3 ) ); system( pause ); } /* end main */ 24

14 25 /* Function maximum definition */ 26 /* x, y and z are parameters */ 27 int maximum( int x, int y, int z ) 28 { 29 int max = x; /* assume x is largest */ if ( y > max ) { /* if y is larger than max, assign y to max */ 32 max = y; 33 } /* end if */ if ( z > max ) { /* if z is larger than max, assign z to max */ 36 max = z; Program Output 37 } /* end if */ return max; /* max is largest value */ } /* end function maximum */ Enter three integers: Maximum is: 85 Enter three integers: Maximum is: 85 Enter three integers: Maximum is: 85

15 Function Prototypes Function prototype Function name Parameters what the function takes in Return type data type function returns (default int) Used to validate functions Prototype only needed if function definition comes after use in program The function with the prototype int maximum( int x, int y, int z ); Takes in 3 ints Returns an int Promotion rules and conversions Converting to lower types can lead to errors

16 Function Prototypes Data types printf conversion scanf conversion specifications specifications long double %Lf %Lf double %f %lf float %f %f unsigned long int %lu %lu long int %ld %ld unsigned int %u %u int %d %d short %hd %hd char %c %c Promotion hierarchy for data types.

17 Header Files Header files Contain function prototypes for library functions <stdlib.h>, <math.h>, etc Load with #include <filename> #include <math.h> Custom header files Create file with functions Save as filename.h Load in other files with #include "filename.h" Reuse functions

18 Header Files Standard library header <assert.h> <ctype.h> <errno.h> <float.h> <limits.h> i <locale.h> <math.h> Explanation Contains macros and information for adding diagnostics that aid program debugging. Contains function prototypes for functions that test characters for certain properties, and function prototypes for functions that can be used to convert lowercase letters to uppercase letters and vice versa. Defines macros that are useful for reporting error conditions. Contains the floating point size limits of the system. Contains the integral size limits of the system. Contains function prototypes and other information that enables a program to be modified for the current locale on which it is running. The notion of locale enables the computer system to handle different conventions for expressing data like dates, times, dollar amounts and large numbers throughout the world. Contains function prototypes for math library functions. <setjmp.h> Contains function prototypes for functions that allow bypassing of the usual function call and return sequence. <signal.h> Contains function prototypes and macros to handle various conditions that may arise during program execution. <stdarg.h> Defines macros for dealing with a list of arguments to a function whose number and types are unknown. <stddef.h> <stdio.h> <stdlib.h> Contains common definitions of types used by C for performing certain calculations. Contains function prototypes for the standard input/output library functions, and information used by them. Contains function prototypes for conversions of numbers to text and text to numbers, memory allocation, random numbers, and other utility functions. <string.h> <time.h> Contains function prototypes for string processing functions. Contains function prototypes and types for manipulating the time and date. Some of the standard library header.

19 Calling Functions: Call by Value and Call by Reference Call by value Copy of argument passed to function Changes in function do not effect original Use when function does not need to modify argument Avoids accidental changes Call by reference Passes original argument Changes in function effect original Only used with trusted functions For now, we focus on call by value

20 Random Number Generation rand function Load <stdlib.h> Returns "random" number between 0 and RAND_MAX (at least 32767) i = rand(); Pseudorandom Scaling Preset sequence of "random" numbers Same sequence for every function call To get a random number between 1 and n 1 + ( rand() % n ) rand() % n returns a number between 0 and n - 1 Add 1 to make random number between 1 and n 1 + ( rand() % 6) number between 1 and 6

21 Random Number Generation srand function <stdlib.h> Takes an integer seed and jumps to that location in its "random" sequence srand( seed ); srand( time( NULL ) );/*load <time.h> */ time( NULL ) Returns the time at which the program was compiled in seconds Randomizes " the seed

22 1 /* Shifted, scaled integers produced by 1 + rand() % 6 */ 2 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 #include <stdlib.h> 5 6 /* function main begins program execution */ 7 main() 8 { 9 int i; /* counter */ /* loop 20 times */ 12 for ( i = 1; i <= 20; i++ ) { /* pick random number from 1 to 6 and output it */ 15 printf( "%10d", 1 + ( rand() % 6 ) ); /* if counter is divisible by 5, begin new line of output */ 18 if ( i % 5 == 0 ) { 19 printf( "\n" ); 20 } /* end if */ } /* end for */ system( pause ); } /* end main */ fig05_07.c

23

24 1 /* Roll a six-sided die 6000 times */ 2 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 #include <stdlib.h> 5 6 /* function main begins program execution */ 7 main() 8 { 9 int frequency1 = 0; /* rolled 1 counter */ 10 int frequency2 = 0; /* rolled 2 counter */ 11 int frequency3 = 0; /* rolled 3 counter */ 12 int frequency4 = 0; /* rolled 4 counter */ fig05_08.c (Part 1 of 3) 13 int frequency5 = 0; /* rolled 5 counter */ 14 int frequency6 = 0; /* rolled 6 counter */ int roll; /* roll counter */ 17 int face; /* represents one roll of the die, value 1 to 6 */ /* loop 6000 times and summarize results */ 20 for ( roll = 1; roll <= 6000; roll++ ) { 21 face = 1 + rand() % 6; /* random number from 1 to 6 */ 22

25 23 /* determine face value and increment appropriate counter */ 24 switch ( face ) { case 1: /* rolled 1 */ 27 ++frequency1; 28 break; case 2: /* rolled 2 */ 31 ++frequency2; 32 break; case 3: /* rolled 3 */ 35 ++frequency3; 36 break; case 4: /* rolled 4 */ 39 ++frequency4; 40 break; case 5: /* rolled 5 */ 43 ++frequency5; 44 break; 45

26 45 46 case 6: /* rolled 6 */ 47 ++frequency6; 48 break; 49 } /* end switch */ } /* end for */ /* display results in tabular format */ 54 printf( "%s%13s\n", "Face", "Frequency" ); 55 printf( " 1%13d\n", frequency1 ); 56 printf( " 2%13d\n", frequency2 ); Program Output 57 printf( " 3%13d\n", frequency3 ); 58 printf( " 4%13d\n", frequency4 ); 59 printf( " 5%13d\n", frequency5 ); 60 printf( " 6%13d\n", frequency6 ); return 0; /* indicates successful termination */ } /* end main */ Face Frequency

27 1 /* Fig. 5.9: fig05_09.c 2 Randomizing die-rolling program */ 3 #include <stdlib.h> 4 #include <stdio.h> 5 6 /* function main begins program execution */ 7 int main() 8 { 9 int i; /* counter */ 10 unsigned seed; /* number used to seed random number generator */ printf( "Enter seed: " ); fig05_09.c (Part 1 of 2) 13 scanf( "%u", &seed ); srand( seed ); /* seed random number generator */ /* loop 10 times */ 18 for ( i = 1; i <= 10; i++ ) { /* pick a random number from 1 to 6 and output it */ 21 printf( "%10d", 1 + ( rand() % 6 ) ); 22

28 23 /* if counter is divisible by 5, begin a new line of output */ 24 if ( i % 5 == 0 ) { 25 printf( "\n" ); 26 } /* end if */ } /* end for */ system( pause ); } /* end main */ Enter seed: Enter seed: Enter seed:

29 Example: A Game of Chance Craps simulator Rules Roll two dice 7 or 11 on first throw, player wins 2, 3, or 12 on first throw, player loses 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 - value becomes player's "point" Player must roll his point before rolling 7 to win

30 1 /* Craps */ 2 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 #include <stdlib.h> 5 #include <time.h> /* contains prototype for function time */ 6 7 /* enumeration constants represent game status */ 8 enum Status { CONTINUE, WON, LOST }; 9 10 int rolldice( void ); /* function prototype */ /* function main begins program execution */ 13 main() 14 { fig05_10.c (Part 1 of 4) 15 int sum; /* sum of rolled dice */ 16 int mypoint; /* point earned */ enum Status gamestatus; /* can contain CONTINUE, WON, or LOST */ /* randomize random number generator using current time */ 21 srand( time( NULL ) ); sum = rolldice( ); /* first roll of the dice */ 24

31 25 /* determine game status based on sum of dice */ 26 switch( sum ) { /* win on first roll */ 29 case 7: 30 case 11: 31 gamestatus = WON; 32 break; /* lose on first roll */ 35 case 2: 36 case 3: 37 case 12: fig05_10.c (Part 2 of 4) 38 gamestatus = LOST; 39 break; /* remember point */ 42 default: 43 gamestatus = CONTINUE; 44 mypoint = sum; 45 printf( "Point is %d\n", mypoint ); 46 break; /* optional */ 47 } /* end switch */ 48

32 49 /* while game not complete */ 50 while ( gamestatus == CONTINUE ) { 51 sum = rolldice( ); /* roll dice again */ /* determine game status */ 54 if ( sum == mypoint ) { /* win by making point */ 55 gamestatus = WON; 56 } /* end if */ 57 else { if ( sum == 7 ) { /* lose by rolling 7 */ 60 gamestatus = LOST; fig05_10.c (Part 3 of 4) 61 } /* end if */ } /* end else */ } /* end while */ /* display won or lost message */ 68 if ( gamestatus == WON ) { 69 printf( "Player wins\n" ); 70 } /* end if */ 71 else { 72 printf( "Player loses\n" ); 73 } /* end else */ 74

33 75 system( pause ); } /* end main */ /* roll dice, calculate sum and display results */ 80 int rolldice( void ) 81 { 82 int die1; /* first die */ 83 int die2; /* second die */ 84 int worksum; /* sum of dice */ die1 = 1 + ( rand() % 6 ); /* pick random die1 value */ fig05_10.c (Part 4 of 4) 87 die2 = 1 + ( rand() % 6 ); /* pick random die2 value */ 88 worksum = die1 + die2; /* sum die1 and die2 */ /* display results of this roll */ 91 printf( "Player rolled %d + %d = %d\n", die1, die2, worksum ); return worksum; /* return sum of dice */ } /* end function rollrice */

34 Player rolled = 11 Player wins Program Output Player rolled = 5 Point is 5 Player rolled = 8 Player rolled = 3 Player rolled = 5 Player wins Player rolled = 2 Player loses Player rolled = 5 Point is 5 Player rolled = 7 Player loses

35 Storage Classes Storage class specifiers Storage duration how long an object exists in memory Scope where object can be referenced in program Linkage specifies the files in which an identifier is known (more in Chapter 14) Automatic storage Object created and destroyed within its block auto: default for local variables auto double x, y; register: tries to put variable into high-speed registers Can only be used for automatic variables register int counter = 1;

36 5.11Storage Classes Static storage Variables exist for entire program execution Default value of zero static: local variables defined in functions. Keep value after function ends Only known in their own function extern: default for global variables and functions Known in any function

37 Scope Rules File scope Identifier defined outside function, known in all functions Used for global variables, function definitions, function prototypes Function scope Can only be referenced inside id a function body Used only for labels (start:, case:, etc.)

38 Scope Rules Block scope Identifier declared inside a block Block scope begins at definition, ends at right brace Used for variables, function parameters (local variables of function) Outer blocks "hidden" from inner blocks if there is a variable with the same name in the inner block Function prototype scope Used for identifiers in parameter list

39 1 /* A scoping example */ 2 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 5 void uselocal( void ); /* function prototype */ 6 void usestaticlocal( void ); /* function prototype */ 7 void useglobal( void ); /* function prototype */ 8 9 int x = 1; /* global variable */ /* function main begins program execution */ 12 main() 13 { fig05_12.c (Part 1 of 3) 14 int x = 5; /* local variable to main */ printf("local x in outer scope of main is %d\n", x ); { /* start new scope */ 19 int x = 7; /* local variable to new scope */ printf( "local x in inner scope of main is %d\n", x ); 22 } /* end new scope */ printf( "local x in outer scope of main is %d\n", x ); 25

40 26 uselocal(); /* uselocal has automatic local x */ 27 usestaticlocal(); /* usestaticlocal has static local x */ 28 useglobal(); /* useglobal uses global x */ 29 uselocal(); /* uselocal reinitializes automatic local x */ 30 usestaticlocal(); /* static local x retains its prior value */ 31 useglobal(); /* global x also retains its value */ printf( "local x in main is %d\n", x ); system( pause ); } /* end main */ /* uselocal reinitializes local variable x during each call */ 40 void uselocal( void ) 41 { 42 int x = 25; /* initialized each time uselocal is called */ printf( "\nlocal x in a is %d after entering a\n", x ); 45 x++; 46 printf( "local x in a is %d before exiting a\n", x ); 47 } /* end function uselocal */ 48

41 49 /* usestaticlocal initializes static local variable x only the first time 50 the function is called; value of x is saved between calls to this 51 function */ 52 void usestaticlocal( void ) 53 { 54 /* initialized only first time usestaticlocal is called */ 55 static int x = 50; printf( "\nlocal l static x is %d on entering b\n", x ); 58 x++; 59 printf( "local static x is %d on exiting b\n", x ); 60 } /* end function usestaticlocal */ 61 fig05_12.c (Part 3 of 3) 62 /* function useglobal modifies global variable x during each call */ 63 void useglobal( void ) 64 { 65 printf( "\nglobal x is %d on entering c\n", x ); 66 x *= 10; 67 printf( "global x is %d on exiting c\n", x ); 68 } /* end function useglobal */

42 local x in outer scope of main is 5 local x in inner scope of main is 7 local x in outer scope of main is 5 local x in a is 25 after entering a local x in a is 26 before exiting a Program Output local static x is 50 on entering b local static x is 51 on exiting b global x is 1 on entering c global x is 10 on exiting c local x in a is 25 after entering a local x in a is 26 before exiting a local static x is 51 on entering b local static x is 52 on exiting b global x is 10 on entering c global x is 100 on exiting c local x in main is 5

43 Recursion Recursive functions Functions that call themselves Can only solve a base case Divide a problem up into What it can do What it cannot do What it cannot do resembles original problem The function launches a new copy of itself (recursion step) to solve what it cannot do Eventually base case gets solved Gets plugged in, works its way up and solves whole problem

44 Recursion Example: factorials 5! = 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 Notice that 5! = 5 * 4! 4! = 4 * 3!... Can compute factorials recursively Solve base case (1! = 0! = 1) then plug in 2! = 2 * 1! = 2 * 1 = 2; 3! = 3 * 2! = 3 * 2 = 6;

45 5.13Recursion 5! 5 * 4! 4 * 3! 3 * 2! 2 * 1! 1 Final value = 120 5! 5! = 5 * 24 = 120 is returned 5 * 4! 4! = 4 * 6 = 24 is returned 4 * 3! 3! = 3 * 2 = 6 is returned 3 * 2! 2! = 2 * 1 = 2 is returned 2 * 1! 1 returned 1 (a) Se quence of recursive calls. (b) Values returned from each recursive call.

46 1 /* Recursive factorial function */ 2 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 5 long factorial( long number ); /* function prototype */ 6 7 /* function main begins program execution */ 8 main() 9 { 10 int i; /* counter */ 11 fig05_14.c (Part 1 of 2) 12 /* loop 10 times. During each iteration, calculate 13 factorial( i ) and display result */ 14 for ( i = 1; i <= 10; i++ ) { 15 printf( "%2d! = %ld\n", i, factorial( i ) ); 16 } /* end for */ system( pause ); } /* end main */ 21

47 22 /* recursive definition of function factorial */ 23 long factorial( long number ) 24 { 25 /* base case */ 26 if ( number <= 1 ) { 27 return 1; 28 } /* end if */ 29 else { /* recursive step */ 30 return ( number * factorial( number - 1 ) ); 31 } /* end else */ } /* end function factorial */ 1! = 1 2! = 2 3! = 6 4! = 24 5! = 120 6! = 720 7! = ! = ! = ! =

48 Example Using Recursion: The Fibonacci Series Fibonacci series: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8... Each number is the sum of the previous two Can be solved recursively: fib( n ) = fib( n - 1 ) + fib( n 2 ) Code for the fibonacci function long fibonacci( long n ) { if (n == 0 n == 1) // base case return n; else return fibonacci( n - 1) + fibonacci( n 2 ); }

49 Example Using Recursion: The Fibonacci Series Set of recursive calls to function fibonacci f( 3 ) return f( 2 ) + f( 1 ) return f( 1 ) + f( 0 ) return 1 return 1 return 0

50 1 /* Recursive fibonacci function */ 2 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 5 long fibonacci( i( long n ); /* function prototype t */ 6 7 /* function main begins program execution */ 8 main() 9 { 10 long result; /* fibonacci value */ 11 long number; /* number input by user */ 12 fig05_15.c (Part 1 of 2) 13 /* obtain integer from user */ 14 printf( "Enter an integer: " ); 15 scanf( "%ld", &number ); /* calculate fibonacci value for number input by user */ 18 result = fibonacci( number ); /* display result */ 21 printf( "Fibonacci( %ld ) = %ld\n", number, result ); system( pause ); } /* end main */ 26

51 27 /* Recursive definition of function fibonacci */ 28 long fibonacci( long n ) 29 { 30 /* base case */ fig05_15.c (Part 2 of 2) 31 if ( n == 0 n == 1 ) { 32 return n; 33 } /* end if */ 34 else { /* recursive step */ 35 return fibonacci( n - 1 ) + fibonacci( n - 2 ); 36 } /* end else */ 37 Program Output 38 } /* end function fibonacci */ Enter an integer: 0 Fibonacci( 0 ) = 0 Enter an integer: 1 Fibonacci( 1 ) = 1 Enter an integer: 2 Fibonacci( 2 ) = 1 Enter an integer: 3 Fibonacci( 3 ) = 2 Enter an integer: 4 Fibonacci( 4 ) = 3

52 Enter an integer: 5 Fibonacci( 5 ) = 5 Enter an integer: 6 Fibonacci( 6 ) = 8 Enter an integer: 10 Fibonacci( 10 ) = 55 Enter an integer: 20 Fibonacci( 20 ) = 6765 Enter an integer: 30 Fibonacci( 30 ) = Enter an integer: 35 Fibonacci( 35 ) =

53 Example Using Recursion: The Fibonacci Series fibonacci( 3 ) return fibonacci( 2 ) + fibonacci( 1 ) return fibonacci( 1 ) + fibonacci( 0 ) return 1 return 1 return 0

54 Recursion vs. Iteration Repetition Iteration: explicit loop Recursion: repeated function calls Termination Iteration: loop condition fails Recursion: base case recognized Both can have infinite loops Balance Choice between performance (iteration) and good software engineering (recursion)

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