Geographically Distributed Software Defined Storage (the proposal)

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1 Geographically Distributed Software Defined Storage (the proposal) A. Y. Shevel 1,2,a, S. E. Khoruzhnikov 1, V.A. Grudinin 1, O. L. Sadov 1, A. B. Kairkanov 1 1 ITMO University, 49, Kronverksky prospect, St. Petersburg, Russia 2 National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 1, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, , Russia a The volume of the coming data in HEP is growing. The volume of the data to be held for a long time is growing as well. Actually large volume of data big data is distributed around the planet. In other words now there is a situation where it is necessary to integrate storage resources from many data centers located far from each other. That means that the methods, the approaches how to organize and manage the globally distributed data storage are required. The distributed storage has several examples for personal needs like owncloud.org, pydio.com, seafile.com, sparkleshare.org. For enterprise-level there is a number of SWIFT distributed storage systems (part of Openstack), CEPH and the like which are mostly object storage. When several data center s resources are integrated, the organization of data links becomes very important issue especially if several parallel data links between data centers are used. The situation in data centers and in data links may vary each hour. All that means each part of distributed data storage has to be able to rearrange usage of data links and storage servers in each data center. In addition, for each customer of distributed storage different requirements could appear. The above topics are planned to be discussed in data storage proposal. Keywords: software defined storage, software defined network, deduplication, compression, distributed storage, data transfer A. Y. Shevel, S. E. Khoruzhnikov, V.A. Grudinin, O. L. Sadov, A. B. Kairkanov 62

2 1. Introduction In tuning of real storage system there are a lot of aspects and questions even the storage servers are located in one room. The number of nuances is much more in geographically distributed storage systems. The part of them are quite obvious, for example, reliable and secure data transfer over Internet between data storage and client. In addition there are data transfers to do data synchronization to guarantee the replicas of the data are completely equal each other in different sites. Storage of the data in remote site and data transfer over long distance do require additional precautions such as a data encryption. Data compression and data deduplication are also important to decrease the total data volume to transfer and store. More and more often we are dealing with big data. 2. Sources of the big data Among sources of Big Data we have to mention scientific experimental installations: ~1 PB/year - International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER - ~10 PB/year - Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST - ~20-30 PB/year CERN ( ~20-30 PB/year Facility for Antiproton and Ion research (FAIR - ~20-30 PB/year The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA - ~ PB/year - Square Kilometre Array (SKA - In According to consensus estimation total volume of data in the World grows two times a year, i.e. about 75% of data was written in last two years. 3. Current solutions for large volume data storage Quite a lot of different studies and developments were presented in [Shirinbab, et al., 2013; Blomer, 2014; Analysis of Six Distributed File Systems, 2013]. Also pretty long list of distributed file/storage systems is available in [Comparison of distributed file systems]. A number of developments to meet concrete needs are described in [Espinal, Adde,, 2014; XtreemFS ; Software Defined Storage LizardFS ; Dutka, 2015; Roblitz, 2012; Why so Sirius?...]. There is a range of studies with presenting benchmarks in [Zhang, et al., 2015; Wong, et al., 2014]. The distributed storage is not possible to discuss without network architecture. Software Defined Network (SDS) approach is discussed in [Cui, et al., 2016]. All those sources give the idea which is the main feature to be included into the design of a scalable multi-tenant SDS system. 4. Main features of distributed storage SDS is an evolving concept in which the management and provisioning of data storage is decoupled from the physical storage hardware. SDS should include: Automation Simplified management that reduces the cost of maintaining the storage Infrastructure; Standard Interfaces APIs for the management, provisioning and maintenance of storage devices and services; Virtualized Data Path Block, File and Object interfaces that support applications written to these interfaces; Scalability Seamless ability to scale the storage infrastructure without disruption to availability or performance. 63

3 Any multi-tenant applications running on the public cloud could benefit from the concepts introduced by SDS by managing the allocation of tenant data. Important features of the Globally Distributed Software Defined Storage (GDSDS): Data store and Data transfer between client and data storage; also between components of the distributed storage; Reliability: data replication, erasure coding; Reduce the data volume to store and transfer: Data compression, data deduplication (at number of replicas, at level of files, at block level); Security: Data encryption, ACL; User interfaces: web portal and set of Command Line Interfaces; Advanced network architecture; Optimal Caching, Tiering; Automatic storage deployment by user request. It is assumed in the proposal: GDSDS consists of several groups of storage servers (in Data Centers DC) located in geographically different regions. Group of servers (DCs) are connected by a number of parallel virtual data links. Data links may have different features: speed, price, encryption type (including quantum encryption), etc. Data links have to be configured with SDN. GDSDS has web portal for clients and administrators to control and monitoring. Client can ask to perform a number of operations: o Create, Delete, Replicate, Migrate, etc of the Virtual Storage Instance (VSI) allocated in GDSDS. o The VSI can be created with different service level agreement (SLA). o Write/Read data to/from the VSI. SLA may include, for example: Data Encryption (with specific type of Encryption). Data Compression (with specific type of compression). Number of replicas. Erasure coding (specific type or/and parameters). In one specific Data Center (DC) or in many DCs with specific types of data links in between DCs. Newly created VSI may have character of object storage, file system, or block storage. Type of backend (CEPH, SWIFT, etc). The preference of access to the geographically distributed data taking into account the context of CAP theorem [Gilbert, Lynch, 2002], choose two of three options: consistency, availability, network partitioning. 5. General consideration The general scheme of the GDSDS is shown in the fig.1. The clients can be also distributed around the World (client can be a person with desktop or smart phone, virtual machine in client data center, also client can be an organization with its own DC, etc). Several clients can use same VSI. In the fig.1 it is shown that all four clients have virtual storage which is located in two or more DCs. Obviously the connection between client and DCs with data located is very important for data transfer speed. 64

4 If VSI has one or more replicas it make sense to allocate data replicas in different DCs. At this point we have to take several aspects into account. First of all we (and client) must plan the procedure of the replicas synchronization. The synchronization of the data between DCs takes time. Do we permit the clients to access the replica during synchronization time or we need to put client request in wait state until the synchronization completes or clients have to be routed to most new replica data? The answer depends on client s business. In some cases client does not care, for example, in Google different clients in geographically different regions obtain different results on the same search request. In other cases clients could have another expectations, for example, they could expect exactly the same result (or very close in some context) on the request from any geographical region. Fig. 1 General scheme of the GDSDS. The synchronization is important when the data in VSI is changing quite often. However even in case the owner did not change the data in VSI the synchronization procedure has to be repeated over some time just to be sure that no errors appeared in data due to any cause. In general, it is necessary to recalculate all hashes in each DC where the replicas are and probably to transfer some fractions of the data to accomplish synchronization. If volume of VSI is around tens (or more) of PB the synchronization time may be significant. What could we suggest to clients at this significant time? Another question how client chooses replica for reading from (or writing to) VSI. It is possible in round robin manner, or just where DC responses faster on the client request. The consideration does emphasize again that there are a lot of various choices for clients therefore we need configurable environment to meet client expectations. 65

5 6. Proposal status and plan A simple prototype was created with only backend CEPH (version ). The prototype has been deployed using several virtual machines (VM). Each VM has 2 virtual CPU, 8 GB of memory, three HDD drives (4 TB each). One drive in VM is used for CEPH logs, other two - for the data. In total we use now 21 OSD daemons. Two host servers are running under Scientific Linux 7.2. Host servers are located in different sites with a distance about 40 Km. They are connected over Internet with data link of nominal speed 1Gbit. Three OSD daemons are running in docker environment. Docker environment for OSD daemon is considered as most effective solution for storage server. We plan to create first open source and working version for the GDSDS next year. Of course we need support and volunteers. 7. Conclusion We have analyzed a range of distributed storage systems, paid attention to most important features of these systems and suggested developing Geographically Distributed Software Defined Storage. 8. Acknowledgement The research has been carried out with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation under grant agreement # (RFMEFI57514X0058). References Analysis of Six Distributed File Systems // HAL-Inria URL: /file/a_survey_of_dfs.pdf. Blomer J. Survey of distributed file system technology // ACAT 2014, Prague (in references) Also iopscience.iop.org/article/ / /664/4/042004/pdf. Comparison of distributed file systems [Electronic resource]: Cui L. et al. When big data meets software-defined networking: SDN for big data and big data for SDN // IEEE Network. Vol. 30, Issue 1. P DOI: /MNET Dutka L. OneData. [Electronic resource]: URL: q=onedata%20storage&pg=pa312#v=onepage&q=onedata%20storage&f=true Espinal X., Adde G., Chan B., Iven J., Lo Presti G., Lamanna M., Mascetti L., Pace A., Peters A., Ponce S., Sindrilaru E. Disk storage at CERN: Handling LHC data and beyond // 20th International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2013) // Journal of Physics: Conference Series Vol P doi: / /513/4/ URL: Gilbert S., Lynch N. Brewer s conjecture and the feasibility of consistent, available, and partitiontolerant web services // ACM SIGACT News Vol. 33, Issue 2. Roblitz T. Towards Implementing Virtual Data Infrastructures a case study with irods // Computer Science Vol. 13, Issue 4. URL: 66

6 Shirinbab S. et al. Performance Evaluation of Distributed Storage Systems for Cloud Computing // IJCA Vol. 20, No. 4. P Software Defined Storage LizardFS is a distributed, scalable, fault-tolerant and highly available file system [Electronic resource]: Why so Sirius? Ceph backed storage at the RAL Tier [Electronic resource]: Wong M.-T. et al. Ceph as WAN Filesystem Performance and Feasibility Study through Simulation // Network Research Workshop Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network Vol. 38. P URL: ISSN XtreemFS is a fault-tolerant distributed file system for all storage needs [Electronic resource]: Zhang X. et al. Ceph Distributed File System Benchmarks on an Openstack Cloud // Conference Paper, November URL: 67

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