1 Wireless Networks Authors: Marius Popovici Daniel Crişan Zagham Abbas Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Group 3250 Cluj-Napoca, 24 Nov. 2003
2 Presentation Outline Wireless Technology overview The IEEE WLAN Standards Secure Wireless LANs Migrating to Wireless LANs (Cutting the cord)
3 Wireless? A wireless LAN or WLAN is a wireless local area network that uses radio waves as its carrier. The last link with the users is wireless, to give a network connection to all users in a building or campus. The backbone network usually uses cables
4 Common Topologies The wireless LAN connects to a wired LAN There is a need of an access point that bridges wireless LAN traffic into the wired LAN. The access point (AP) can also act as a repeater for wireless nodes, effectively doubling the maximum possible distance between nodes.
5 Common Topologies Complete Wireless Networks The physical size of the network is determined by the maximum reliable propagation range of the radio signals. Referred to as ad hoc networks Are self-organizing networks without any centralized control Suited for temporary situations such as meetings and conferences.
6 How do wireless LANs work? Wireless LANs operate in almost the same way as wired LANs, using the same networking protocols and supporting the most of the same applications.
7 How are WLANs Different? They use specialized physical and data link protocols They integrate into existing networks through access points which provide a bridging function They let you stay connected as you roam from one coverage area to another They have unique security considerations They have specific interoperability requirements They require different hardware They offer performance that differs from wired LANs.
8 Physical and Data Link Layers Physical Layer: The wireless NIC takes frames of data from the link layer, scrambles the data in a predetermined way, then uses the modified data stream to modulate a radio carrier signal. Data Link Layer: Uses Carriers-Sense-Multiple-Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA).
9 Integration With Existing Networks Wireless Access Points (APs) - a small device that bridges wireless traffic to your network. Most access points bridge wireless LANs into Ethernet networks, but Token-Ring options are available as well.
10 Integration With Existing Networks
11 Roaming Users maintain a continuous connection as they roam from one physical area to another Mobile nodes automatically register with the new access point. Methods: DHCP, Mobile IP IEEE standard does not address roaming, you may need to purchase equipment from one vendor if your users need to roam from one access point to another.
12 Security In theory, spread spectrum radio signals are inherently difficult to decipher without knowing the exact hopping sequences or direct sequence codes used The IEEE standard specifies optional security called "Wired Equivalent Privacy" whose goal is that a wireless LAN offer privacy equivalent to that offered by a wired LAN. The standard also specifies optional authentication measures.
13 Interoperability Before the IEEE interoperability was based on cooperation between vendors. IEEE only standardizes the physical and medium access control layers. Vendors must still work with each other to ensure their IEEE implementations interoperate Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) introduces the Wi-Fi Certification to ensure crossvendor interoperability of b solutions
14 Hardware PC Card, either with integral antenna or with external antenna/rf module. ISA Card with external antenna connected by cable. Handheld terminals Access points
15 Hardware CISCO Aironet 350 series Wireless Handheld Terminal Semi Parabolic Antenna BreezeCOM AP
16 Performance a offers speeds with a theoretically maximum rate of 54Mbps in the 5 GHz band b offers speeds with a theoretically maximum rate of 11Mbps at in the 2.4 GHz spectrum band g is a new standard for data rates of up to a theoretical maximum of 54 Mbps at 2.4 GHz.
17 What is ? A family of wireless LAN (WLAN) specifications developed by a working group at the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Defines standard for WLANs using the following four technologies Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Infrared (IR) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Versions: a, b, g, e, f, i
18 Transmission Most wireless LAN products operate in unlicensed radio bands 2.4 GHz is most popular Available in most parts of the world No need for user licensing Most wireless LANs use spread-spectrum radio Resistant to interference, secure Two popular methods Frequency Hopping (FH) Direct Sequence (DS)
19 Frequency Hopping Vs. Direct Sequence FH systems use a radio carrier that hops from frequency to frequency in a pattern known to both transmitter and receiver Easy to implement Resistance to noise Limited throughput ( GHz) DS systems use a carrier that remains fixed to a specific frequency band. The data signal is spread onto a much larger range of frequencies (at a much lower power level) using a specific encoding scheme. Much higher throughput than FH (11 Mbps) Better range Less resistant to noise (made up for by redundancy it transmits at least 10 fully redundant copies of the original signal at the same time)
20 802.11a Employs Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Offers higher bandwidth than that of b, DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) a MAC (Media Access Control) is same as b Operates in the 5 GHz range
21 802.11a Advantages Ultra-high spectrum efficiency 5 GHz band is 300 MHz (vs GHz) More data can travel over a smaller amount of bandwidth High speed Up to 54 Mbps Less interference Fewer products using the frequency 2.4 GHz band shared by cordless phones, microwave ovens, Bluetooth, and WLANs
22 802.11a Disadvantages Standards and Interoperability Standard not accepted worldwide No interoperability certification available for a products Not compatible or interoperable with b Legal issues License-free spectrum in 5 GHz band not available worldwide Market Beyond LAN-LAN bridging, there is limited interest for 5 GHz adoption
23 802.11a Disadvantages Cost 2.4 GHz will still has >40% cost advantage Range At equivalent power, 5 GHz range will be ~50% of 2.4 GHz Power consumption Higher data rates and increased signal require more power OFDM is less power-efficient then DSSS
24 802.11a Applications Building-to-building connections Video, audio conferencing/streaming video, and audio Large file transfers, such as engineering CAD drawings Faster Web access and browsing High worker density or high throughput scenarios Numerous PCs running graphics-intensive applications
25 802.11a Vs b a vs b a b Raw data rates Up to 54 Mbps (54, 48, 36, 24,18, 12 and 6 Mbps) Up to 11 Mbps (11, 5.5, 2, and 1 Mbps) Range 50 Meters 100 Meters Bandwidth UNII and ISM (5 GHz range) ISM ( GHz range) Modulation OFDM technology DSSS technology
26 802.11g g is a high-speed extension to b Compatible with b High speed up to 54 Mbps 2.4 GHz (vs a, 5 GHz) Using ODFM for backward compatibility Adaptive Rate Shifting
27 802.11g Advantages Provides higher speeds and higher capacity requirements for applications Wireless Public Access Compatible with existing b standard Leverages Worldwide spectrum availability in 2.4 GHz Likely to be less costly than 5 GHz alternatives Provides easy migration for current users of b WLANs Delivers backward support for existing b products Provides path to even higher speeds in the future
28 802.11e Introduces Quality of Service Also know as P TGe Purpose: To enhance the Medium Access Control (MAC) to improve and manage Quality of Service (QoS) Cannot be supported in current chip design Requires new radio chips Can do basic QoS in MAC layer
29 802.11f Inter Access Point Protocol Also know as P TGf Purpose: To develop a set of requirements for Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP), including operational and management aspects
30 802.11b Security Features Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) A protocol to protect link-level data during wireless transmission between clients and access points. Services: Authentication: provides access control to the network by denying access to client stations that fail to authenticate properly. Confidentiality: intends to prevent information compromise from casual eavesdropping Integrity: prevents messages from being modified while in transit between the wireless client and the access point.
31 Authentication Means: Based on cryptography Non-cryptographic Both are identity-based verification mechanisms (devices request access based on the SSID Service Set Identifier of the wireless network).
32 Authentication Authentication techniques
33 Privacy Cryptographic techniques WEP Uses RC4 symmetric key, stream cipher algorithm to generate a pseudo random data sequence. The stream is XORed with the data to be transmitted Key sizes: 40bits to 128bits Unfortunately, recent attacks have shown that the WEP approach for privacy is vulnerable to certain attack regardless of key size
34 Data Integrity Data integrity is ensured by a simple encrypted version of CRC (Cyclic Redundant Check) Also vulnerable to some attacks
35 Security Problems Security features in Wireless products are frequently not enabled. Use of static WEP keys (keys are in use for a very long time). WEP does not provide key management. Cryptographic keys are short. No user authentication occurs only devices are authenticated. A stolen device can access the network. Identity based systems are vulnerable. Packet integrity is poor.
36 Other WLAN Security Mechanisms 3Com Dynamic Security Link CISCO LEAP - Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol IEEE 802.1x Port-Based Network Access Control RADIUS Authentication Support EAP-MD5 EAP-TLS EAP-TTLS PEAP - Protected EAP TKIP - Temporal Key Integrity Protocol IEEE i
37 WLAN Migration Cutting The Cord Essential Questions Choosing the Right Technology Data Rates Access Point Placement and Power Antenna Selection and Placement Connecting to the Wired LAN The Site Survey
38 Essential Questions Why is the organization considering wireless? Allows to clearly define requirements of the WLAN -> development plan How many users require mobility? What are the applications that will run over the WLAN? Helps to determine bandwidth requirements, a criteria to choose between available technologies. Wireless is a shared medium, not switched!!!
39 Choose the right technology Usually IEEE b or a b offers interoperability (WECA Wi-Fi Certification Program) a offers higher data rates (up to 54 mbps) -> higher throughput per user. Limited interoperability.
40 Data rates Data rates affect range b 1 to 11 Mbps in 4 increments a 6 to 54 Mbps in 7 increments The minimum data rate must be determined at design time Selecting only the highest data rate will require a greater number of APs to cover a specific area Compromise between data rates and overall system cost
41 Access Point Placement and Power Typically mounted at ceiling height. Between 15 and 25 feet (4.5m to 8m) The greater the height, the greater the difficulty to get power to the unit. Solution: consider devices that can be powered using CAT5 Ethernet cable (CISCO Aironet 1200 Series). Access points have internal or external antennas
42 Antenna Selection and Placement Permanently attached. Remote antennas connected using an antenna cable. Coax cable used for RF has a high signal loss, should not be mounted more than a 1 or 2 meters away from the device. Placement: consider building construction, ceiling height, obstacles, and aesthetics. Different materials (cement, steel) have different radio propagation characteristics.
43 Connecting to the Wired LAN Consider user mobility If users move between subnets, there are challenges to consider. OSes like Windows XP and 2000, Linux support DHCP to obtain the new IP address for the subnet. Certain applications such as VPN will fail. Solution: access points in a roaming area are on the same segment.
44 The Site Survey Helps define the coverage areas, data rates, the precise placement of access point. Gather information: diagramming the coverage area and measuring the signal strength, SNR (signal to noise ratio), RF interference levels
45 Site Survey
46 Vendor Information CISCO Systems Wireless 3Com Wireless ab=cat&pathtype=purchase&cat=13&selcat=wireless +Products Breeze Wireless Communications Lucent Technologies Symbol Technologies
47 References CISCO Packet Magazine, 2 nd Quarter /ac173/ac168/about_cisco_packet_issue_hom e.html 3Com University Wireless LANs A Technology Overview National Institute of Standards and Technology Wireless Network Security
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