Advanced Security and Mobile Networks

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1 Advanced Security and Mobile Networks W.Buchanan (1)

2 9. GSM/3G Unit 7: Mobile Networks. Wireless. Security. Mobile IP. Mobile Agents. Spread spectrum. Military/Emergency Networks 8. Ad-hoc 7. Mobile Networks Security Elements W.Buchanan (2)

3 Mobile phone technology. This integrates with the GSM network. Wireless (IEEE ). This normally integrated with a fixed network. Bluetooth. This normally allows networking between noncomputer-type devices, such as mobile phones, hi-fi s, and so on. Infra-red. This technology is too slow and has a limited range for most applications. Line-of-sight optics. This allows for easy connections between buildings, and involves a laser directing it beam to a receiver. It is typically used around cities and gives speeds of several Gbps. Wireless connections which technology? W.Buchanan (3)

4 IEEE a a deals with communications available in the 5GHz frequency, and has a maximum data rate of 54 Mbps. IEEE b b, or Wi-Fi, is the standard that is most commonly used in wireless LAN communications. It has a maximum bandwidth of 11Mbps, at a frequency of 2.4GHz. IEEE c c is a group set up to deal with bridging operations when developing access points. IEEE f f is concerned with standardising access point roaming.which is involved in making sure that interoperability between access points is guaranteed. IEEE g (Proposed) g is a proposed standard that hopes to provide 54Mbps maximum bandwidth over a 2.4GHz connection, the same frequency as the popular b standard. IEEE Wireless W.Buchanan (4)

5 Operating Channels: 11 for N. America, 14 Japan, 13 Europe (ETSI), 2 Spain, 4 France Operating Frequency: GHz (North America), GHz (Japan), GHz (Europe ETSI), GHz (Spain), GHz (France) Data Rate: 1, 2, 5.5 or 11Mbps Media Access Protocol: CSMA/CA, Compliant Range: 11Mbps: 140m (460 feet) 5.5Mbps: 200m (656 feet) 2Mbps: 270m (885 feet) 1Mbps: 400m (1311 feet) RF Technology: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Modulation: CCK (11Mps, 5.5Mbps), DQPSK (2Mbps), DBPSK (1Mbps) IEEE b W.Buchanan (5)

6 A wireless access point (AP) allow several wireless clients to connect to a single device. Wireless access point W.Buchanan (6)

7 Wireless (IEEE b) Connection. And possibly a Bluetooth connection Wireless adaptor W.Buchanan (7)

8 IEEE b settings W.Buchanan (8)

9 Server Ethernet backbone Access point Access point LAN01 LAN02 Infrastructure network W.Buchanan (9)

10 SSID = group 1 SSID = group 1 SSID = group 1 SSID = group 1 Access point Ethernet SSID W.Buchanan (10)

11 Ad-hoc wireless LAN 1 Ad-hoc wireless LAN 2 Channel is identical such as channel = 3 Channel = 5 Ad-hoc network W.Buchanan (11)

12 Ad-hoc Radius of coverage =2L L L Access point Infrastructure L Span of network W.Buchanan (12)

13 Military and rescue operations Battlefield Evacuation of a building on fire Terrorism & Rescue Operations Hospitals Retrieve patient s information from hospital s database while in surgery Conference meetings Share information quickly Schedule meetings Networking while on the road Inter-vehicle communication Applications of Ad-hoc networks W.Buchanan (13)

14 Authentication algorithm. This sets whether the adapter uses an open system (where other nodes can listen to the communications), or uses encryption (using either a WEP key, or a shared key). Channel. If an ad-hoc network is used, then the nodes which communicate must use the same channel. Fragmentation threshold. This can be used to split large data frames into smaller fragments. The value can range from 64 to 1500 bytes. This is used to improve the efficiency when there is a high amount of traffic on the wireless network, as smaller frames make more efficient usage of the network. Network type. This can either be set to an infrastructure network (which use access points, or wireless hubs) or Ad-hoc, which allows nodes to interconnect without the need for an access point. Network settings W.Buchanan (14)

15 Preamble mode. This can either be set to Long (which is the default) or short. A long preamble allows for interoperatively with 1Mbps and 2Mbps DSSS specifications. The shorter allows for faster operations (as the preamble is kept to a minimum) and can be used where the transmission parameters must be maximized, and that there are no interoperatablity problems. RTS/CTS threshold. The RTS Threshold prevents the Hidden Node problem, where two wireless nodes are within range of the same access point, but are not within range of each other. As they do not know that they both exist on the network, they may try to communicate with the access point at the same time. When they do, their data frames may collide when arriving simultaneously at the Access Point, which causes a loss of data frames from the nodes. The RTS threshold tries to overcome this by enabling the handshaking signals of Ready To Send (RTS) and Clear To Send (CTS). When a node wishes to communicate with the access point it sends a RTS signal to the access point. Once the access point defines that it can then communicate, the access point sends a CTS message. The node can then send its data. Network settings (cont.) W.Buchanan (15)

16 Multipath radio wave propagation. Radio wave propagate outwards in all directions, and will thus hit obstacles, which causes multiple paths for the radio wave. These waves thus add/subtract to signal, and can cause distortion on the wave. Radio data frames collide. Two or more radio devices can be transmitting a data frame at the same time using the same radio frequency. The data frames may thus collide and cause errors in the data frames. Out-of-range threshold. Wireless devices which are at the boundary of the wireless domain can suffer from problems with signal strength as the data frames is being transmitted. This will typically occur when a device is moving around the threshold of the domain, as weak signal strengths are more affected by noise than strong ones. Noisy environment. Many types of electrical equipment can generate high-frequency radio waves, which might interfere with the transmitted data frame. Problems with wireless environments W.Buchanan (16)

17 Multiple paths for the wireless signal W.Buchanan (17)

18 IEEE can use two mechanisms for shared access: CSMA/CA. CSMA/CA is, like standard Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) a contention-based protocol, but uses collision avoidance rather than collision detection. It would be impossible to use collision detection as a radio wave is always either sending or receiving and can never do both at the same time. The nodes will thus not be able to listen on the channel while they are transmitting. Point Coordination Function (PCF). This is an optional priority-based protocol, which provides contention-free frame transfer for transmission of time-critical data, such as real-time video or audio. With this, the point coordinator (PC) operates in the wireless access point and identifies the devices which are allowed to transmit at any given time. Each PC then, with the contention-free (CF) period, the PC polls each of the enabled PCF to determine if they wish to transmit data frames. No other device is allowed to transmit while a another node is being polled. Thus, PCF will be contention-free and enables devices to transmit data frames synchronously, with defined time delays between data frame transmissions. CSMA/CA and PCF W.Buchanan (18)

19 Listen for no activity 1 ACK ACK time-out 2 2 Node has gone. Data frame has collided with another Data frame corrupted with noise. CSMA/CD W.Buchanan (19)

20 Frame control Duration/ ID Address 1 Address 2 Address 3 Sequence control Address 4 Frame body FCS 2 Bytes Frame control. This contains control information. Duration/ID. This contains information on how long the data frame will last. Address fields. This contains different types of address, such as an individual address of group addresses. The two main types of group addresses are broadcast and multicast. Sequence control. This identifies the sequence number of the data frames, and allows the recipient to check for missing or duplicate data frames. Frame body. This part contains the actual data. The maximum amount is 2312 bytes, but most implementations use up to 1500 bytes. FCS (Frame Check Sequence). This is a strong error detection code. IEEE data frame W.Buchanan (20)

21 To avoid interference in the band, radio LANs (RLANs) use either Frequency Hopping or Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum techniques (FHSS & DSSS). These two methods avoid or lower the potential for interference within the band as shown in the next slide. Spread spectrum technologies work by spreading the actual signal over a wider bandwidth for transmission. Using these methods provides resilience from narrow band interference and also reduces interference to other sources using the ISM band. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum technology works by splitting the ISM band into 79 1MHz channels. Data is transmitted in a sequence over the available channels, spreading the signal across the band according to a hopping pattern, which has been determined between the wireless devices. Each channel can only be occupied for a limited period of time before the system has to hop. Spread Spectrum and Frequency Hopping W.Buchanan (21)

22 Military systems have been using Spread Spectrum and Frequency Hopping for many years. This is to: Avoid jamming on a certain channel. Avoid noise on a certain channel. Confuse the enemy as the transmitting frequency moves in a way that only the sender and receiver known. Imagine having to move the dial of your radio receiver, each minute to a certain frequency in a give way. Such as Radio 1 is broadcast on 909MHz from 12:00, then 915MHz until 12:01, then 900MHz unit 12:02, and so on. Spread Spectrum and Frequency Hopping W.Buchanan (22)

23 W.Buchanan (23) FHSS Ch01 Ch02 Ch03 Ch74 Ch75 DSSS Non overlapping channels 1MHz CH1-22MHz CH7-22MHz CH13-22MHz 2400MHz CH2-22MHz MHz

24 IEEE Security Access Control W.Buchanan (24)

25 2.4GHz 2.48GHz Not recommended for battlefield conditions Wireless networks can be easily jammed by transmitting jamming signals on frequencies around the 2.4GHz. Interference and Jamming W.Buchanan (25)

26 F De-Militarized Zone (DMZ) Public FTP server External device gets behind the firewall N F F Wireless Intrusion F W.Buchanan (26)

27 F De-Militarized Zone (DMZ) Public FTP server All wireless connections are untrusted N F F Wireless Access is Untrusted F W.Buchanan (27)

28 Download Connect? Deprivation of service attack DoS attack DoS and Deprivation of Service Attack W.Buchanan (28)

29 Correct device Spoof device The client spoofs its MAC addresses to gain an IP address. MAC addresses cannot be used to authenticate nodes, as MAC addresses can be setup in some network cards Devices connect to the spoof device. Spoofing W.Buchanan (29)

30 Wireless Security IPSec standards for VPN s Wireless Security Standards Encryption Authentication - Limited to IP - Required for public access systems. WEP - Wireless Encryption Protocol WPA - Wireless Protected Access IEEE i Disaster area for wireless access EAPS - Extensible Authentication Protocol LEAP - Lightweight EAP EAP-TLS -EAP - Transport Layer Security EAP-TTLS - Tunnelled TLS PEAP - Protected EAP Wireless Security W.Buchanan (30)

31 WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy Aka Weak Encryption Protocol Access Control W.Buchanan (31)

32 WEP encryption key reduces eavesdropping It stops unauthorized access to a Wireless Access Point (along with the SSID, of course) napier01 40-bit Keys (24 bits for IV) 104-bit Keys (24 bits for IV) Generate key No standard exists to define how the WEP key is created Generating the WEP key W.Buchanan (32)

33 W.Buchanan (33) Same key is used for all nodes. Thus an eavesdropper can eventually gain the key Initialization Vector Encryption Key 24 bits 40 bits This key is used for encryption of all the data in the domain

34 W.Buchanan (34) WEP uses a stream cipher based on the RC4 algorithm. - Expands a short key into an infinite pseudo-random key. Sender Short-key Short-key Same shared key is used Receiver Short-key Short-key Infinite Infinite pseudo-random pseudo-random key key Infinite Infinite pseudo-random pseudo-random key key Data stream: X-OR X-OR

35 Short-key Short-key Infinite Infinite pseudo-random pseudo-random key key A B X-OR C D X-OR Eavesdropper can detect the key if it can read to streams encoded with the same key Eavesdropper Eavesdropper WEP - Possible Problem? Statistical Analysis W.Buchanan (35)

36 Short-key Short-key Short-key Short-key Infinite Infinite pseudo-random pseudo-random key key Infinite Infinite pseudo-random pseudo-random key key A B X-OR A C X-OR Man-in-the-middle can flip a few bits and change the text. Letters can thus be changed. Man-inthe-middle Man-inthe-middle WEP - Possible Problem? Man-in-the-Middle W.Buchanan (36)

37 WEP guards against these attacks with: An Initialization Vector (IV). This is a secret key which varies the key for every data packet. An Integrity Checker (IC). This is a 32-bit CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). If bits are flipped, it will not give the same CRC value. Thus an error is caused. Unfortunately both methods have not been implemented properly!!! Which leads to lots of problems. IV and IC W.Buchanan (37)

38 Bits are flipped over consecutive bit positions, so that the overall CRC stays the same. Weakness of the Integrity Checker W.Buchanan (38)

39 W.Buchanan (39) The IV is a 24-bit value, which is sent as cleartext. There can only be 2 24 vectors (16,777,216) If we use 1500 byte packets, the time to send each packet is /11e6 = 1.1ms Thus, if the device is continually sending the same vector will repeat after: 1.1ms 16,777,216 = 18,302.4 seconds which is 5 hours The attacker then takes the two cipertexts which have been encrypted with the same key, and performs a statistical analysis on it.

40 IV= Dah&*43+=f Cipertext1 IV= Dah&*43+=g Cipertext 16,777,214 IV s Cipertext1 X-OR Cipertext2 IV= Dah&*43+=f Cipertext2 Some network cards actually initial at zero, and then increment by 1 each time (in fact the standard does not even specify that the IV should change, at all. Eavesdropper listens for at least five hours and waits for a recurrence of the IV Passive Attack to Decrypt Traffic W.Buchanan (40)

41 Plaintext Corresponding cipertext If eavesdropper knows part of the plaintext for a corresponding cipertext it is possible to build a correctly encrypted cipertext Modified Plaintext By performing bit flips it is possible to change the characters in the plain-text so that the CRC-32 stays the same. Encrypted text CRC-32 Active Attack to Inject Traffic W.Buchanan (41)

42 Known IP/TCP headers Corresponding cipertext Message Cipertext The eavesdropper can expand the method so that they can examine for know IP and TCP headers. Modified IP/TCP header By performing bit flips it is possible to change the characters in the plain-text so that the CRC-32 stays the same. Modified IP/TCP header Message CRC-32 By flipping bits on the IP address, the eavesdropper can send all data packets to their machine. Active Attack from Both Ends W.Buchanan (42)

43 IV=0 IV=1 IV=2 Plaintext Hello How Cipertext %4 $ 9h-= fgh== 5%6$ 79h- The eavesdropper can now decrypt all the data packets with the IV of zero. Over time others can be learnt. IV= 16,777,214 IV=16,777,215 Avbdc=+34d % $ 9h-4=+ Eavesdropper stores a table of known keys for each IV (15GB) Table-based W.Buchanan (43)

44 W.Buchanan (44) Only with this WEP also allows for authentication using a secret key (shared key) or an open system.

45 W.Buchanan (45) Open system Any node can join and there is no encryption or authentication Private-key Challenge text sent to client Request for authentication Encrypted text If correctly encrypted the device can connect

46 EAP Efficient Application Protocols Access Control W.Buchanan (46)

47 EAP provides centralized authentication and dynamic key distribution. It has been developed by the IEEE i Task Group as an end-to-end framework and uses 802.1X and EAP. This is: - Authentication. This is of both the client and the authentication server (such as a RADIUS server). - Encryption keys. These are dynamically created after authentication. They are not common to the whole network. - Centralized policy control. A session time-out generates a reauthentication and the generation of new encryption keys. A wireless client cannot gain access to the network, unless it has been authenticated by the access point or a RADIUS server, and has encryption keys. EAP - Efficient Application Protocols W.Buchanan (47)

48 W.Buchanan (48) There are many versions of EAP, including: LEAP - Lightweight EAP EAP-TLS - EAP-Transport Layer Security PEAP - Protected EAP (PEAP) EAP-TTLS - EAP-Tunnelled TLS EAP-SIM - EAP-Subscriber Identity Module

49 Device cannot access network until it has been authenticated and has encryption keys Corporate network EAPs can either be in the access point or from a RADIUS server User database RADIUS server EAPs W.Buchanan (49)

50 1. Client associates with the access point. 2. Client provides authentication details. 3. RADIUS server authenticates the user. 4. User authenticates the RADIUS server. 5. Client and RADIUS server derive unicast WEP key. 6. RADIUS server gives broadcast WEP key to access point. 7. Access point sends broadcast WEP key to client using unicast WEP key. Corporate network User database RADIUS server EAPs W.Buchanan (50)

51 Client details: User ID and password. Or User ID and digital certificate Or On-time passwords Corporate network User database RADIUS server EAPs W.Buchanan (51)

52 User Authentication: Key size: Encryption: Device Authentication: Open Standard: User differentiation: Certificate: User ID and digital certificate 128 bits RC4 Certificate Yes Group RADIUS server/wlan client Corporate network User database RADIUS server/ certificate server EAP-TLS W.Buchanan (52)

53 User Authentication: Key size: Encryption: Device Authentication: Open Standard: User differentiation: Certificate: User ID and password 128 bits RC4 Not Supported No (Cisco-derived) Group None LEAPs is open to attack from a dictionary attack. Use strong passwords!!! Corporate network User database RADIUS server LEAPs W.Buchanan (53)

54 User Authentication: Key size: Encryption: Device Authentication: Open Standard: User differentiation: Certificate: User ID and password or OTP (one-time password) 128 bits RC4 Not supported Yes Group Yes Corporate network User database RADIUS server EAP - PEAPs W.Buchanan (54)

55 User x to focus authentication of the connecting device. PEAPs W.Buchanan (55)

56 W.Buchanan (56) Along with EAPs, the new enhancements for WLAN are: TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) which are enhancements to RC4- based WEP. The IV has been increased to 48 bits (rather that 24 bits), and the Integrety Checker has been improved. AES, which is a stronger alternative to RC4. IEEE i IEEE x (Authentication of both client and access point) WPA WPA (Wi-fi (Wi-fi Protected Access)

57 Good Design Principles Access Control W.Buchanan (57)

58 10. Layer 2/3 switch 5. RADIUS or TACACS+ 9. Management traffic isolated Server for centralized authentication 4. DCHP for all IP addresses 8. No physical access to access point F 6. PKI server which provides digital certificates for users and servers. 1. No ad-hoc networks 3. Encryption enabled 2. Client supports EAPs. SNMP 7. SNMP community strong have strong names 8. Secure protocols, such as SSH using instead of Telnet (as plaintext passwords can be viewed withtelnet) Some Design Tips W.Buchanan (58)

59 W.Buchanan (59)

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